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FMFRP 12-80 

Kill or Get Killed 

U.S. Marine Corps 

PCN 140 128000 00 


Headquarters United States Marine Corps 

Washington, DC 20380-0001 

26 September 1991 


Fleet Marine Force Reference Publication (FMFRP) 12-80, Kill or Get 
Killed, is published to ensure the retention and dissemination of useful 
information which is not intended to become doctrine or to be published 
in Fleet Marine Force manuals. FMFRPs in the 12 series are a special 
category: reprints of historical works which are not available elsewhere. 


This reference publication was written in 1976 by Lieutenant Colonel Rex 
Applegate, USA (Ret), with the help of the Combat Section, Military Intel- 
Ugence Training Center, Camp Ritchie, Maryland. At last there is one volume 
which speaks to the subjects of unarmed combat (offensive and defensive), 
combat use of weapons, disarming the enemy, handling of prisoners, the 
handling of mob/crowd disobedience, the use of chemicals in such situ- 
ations, and how to estabUsh a professional riot control unit. This is an inval- 
uable refaence for officers and SNCOs whose duties encompass these topics. 
The detail, techniques, and training procedures presented will enhance small 
unit training, and every unit involved in the above activities should have 
copies to which they may refer. 

Reviewed and approved this date. 


1?]. p. /^^^. 


Major General, U.S. Marine Corps 

Director, MAGTF Warfighting Center 

Marine Corps Combat Development Command 

Quantico, Virginia 

DISTRIBUTION: 14012800000 






^y Lieutenant Colonel Ilex Applegate 

Copyright 1976 Paladin Press. 

Reprinted with permission by 

Paladin Press, P.O. Box 1307, 

Boulder, CO 80306. 

Web site: 


iVtd those officers and men of the Combat 
Section, Alilitary lutelliirence Trahiing 
Center, Cavip Ritchie, Maryland, whose 
acctn/ndated experience and training helped 
make this text possible. 

The author, Colonel Rex Applegatc, is one of the world's outstand- 
ing authorities on close combat and mob control techniques. 



With the bombing of Pearl Harbor, war burst upon an unprepared 
America. Our young men, wrenched from a world where "fair play" 
was the code by which all games were conducted, were faced with a 
foe trained to ruthless killing. They had lo be taught to be tougher, 
meaner, more efficient and more merciless than the enemy if this 
country was to survive. 

It was of this necessity that the book, "Kill or Get Killed" was born. 
Techniques of hand to hand fighting worked out by then Captain Rex 
Applegate and his staff were taught to thousands of men going into 
combat. Many of these returned to verify the rightness of these 
techniques or to give information by which they were corrected or 
refined. In 1943. Applegate published this volume which became, and 
has remained, the basic classic text on close combat. Now long out of 
print, the few copies still in existence have been treasured by fighting 
men the world over. 

As a nation, we are not now formally at war. As a society, menaced 
by ever escalating crime, the need for this book was never greater. 
Study and practice of the principles explained and illustrated will help 
you and those dependent on you to survive. It's reprinting was long 

Bill Jordan 

Asst. Chief. U.S. Border Patrol (Ret.) 

Major, USMCR (Ret.) 

Shooting Editor, Guns Magazine 

Author, "No Second Place Winner" 

Publisher's Foreword 

Human life is precious. To guard it and to permit the in- 
dividual to enjoy various rights and privileges, society has 
established rules of human behavior and has organized itself 
against unlawful violence. Police provide protection against 
individual criminals or gangster groups and mob violence; 
military forces guard against organized armed aggression. 
The presence of peace enforcement officers is a deterrent to 
the criminally inclined individual. Similarly, peace loving 
nations, such as our own, find it necessary to maintain armed 
forces to deter aggressor nations. Hoth our communities and 
our nation seek to preserve the domestic tranquility and in- 
ternational peace. Sometimes, in spite of these efforts, the 
peace is broken and a war must be fought— to defend our 
homes, our way of life, or our peace loving neighbors, and 
to restore peace. In our corimiunities we must alwa)'s main- 
tain law and order. 

War is a brutal business, whether it be war against an enemy 
or war against the criminal who strikes from within. And 
personal combat, at close quarters, is its most brutal aspect. 

Personal combat conforms to no set rules of conduct, as 
the fighting in Korea so plainly proved. Were we, the United 
States, the choosers, it would not be thus; the decencies of 
human conduct would be observed. But we must be ready to 
fight against an utterly ruthless Communist enemy, one who 
feels he must win at any cost, even at the cost of human 

The American soldier who meets such an enemy is forced 
to adapt himself to a pattern of behavior that is foreign to his 
education and his religious beliefs. If he would win the fight- 
indeed, if he himself would survive— he must know all the 
dirty tricks of close combat, even as the enemy knows them. 
He must match them trick for trick. Further, he must be able 
to take the initiative and attack an enemy soldier as ruthlessly 
as he, in turn, would be attacked if he waited. It is a split 

second business. There is no time allowed for moral debate. 
In close combat, it is now or never. 

The same principles hold when the enemy is domestic— 
when he is a brutal criminal running at large; or when he, 
with other subversives, in a critical hour strikes at our com-" 
munities. In any case— enemy soldier, dangerous criminal, oi 
fifth columnist— the opponent is playing for keeps. Whether 
we like it or not, we can defeat him and defend our decent 
standards only by beating him at his own game. 

This book is designed to meet this situation. It is an in- 
tensely practical and forthright description of the techniques 
of hand-to-hand combat and of nifjl) control. It is written 
primarily for members of our Armed Forces and tliosc of oui- 
Allies (in the pci-forniancc of tlicir military duties); for the 
police officer; and for those members of civil defense organiza- 
tions who may some day be forced to deal with tiie criminal 
subversives in our midst, including professional fifth colum- 
nists who would stir up dissension and incite disorders and 

The first edition of the book was written iluring World 
War II and was used by the various milirai'y blanches of the 
United States ami our Allies, as a textbook anil reference, in 
training for individual combat and survival. Subsequent edi- 
tions have been broadened to cover the civilian law enforce- 
ment field as well as the military. Over thirty thousand copies 
arc now in circulation. Wc believe this text is nlonc and unique 
in its field. The completeness of the coverage of the subject 
has resulted in a steady demand for its material. It is felt 
tiiat publication of this te.\t is a public service, both to enable 
those who have to fight in close combat to survive, and to 
make more effective those who serve in the field of law en- 

This edition is being published at a time when the world 
is in a state of unrest. Race riots, intolerance, Communist- 
inspired mob violence, and nationalism emphasize the im- 
portance of mob control by the established forces of law 
and order. Three new chapters have been added on the 
techniques involved in riot control. The timel\' incorporation 
of these new chapters has again added greatly to the value 
of this text to law enforcement agencies. 

There is probably nobody better qualified than Colonel 
Applegate to describe the techniques of close combat. During 
World War II, as an infantry officer, he served with military 
police units, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the 
Counter Intelligence Corps, and the Military Intelligence 

Division of the War Department. During the latter part of 
tlic war, he was in cliarge of special training in close combat 
at the Military Intelligence Training Center at Camp Ritchie, 
Maryland, where high priority intelligence personnel were 
given the training described in this book. 

Colonel Applegate has attended many of the principal police 
schools in the United States, has studied in foreign police and 
special combat schools, and has undergone British commando 
training. He has worked and studied with famous experts, in- 
cluding W. E. Fairbairn and E. A. Sykes of Shanghai police 
and British commando fame; with Gus Peret of the Remington 
Arms Company, J. H. Fitzgerald of the Colt Firearms Com- 
pany, and Colonel Biddle of the U. S. Marine Corps. At one 
time, he was assigned to special duty with President Roose- 
velt's bodyguard. 

During recent years Colonel Ajiplcgatc has been actively 
engaged in the field of riot control. He has had an oppor- 
tunity to observe at first hand several violent mob actions. 
He has also had the satisfaction of seeing riot control units 
which he has trained, successfully dominate a mob and restore 

Like the publishers. Colonel Applegate believes that the 
techniques he describes should be taught under careful super- 
vision and used only for legitimate purposes and in appro- 
priate combat or law enforcement situations. 

Author's Preface 

This book was first conceived and publisiiej early in 
World War II. If it had not been for the type of conflict 
experienced, combined with the circumstances and oppor- 
tunities of my own personal assignments, it would never have 
been written. 

Frequent armed conflict and mob violence since the end 
of World War II has brought about an increasing demand 
for a te.\t on these very difficult subjects. 

This fifth edition represents a further effort to broaden 
the scope of the te.xt to cover adequately the combat and 
mob control proljlcius of the civilian law enforcement officer 
as well as the military. 

Weapons, tactics and strategy of modern warfare may be 
changing, but the age-old aspects of military and police 
individual combat and of mob control arc still the same. 

Since the time of the caveman, techniques of personal 
combat have been in the process of evolution. There are 
many methods and systems of personal combat. The methods 
of teaching them arc equally varied. Some arc good, some 
bad, some practical, others nonpractical. This book does 
not, and could not, cover all methods. It is a compilation of 
the most practical methods known to the writer, methods 
that have been developed and used during and after World 
War II by our own police and military, those of our Allies 
and even our enemies. 

The soldier must be trained and indoctrinated in the 
offensive. Combat between armies is only won by offensive 

The law enforcement officer has a difl^erent problem. He 
must first master restraint and manhandling tactics. He must 
also be able, under extreme or necessary circumstances, to 
rake strong defensive or ofl^ensive action. 

The "Cold" War has placed increased emphasis on guerrilla, 
mob control, and fifth cohnnn tactics. This furnishes an addi- 
tional reason whv members of the Militarv and of law en- 

foiccmenc and civil defense agencies must be trained in some 
or ail of the offensive tactics covered in this book. 

Tlie tactics, training, and strategy of the enemy are in 
process of improvement anil cliangc. This is especially true 
of the direction and manipulation of a mob as an instrument 
of gaining or destroying political power. 

I do not expect that all the answers as to how best to com- 
bat the professional mob will be found licre, but they are 
the best known to the author at this time. It is sincerely 
hoped that the new material I have added on tliis subject will 
be of interest and help to all legitimate forces of law and 
order. The counter mob tactics outlined here may not make 
pleasant reading for Communists. But their willingness to use 
mob violence as a weapon in their drive to attain world 
domination is well known. The field of mob control and its 
tactics is not a new one, but the interjection into the picture 
of the professional Communist agitator, trained in ail aspects 
of mob psychology and incitation, is relatively recent. New 
counter measures and tactics must now be employed by police 
elements to meet the situation. The Comnmnists have taken 
over forty years to perfect their tcchnitjues of mob persuasion 
and direction. Pohcc ami niilirar\' units will find iliflicuJty 
in trying to meet such a threat with hurriedly improvised 
counter measures. 

Other than mentioning general training aids, I have pur- 
posely avoided laying out specific, detailed training programs. 
Each organization— military or civilian— has its own problems, 
some phases of training demanding more emphasis than others. 

Although this text has been pointed toward the training of 
large groups of men, I hope that those individuals who have 
sufficient interest to study it will, as a result, find themselves 
better prepared should they suddenly find themselves opposed 
by a killer. 

Rex Applegate 


Chapter f age 

I. Introduction to Unarmed Comkat i 

1. Ol'tENSlVK UnARMKD CoMlWVl 6 

3. Dia.ENsiVK Unarmed Comhat 49 

4. Knifk Am ack and Defense 67 

5. Combat Use ok the Hand Gun 97 

6. Combat Firinc With Shoulder Weapons .... 179 

7. Disarming 190 

H. Prisoner Handling and (;onii«)1 129 

9. l<AtDS AND Room Comiiai 244 

10. TRAiNiNt; Techniques and Co.mhat Rancf.s ... 273 

II. Elementary Fieldckaet 291 

12. Police baton and Miscellaneous Weapons and 

Techniques 298 

13. Chemical Munitions for Control of Mobs and 

Individuals 323 

14. Civil Domestic Disturbances and Their 

Control 363 

15. Communist Tactics and Strategy in Directing 

Mon Violence 371 

16. The pROFi'.ssioNAL Rioi Coniroi. Unit 389 

Index 417 


Chapter i 


ANY subject with as many variations in theory, training, 
and application as there are in hand-to-hand combat 
should be presented to the trainee in a simple manner, so as 
to be easily understood. The history and background of close 
combat without weapons is a desirable beginning for such a 
training program. 

Unarmed combat is just what the name implies— a system 
of fighting intended for use when weapons are not available 
or when their use is not advisable. A soldier or police officer 
carries weapons in addition to those given him by nature; 
but he must not depend solely on his firearm, baton, or other 
issue equipment. These arc only mechanical aids and will 
not always sustain him. Long before tlie existence of the stone 
knife and the bow and arrow, primitive man fought with his 
hands, teeth, legs, feet, and body. But through the centuries, 
unarmed combat tactics became more refined and skillful, 
until they reached their peak in the commando-type training 
given in certain of our military units during World War II. 

Tibetan monks of the 12th century are reputed to have 
been among the first to develop a definite system of fighting 
without weapons. These monks, prohibited by the rules of 
their order from bearing arms, developed a system of unarmed 
combat to protect themselves from the brigands and robber 
bands of that era. Their system of combat involved many of 
the basic principles from which our body-contact sports and 
jiu jitsu have been developed. Some time after the izth 
century, the Japanese learned of this method of combat and, 
characteristically, copied it and claimed its origin. They gave 
it the name of jiu jitsu, and claimed that it was developed 
during their mythological age. For centuries jiu jitsu was 
practiced, with many variations and interpretations, by the 
Samurai warrior clans. About 1885, a Japanese professor by 

2 K 1 L L () K Ci JC r K 1 I, I, r D 

the name of Kano established a school in which a unified 
version of the best of the many jiu jitsu techniques was taught. 
He called his improved version "judo." Today the terms 
jiu jitsu and judo are synonymous, judo being in reality the 
modern version of jiu jitsu. 

Judo as a sport, and, with certain restrictions, as a method 
of combat, was practiced universally in Japan until recently. 
It was advocated by the military as a means of body-building 
and of developing individual competitive spirit. Jiu jitsu, or 
judo, employs a group of basic principles that are common 
to body-contact sports, such as wrestling, boxing, and football. 
Basically it is a system of holds and throws based on the use 
of the mechanical principle of the lever and fulcrum. Properly 
employed, jiu jitsu enables a small man to overcome a larger 
opponent by using his opponent's greater weight and strength 
to the latter's disadvantage. 

For years prior to World War II, this Japanese method of 
combat was cloaked in mystery. It was regarded by the public 
as a somewhat miraculous power that enabled the user to 
conquer a hapless opponent by a mere flick of the wrist. As 
long as there was lack of knowledge on the subject and an 
element of mystery surrounded its use, this was to some 
degree true. Taking advantage of the element of surprise, the 
jiu jitsu expert did not fight as his opponent expected and 
could thereby gain the initial advantage, which he never 
relinquished. This was evident, but not understood, when 
certain jiu jitsu experts publicly overcame unskilled opponents 
in scheduled exhibitions. 

The most optimistic experts estimate that it takes several 
years of consistent, intelligent practice before an individual 
can use judo as a dependable method of unarmed combat. 
As a sport, it is practiced in this country by a small group 
of devotees, but there are relatively few experts who can use 
their skill effectively against determined opponents. Based on 
the application of holds, throws, and on the destruction of the 
opponent's balance, the jiu jitsu user has to be really expert 
if he is to overcome a determined assault by an individual 
skilled in the use of blows of the hands or feet. 

Soldiers and police, can expect to encounter few individuals 
who will use judo against them successfully. They will, how- 
ever, probably encounter certain judo tricks which have been 
combined with the type of rough and ready fighting tactics 
advocated in the commando style of personal combat. 

The danger of overrating judo as an effective means of 


combat lies not only in the aura of mystery that has been 
allowed Co surround it, but also in the overemphasis placed 
on it as an effective means of hand-to-hand combat training 
in World War II. As a result of that war and a demand by 
the public for books and techniques on methods of fighting, 
bookstores were flooded with books and pamphlets on the 
subject of unarmed combat. Many of these, purporting to be 
genuine jiu jitsu, bore titles and slogans intended to appeal 
to the gullible. Courses which would take a sincere judo 
student months to master were offered in "ten easy, self- 
taught lessons." 

Extravagant claims of success of the unarmed judo ex- 
ponent against an armed enemy are frequently made. Stu- 
dents of many judo courses, given recently, are "quickly" 
taught a specific number of jiu jitsu tricks. When the course 
is completed and students are called upon to use what they 
have learned against a determined opponent, they usually find 
themselves helpless, unless the attacker performs in the speci- 
fied manner taught in the course. Such courses obviously do 
not give the student the training necessary to adapt him to 
the uncertainties of combat. Many tricks advocated in jiu jitsu, 
and certain combat books, are not practical because they 
cannot be applied quickly enough. They are based on the 
assumption that the opponent will stand still, allowing the 
hold or throw to be applied. 

The illusion of ease in subduing an opponent and the im- 
plication that this can be accomplished without personal risk 
or injury to the user, are also fallacies evident in many in- 
struction courses in close combat offered the public. An in- 
dividual can test the efficacy of such combat methods and 
holds by asking himself a simple question: "Will this work so 
that I can use it instinctively in vital combat against an 
opponent who is determined to prevent me fro7it doing so, 
and who is striving to eliminate me by fair means or foul?" 
Considering the small amount of time devoted to instruction 
in fundamentals and the scantj' practice demanded of the 
student in these courses, it is evident that many highly ad- 
vertised teclmiques cannot measure up to this simple standard. 

To sum up, the average American lacks the time, patience 
and usually the interest to become a genuine expert at judo. 
He does not really need a complete course in jiu jitsu, as is 
often claimed, to be able to take care of his opponent in un- 
armed combat. His athletic background, physique and tem- 
perament are usually adaptable to a style of fighting which is 

4 IC I L f, O R G F. T Iv I I, L F. n 

based more on the use of blows than on finesse. Military ex- 
perience, in combat and training centers throughout the 
world, has shown that the average man can be quickly turned 
into a dangerous, offensive fighter by concentrating on a few 
basic principles of combat and by advocating principally 
the use of blows executed by the hands, feet and other parts 
of the body. 

All types of combat can be divided into two phases, oflfen- 
sive and defensive. Knowledge of both is necessary to any 
fighting man. In training for warfare, the emphasis is usually 
on the offensive. In the case of the military police or civil 
law enforcement officers, the. emphasis should be at least equal. 
Only the local situation, as it affects himself personally and his 
mission, can determine which type of combat a police officer 
should use. At times, he will have to resort to extreme of- 
fensive methods, because they may be his only means of de- 
fense. In other situations, only simple defense and restraint 
methods may be necessary. The judgment of the officer will 
determine what tactics he must He usually carries a 
loaded gun and is expected to exercise proper judgment in 
firing it. Also, he must decide for himself whether a given 
situation calls for personal unarmed combat tactics, and which 
of those tactics he will use. 

The unarmed combat rhethods presented in the initial 
chapters represent a selection and combination of techniques 
taken from judo, wrestling and other body-contact sports, 
from combat methods used in other lands, and from self- 
defense tactics, and those used in rough and tumble fighting. 
The techniques presented have been vised successfully in train- 
ing and in recent combat. They can be learned easily and 
applied quickly and instinctively— but only after adequate, 
but not excessive, practice. 

No text, no matter how well-illustrated or clearly explained 
can, alone, teach a man to fight. It can only serve as an in- 
structional guide. Closely supervised intensive practice is the 
only path to practical knowledge. There are no easy methods 
or short cuts. Practice must be intensive enough to render 
the mechanics of each technique automatic. There is seldom 
time to stop and think when the pressure of combat is on. 
Being able to throw a man is much different from knoivivg 

Expert boxers and wrestlers will already be far along the 
road to proficiency in personal combat. The use of boxing, 
wrestling and other body-contact sports in training and condi- 

A K M IC D C M a A T 5 

tioning programs will add materially to the student's progress 
and will speed up his development as an aggressive fighter. 
An athletic background develops the necessary coordination 
and muscular ability, and enables the student to learn combat 
techniques more easily. However, experience has shown that 
such techniques can also be developed in the trainee who has 
had no previous athletic experience. His progress may be 
slower, but practice and a desire to learn can develop the aver- 
age trainee, who possesses normal courage, physique and the 
will to fight, into a dangerous antagonist at close quarters. 

Chapter 2 


NEITHER war nor individual combat is won solely by de- 
fensive, Maginoc Line psychology or tactics. In personal 
combat, it is often difficult to determine where defense ends 
and offense begins. Often the only defense is a good offense. 
However, in all cases, a knowledge of possible methods of 
attack enables a defense to be better planned. 

The methods advocated in this chapter are simple and are 
based on a style of fighting that kncjws no rules, that depends 
on speed and ruthlessness for results. Boxing and wrestling are 
sports. They can be used only to a limited extent in vital 
combat. The fighting tactics discussed here, however, are de- 
signed to knock ■ out, maim, or kill, as the situation may 

Types of hand-to-hand combat that demand set positions 
and complicated maneuvers— for the attacker and his op- 
ponent—are practically useless when the ordinary man finds 
himself projected into physical combat at an unexpected time. 
To be able to rely upon and use instinctively a specific hold or 
throw for each set or different position of an opponent is a 
difficult task. To be al)lc to do so swiftly and instinctively de- 
mands months and sometimes years of practice. It takes time to 
train the mind and body to react to each set of conditions 
instinctively and in the prescribed method. This is one of the 
weaknesses of the jiu jitsu technique. By certain maneuvers and 
movements, a jiu jitsu expert can place an antagonist in the 
jiropcr position for a specific tiuow; bat for the layman it is 
much too complicated and, according to American standards, 
takes too long to learn. 

The combat tactics advocated here do not depend on any 
set stance or position to achieve results. They are based on 
what the smallest man can do to the largest, using the ele- 

O K I'' I'. N S 1 V I'. II N A K M Iv 1) f. O M H A T 7 

nient of surprise when possible, with ruthless disregard for 
the opponent. In the homespun philosophy of David Harum 
"Do unto others as they would do unto you, but do it first." 


The human body is made up of many vulnerable spots. 
Some are nerve centers, some are organs unprotected by a 
bony or muscular structure, and some are areas only lightly 
protected by bone or muscle tissue. About a dozen such spots 
can be attacked with marked results in combat. A well-timed 
blow or pressure brought to bear on one of these vital areas 
will disable an opponent or force him to cease offensive 
action. Man has many natural weapons— his head, teeth, 
elbows, feet, knees, hands and fingers— which he may use in 
attacking vulnerable spots. These spots are listed below in the 
order of their vulnerability and accessibility. 

Testicles. These organs are the most sensitive and vulnerable 
of man's body. A hand, knee, or foot blow to the crotch 

The best way to finish quickly 
any close-quarter fight is to use a 
strong hand, knee or foot blow to 
the groin— the testicle area. 

will disable the strongest opponent. The best and strongest 
of holds can be broken if the testicles can be grasped or hit. 
Because of their extremely vulnerable location in the body, 
they are the most likely spot at which to expect an attack 
from an unscrupulous opponent. It should always be re- 
membered, when closing in vital combat, that a good knee 
blow delivered to the testicle area will not only finish the 
fight, but also, while in the process of being delivered, will 

Kill. <) It (i F. T K I L t, K D 

protect the user's groin area by blocking with the thigh a 
similar attempt by an opponent. These vulnerable organs are 
the principal reason why we have referees in such sports as 
boxing and wrestling. Not only the testicles, but the entire 
groin area, is susceptible to attack. They are the Achilles heel 
of man's anatomy. 

Eyes. The eyes are delicate, easy to reach, and like the 
testicles, are parts which any man instinctively strives to pro- 
tect. A gouge with thumb or finger to the eye will be effec- 



The eyes, like the testicles, are 
extremely vulnerable. A finger or 
eye gouge will stop the most de- 
termined attack. 

tive in breaking up the most determined hold or attack. A 
blow aimed or feinted at the eyes, or "family jewels" (tes- 
ticles), will cause a man to move instinctively to cover them. 
Many times this will leave him wide open for other types of 

Neck Area. An edge-of-the-hand blow across the windpipe, 
in the Adam's apple area, will have fatal results. It has the 
same effect as the crushing of a piece of copper tubing with a 
blow from a sharp-edged instrument. 

Blows delivered by the edge of the hand to the sides of 
the throat and to the back of the neck, at the base of the 
skull, have a knockout effect. Few physiques can stand up 
to these blows, the only exceptions being wrestlers and such, 
who have exceptionally well-muscled necks. 

The effect of a blow to the windpipe can be demonstrated 
by placing the thumb in the hollow at the base of the throat, 
below the Adam's apple, and pressing gently. Light, edge-of- 
the-hand blows, delivered to the sides and back of the neck, 
will demonstrate their elTcctivencss to the most skeptical 

O !■■ !■• i; N S r V !•: UN A I! ,M ED COMBAT 

The windpipe is unprotected. A 
sharp blow here will have fatal 
results. The area just below the 
Adam's apple is the most vul- 

An edge-of-hand blow here will 
cause a knock-out. A light blow 
will demonstrate the stunning 

Back and Kidney Area. A physiology book will show that 
the main muscle cords and nerves or the body branch out 
from the base of the spine at a point very near the surface. 
This region is commonly known as the small of the back. In it 
the kidneys are located, just above the hips on each side of 
the spine. A horizontal blow with the fist or edge of the 
hand, or a kick delivered there, will have a disabling, if not a 
knockout, effect. Care must be taken to hit the area above the 
hip bones and below the heavy back muscles. Not for nothing 
are kidney pads worn by football players. 

A low blow delivered by the edge of the hand to the end 
of the spine is often effective. It is easiest to deliver when the 
opponent is stooping over, as he would be when grappling 
some one about the waist. A kick delivered by the point of the 
toe to this area often produces a disabling effect. 

Stomach Area. It is a big one and easy to hit. A hard blow 
here by the fist, knee, or head is very effective, particularly 
if the opponent's muscles are relaxed. The solar plexus can 
be hit by driving the fist up and under the rib structure at a 
point about one inch above the navel. At a point about one 
inch below the navel is another vulnerable spot, which can 
be reached by a knuckle jab. 

Chin. A blow by a skilled boxer to the point of the chin 
will put a man down for the count. The same result can be 

lO K 1 I- I. O U C r. T K 1 1. I. v. 1) 

obtained by a blow using the heel of the hand. An edge-of- 
the-hand blow, directed downward at the point of the chin, 
will cause a break or dislocation of the lower jaw bone. 

Nose. A horizontal blow, by the edge of the hand, at that 
part of the nose which is ordinarily covered by the bridge 
of a pair of glasses will result in a knockout, and possibly 
death. The most fragile bones of the facial structure are 
crushed when this blow is used. It usually results in a 
hemorrhage, from which a fatal infection can develop. 

By placing the index fingers on both sides of the base of 
the nose, where it joins the face, and pressing inward and 
upward, another vulnerable spot is reached. An edgc-of-the- 
hand blow directed upward at the base of the nose also is 
most effective. 

Temples. Blows delivered by the knuckles, or edge-of-the- 
hand, to the temple area will often put an opponent down 
for the count. This area is small, but it is one of the most 
sensitive on the head. By placing the thumbs on the temple 
and exerting a firm, steady, inward pressure, then moving 
them about, this most vulnerable area can be located. 

Jaw Hinge Area. Where the lower jaw hinges to the upper, 
near the base of the ears, is a sensitive point that is vulnerable 
to a knuckle blow. By placing the finger tips just under the 
ear lobe and pressing in and up, another sensitive area is 
located. Pressure applied here is particularly effective in forc- 
ing an opponent to release a hold or stop offensive action. 

Joints. Nature made the joints of the knee, wrist, arm, elbow, 
finger, and other members to bend only in certain directions. 
Enough pressure or strong blows applied to these joints in 
the opposite direction will cause a break or dislocation, or will 
at least force the opponent to yield temporarily. 

Sensitive Bones. Many bones of the body are sensitive to 
blows or pressure because they have not been furnished with 
protective coverings of flesh or tissue. Kicks to the shins, 
edge-of-the-hand blows to the collar bones, forearm, or 
wrist will often cause a break or effect a release. Many grips 
may be broken by forcing the point of a thumb or knuckle 
between the small bones of the back of the hand, or by plac- 
ing the point of the thumb in the hollow spot where the 
opponent's thumb joins his wrist. Pressure applied on such 
points is not disabling in itself, but is very good in effecting 

Other Sensitive Areas. Nature has given man numerous other 
unprotected spots which can be hurt locally, to effect re- 

() V V I N S I \' 1 I N ,\ II M K I) C () M 11 A r II 

leases and create openings. The following actions are ef- 
fective: Pulling hair, tearing a lip, grasping and twisting (or 
tearing) the nose. A grip with the point of thumb and fore- 
finger, or bite, on the tliiclc muscles that extend from the 
neck to the sJioulder; a tiiumb and forefinger grip, or bite, 
across the breast muscles to the arm; kicking or biting the 
Achilles tendon back of the heel— all are effective. 

There are a number of fundamental principles in hand-to- 
iiand combat. Some must be observed at all times, others are 
used in special situations. Where the use of one begins and 
the other leaves off is difficult to define and can only be 
determined by the user. Often their application is separated 
only by a split second. 

Balance. The most basic fundamental of all is that of 
balance. Mental balance, or stability, is a state of mind that 
is necessary before physical balance can be achieved. In ex- 
citing circumstances, such as vital combat, the mental balance 
of the opponent can often be upset by the surprise of the 
attack. The use of yells, feints or deception; throwing dirt 
or other objects in the opponent's face; or the use of any 
.stinrcgy that he docs ii<U t-xpcct forces iiim to take time 
to condition his mind to a new .sec of circumstances. The 
time necessary for the mind to adjust itself varies with the 
individual, but it is during this period of adjustment that the 
attacker can destroy his opponent's physical balance and 
undertake offensive action. Surprise is as effective in man-to- 
man combat as it is in the strategy of armies. That is why the 
successful fighter conceals his true intentions, so that he 
never "telegraphs" his intention. He always strives to do the 

Physical balance must be retained by the attacker and de- 
stroyed in the opponent. The fighter who retains his body 
balance can utilize his entire strength. Conversely, he can 
have his lack of balance used against him by a skilled antago- 
nist. The destruction of the opponent's body balance, after 
he has been led by finesse and movements into an off-balance 
position, is a fundamental of jiu jitsu technique. A sudden 
push or pull applied to the shoulders, or other part of the 
body, will weaken or break body balance. Once this is accom- 
plished, an opponent's offensive power and strength, no mat- 
ter how great, cannot be fully utilized. The man who attacks 
first anu destroys his opponent's balance has a decided 

K 1 1. 1, o u <; r. r i< i l i- r. n 



Greater pliysicjiic and strciigtli mean iioching if you do not have 
balance. In tlie illustration at the left, the larger and stronger man 
easily lifts the smaller man. The illustration at the right shows how, 
by pushing back on the opponent's chin, the smaller man destroys 
the big man's physical balance, thus preventing the use of his superior 
strength. The hugcr nun is unable to lift the smaller man when this 

advantage, regardless of a diflference in size, weight, or 
physique. Once the opponent is knocked off-balance, he 
should be kept struggling to regain it and should never be 
allowed to get set. The destruction of body balance should 
be followed immediately by offensive tactics. 

To get into a good balance position which offers a 
fighting stance, place the feet apart, about the distance of 
the width of the shoulders, with the body crouched and bent 
slightly forward and with the knees slightly bent. In this 
position the individual can change stance readily and can 
move about, facing his opponent, so that he is always in a 
state of physical balance. 

Momentum. Do not work directly against, or try to stop, 
the momentum of an opponent in motion. Utilize his impetus 

() I !■' I'. N s I V I- r N \ K M i; r) <; o m li \ i 

I ^ 


A good, balanced position with 
which to meet an attack or 
from which to launcli one— bodv 
crouched and bent slightly for- 
ward, feet apart and Icnccs flexed. 
TIic hands arc out in front, to 
he used as a defense, or to srrilie 
a blow. 


Another simple demonstration 
of the value of balance. Let the 
victim start to wallc past you. 
Then reach out and, by placing 
the forefinger under his nose and 
by forcing his head back, prevent 
him from walking past you. His 
body is no longer in a state of 
physical balance. 

by directing its force, once lie conies in contact. For example, 
if a man rushes you and you side-step and apply a trip, you 
are utilizing his momentum and his resultant lack of balance 
to throw him. If, on the other hand, you remain in his path 
and try to stop him and throw him in the opposite direction, 
it becomes much more difficult; it takes a great deal more 


Strength and energy to accomplish the same result. The same 
principle applies if an opponent takes a wild swing at you. 
Duck, and let the momentum of the swing take him off 
balance; then attack. 

Another useful element is potential momentum. Assume 
that an opponent has grasped you by the wrist and is en- 
deavoring to pull you off balance, and that you are pulling 
in the opposite direction to keep him from doing so. If you 
suddenly change your tactics and effect a wrist release, or 
cease to resist the force of his pull by stepping toward him, 
he will fall backwards in the direction in which he was trying 
to pull you. When this happens, he loses balance and becomes 
vulnerable to attack. The same principle would apply if you 
were resisting a push, and suddenly gave way instead of 

Maximum Force. The principle of maximum force means 
the concentration of the greatest proportion of your 
strength against some weak spot or area on your opponent's 
body. In other words, attack parts of your opponent's body 
that are easily hurt, or concentrate on an area that will cause 
him intense pain if he does not move away. Instead of putting 
your entire strength against him in an area where he is 
equally strong, or perhaps stronger, try to pit his weakest 
point against your strongest. A good example is the use of 
the wrist throw, or a finger twist, where you concentrate 
great pressure against a weak part of the body which is 
easily broken. 

The principle of maximum force is not a magic formula, 
to bring an individual through all types of combat unscathed; 
but it will help by inflicting as much damage as quickly as 
possible, while receiving as little damage as possible. 

One school of thought, in unarmed combat circles, ad- 
vocates first closing with the enemy, throwing him to the 
ground, then dispatching him. The other, and most success- 
ful, insists that blows used to down the opponent are prefer- 
able to throws, and that they can be taught to and used by 
the average man much more speedily. Naturally, throws will 
have to be used in many instances; but actual combat has 
shown that well-placed blows by the hands or feet, in many 
instances, can accomplish the desired result more quickly and 
more easily. Two good general rules in unarmed combat are: 
(i) Keep your opponent at ami's length by the use of hand 
and foot blows. Many times, when you are in a position to 
start to close with an opponent so as to throw or trip him. 

<) I !• :■-. N S I V K U N A K M F. I) C () M U A T 15 

you will be able to use blows instead. (2) Avoid, if at all 
possible, going to the ground ivitb your adversary. Try to 
avoid getting close to him. Being close, you will not have 
room to see what he is up to or be able to work with the 
best effect. If you are smaller than your opponent and go 
to the ground with him, his superior weight and strength will 
always give him an advantage, whether he utilizes it or not. 
The danger of being stunned upon impact with the ground 
surface also presents a good reason for not closing with the 
opponent if it can be avoided. 

Falls. A knowledge of the art of falling is very useful, be- 
cause, in the varied conditions of combat, there will be times 
when the cardinal rule of never going to the ground will be 
violated. Many practice and training hours could be de- 
voted to training the student in how to fall correctly, with- 
out harm to himself. Knowledge of this subject can be ob- 
tained from any good book on tumbling or jiu jitsu. In a 
training program, such sports as wrestling, football, and 
gymnastics will teach a great deal about proper methods of 
falling. However, there is a vast difference between falling 
on gymnasium mats and falling on a hard, uneven surface- 
as is likely to happen in combat. It is obvious that you should 
stay on your feet. 

One injunction you should heed: Once going to the 
ground, never stop moving. Start rolling and try to get back 
on your feet as quickly as possible. If you can't get up and 
can't roll, pivot on your hips and shoulders so you can face 
your opponent and block with your feet any attempt to close 
with you. 

Remember, it is not necessary to go to the ground once 
you have placed your opponent there. You can finish him 
off with your feet. Your enemy can do likewise if you re- 
main immobile on the ground and stay within range. 


Offensive Tactics Using the Feet. The proper use of the feet 
as weapons of combat is not generally appreciated. Properly 
used, feet can be the most potent of all natural weapons. 
The Chinese and the French long ago developed methods of 
using the feet in fighting; and loggers of the Pacific North- 
west and Canada have long used their heavy boots as of- 
fensive weapons. However the average person usually con- 
siders the feet only as a means of locomotion. 


K I I. 

K [ I, I. p; n 


The best kick utilizes the whole 
length of the foot, the striking 
surface being large enough to in- 
sure accuracy. 


A kick delivered toe first at a 
standing or moving opponent is 
likely to miss, causing the kicker 
to lose his balance. 

Many fights can be stopped before they have a chance to 
start by a well-placed kick to the opponent's knee. When the 
opponent is standing, kicks should generally be delivered by 
using only the outside edge, sole, or inside edge of the foot. 
A kick delivered toe foremost, aimed at a narrow target, is 
not accurate; the slightest movement by the opponent will 
cause a miss and leave the kicker in an off-balance position 
where he is wide open for retaliation. When he is left off 
balance, the opponent may grab his foot and twist it for a 

Feet often can be used offensively, before body contact 
is made, after contact is made, and as weapons to stun or kill, 
once the opponent is down. They can be used defensively 
against attack with bladed weapons or striking implements. 
When on the ground, subjected to attack from a standing op- 

OFFENSIVE U \ A 11 M IC I) C O M II A T 1 7 

poncnc, the individual can use iiis feet to prevent tlic ad- 
versary from closing in or administering a coup de grace. 
A proper kick makes use of the length of th6 foot (heel 
to toe) and utilizes footwear, the heavier the better. The 
kick delivered toe foremost makes use of a striking area of 
only the width of the toe of the shoe, whereas the kick de- 
livered correctly, with the full length of the foot as the 
striking area, uses a weapon almost four times larger. This is 
especially important in view of the fact chat the opponent 


I'acc siilcwins ti> the tnrgct, 
raise the leg, ami lasli our. Hixly 
balance is retained by bcnibrig tlie 
boily ill tlic direction opposite to 
the kick. 


A dotcrniincd attack can be 
stopped quickly by using the knee 
kick. This blow, directed at the 
knee cap, will break or dislodge 
the knee hinge. It is very effective 
against any type of frontal attack, 
even though the opponent is 
armed with a club or bladcd 
weapon. Notice how the kicker's 
body trunk is bent back, out of 
arms reach, as the kick is de- 


k I I. I. (I It 

K I I, I, F. I) 


Kicks to the side of tlic Iciiet- 
joint will either destroy Ijalaiice 
or cause a breaU or dislocation. 

may not be scantling absolutely still when the kick is launched. 

The knee is particularly susceptible to a kick, since it is 
built to bend in only one direction. Forceful kicks delivered 
on the knee cap area from the right or left side will cause a 
break or a dislocation. A kick delivered to the back of the 
knee and accompanied by a shoulder pull to the rear will 
destroy balance and take any opponent to the ground. 

The knee kick, properly used, almost always will be effec- 
tive. It should be one of the first basic attack methods learned. 
The knee kick is correctly delivered by raising the leg first 
and then lashing straight out with the foot, withdrawing 
after contact. Balance is retained by bending the body from 
the hips in a dirdction opposite to the force of the kick. 
When a kick is made from this position, body balance is 
always retained even though the target is missed. Thus the 
danger of falling into the opponent if he should evade the 
blow is avoided. 

Ordinarily it is difficult to kick a standing opponent at 


A kick against the back of the 
Uucc will cause an opponent to 
topple backward, especially if it 
is accompanied by a shoulder pull. 

O !■ F li N S 1 V I*. U N A K M E 1> C () jM « A I' 


any spot above his knee height and still retain body balance. 
There may be instances, particularly when the opponent is 
crouching, when a kick can be delivered by the toe or side of 
the foot to the groin area, but the particular situation must 
determine whether or not this attempt should be made. A 
kick that is too high can be dangerous, and a miss causes a 
very precarious balance position. 

Too much cannot be said about the desirability of using 
this type of attack. It can be learned without an excessive 
amount of practice and can be executed simply and effectively, 
particularly when accompanied by the element of surprise. 

Other types of kicks are also effective, at close quarters, 
in creating openings or effecting releases. A kick delivered 
directly to the shins will cause an opponent to release a hold, 
or, if not in contact, will usuallv cause him to lurch forward, 
leaving him wide open for an uppercut or chin jab. A kick 
delivered to the shins in a downward direction, by the inside 
or outside edge of the shoe, can be directed a httle below the 
knee, scraping all the way down the shin bone and ending 
by crushing the small bones on the top of the opponent's 
foot. If grasped around the body from the rear by an op- 
ponent, a stamp by the lice! on the top of his foot, or a 
backward kick to the shin, will usually effect a release. 

If thrown to the ground and unable to regain a standing 
position, kicks are most effective in preventing the enemy 
fron) closing. Turn on the back and spin, so that the feet 
are always toward the enemy. By pivoting on the hips and 
shoulders, and by using the hands to help propel the body, 
the feet can be kept in such a position that a kick can be 

A kick, with the outside edge 
iif the shoe scraping down the 
shin bone and ending with full 
force on the small bones at the 
to|i of the opponent's foot, is ex- 
trcniclv effective. 

20 K I r. 1. () n r. y.r k i 1. 1. 1-. n 

executed before die opponciu cnn close in. Tlie flutter type 
kick sliouid not be used. Ratiier, one leg should be bent back, 
with the knee in a bent position, and the other extended with 
knee slightly bent, to be used as a parry. If the opponent 
attempts to close, a short kick can be made with the ex- 
tended leg. This can be followed by a more powerful blow 
from the leg in the more fully bent position. When this 
last kick is made, it should be done in a piston-like movement 
with all the force of the big leg muscles behind it. Naturally 
an individual cannot maintain this tiring, defensive position 
indefinitely. At the first opportunity he should try to regain 
iiis feet. 

Kicks to Stun or Kill. Once an opponent has been downed, 
the rest of the job should be done with the feet. This can be 
accomplished by a toe kick to the temple, throat or arm pit 
area, or by driving the back edge of the heel into the ribs, face, 
heart, stomach, throat, kidney or groin areas. The back edge of 
the heel is much more effective than the whole flat of the 


A toe kick to the temple 
area will cause a concussion 
or a kill, if forceful enough. 

O I- !•■ li N h [ V ]•; U iN A R M E U COMBAT 


foot inasmuch as all the force is concentrated in a small sharp 
area, thus getting more penetration. When using the feet for 
the coup de grace, it is best to stand at one side and use 
one leg only as the striking weapon, retaining balance on the 
other leg. If you jump on the opponent with both feet, as 
some methods advocate, there is always danger of losing 
balance in case of a miss caused by movement of the op- 


Tlic flat, or back edge, of 
tlic IiccI will crusli the rib 
ciigc aiul cntisc n fatal in- 


Hand blows can be delivered by using the fists, edge of 
the hand, palm, or knuckle. To use the fists effectively, a 
knowledge of boxing is a prerequisite. Experts state that it 
takes up to six months to learn to deliver a knockout blow 
with either fist. The ability to box is very desirable and the 
other principles boxing teaches, such as the use of body 
balance, should not be underestimated. However, there are 
other means of using the hands which the layman can learn 
and use more swiftly, and at times more effectively. 

K 1 I. I, O U C V. 

K 1 1. I. F. 1) 

The Chin Jab. Knockout blows delivered to the chin by 
the fist may not only be ineffective, they also present the 
danger of a dislocated finger or knuckle, or a cut from the 
opponent's bony facial structure. The use of the fist has 
another shortcoming; that it does not concentrate the force 
of the blow sufficiently. Any part of the anatomy will col- 
lapse if it is struck many times in one place; but the average 
individual cannot use the fist effectively enough to do great 
damage in a single blow. The novice should limit the use of 
his fists to such soft, vulnerable areas as the stomach, groin 
and kidneys, and rely on other types of blows for other 
parts of the body. 

The extremely effective chin jnb is so called because it is 
used principally in the chin area. It must be delivered up 
and under the chin with the heel of the palm, fingers ex- 
tended and spread for palm rigidity. The more directly under- 
neath the chin the blow falls, the more power it will pack. 
It is executed with a stiff, locked wrist and a bent elbow; 
and a great deal of upward body force can be utilized at the 
time of impact. The further forward the chin is extended 
at the time of the blow, the more devastating the result. 
If a knee tlirust to the testicles or groin is used in connection 
with the chin jab, the body will be automatically bent for- 
ward, leaving a perfect setup for this particular blow. It 
results in unconsciousness and possible neck fracture, if 
delivered with sufficient force. 


Correct hand and arm position 
for chin jab. Note how the fingers 
are spread apart, giving the pa!m 

(I I' !■■ I', N S I V K II N \ It ,M I. I) COM II A r 



A knee to the groin, causing die 
opponent to liircli forward, fol- 
lowed by a chin jal), will result 
in a Unockonr. 

Tlie anil, or hand, d(jcs not have to l)c drawn hack in 
l)cgiiiniag execution of the blow. It can be iianging at tlie 
side, fingers hooked in belt, hand resting on a lapel, or in any 
other nonchalant position. An average man can cause a knock- 
out with only six inches of traveling distance from the start of 
the blow to the point of impact. The element of surprise is 
most useful in close (juartcrs, where time, space, or circum- 
stances do not allow the hand and arm to be withdrawn 
for a long haymaker. A neck fracture can be caused by 
gripping an opponent's belt with the left hand and jerking 
him forward, at the moment of impact with the right. It 
is also desirable to use the fingers of the striking hand on 
the eyes following the blow. The heel of the hand also can 
be used to strike a stunning blow at the base of the skull. 

Edge of the Hand. The most effective of all hand blows is 
that using the edge of the hand. It is valuable because it 
can be utilized against, and will penetrate to, vulnerable 
spots of the body which would not be susceptible to blows 
from the fist or heel of the hand. It can be delivered with 
varying degrees of, from almost any position 
of the body and arms. The edge-of-the-hand blow is prop- 
erly delivered with the fingers extended, close together, 
thumb upright and wrist locked. The striking surface is the 
cushioned part of the hand between the base of the little 
finger and the edge of the palm, where it joins the wrist. 
It is very important that the thumb be raised to an upright 


K I I, L O K (i r, T KILL F, 

position. Doing so prevents the hand from remaining in a 
relaxed, clenched position, and it insures that the fingers 
automatically extend. The striking surface is well padded, 
and its length, varying with tlie sizes of hands, is usually 
about two inches. Contrast the striking surface of this area, 
in square inches, with that of a clenched fist. The fist pro- 
vides roughly eight square inches of striking surface, but 
with the edge of the hand the striking surface is only two 
or three square inches. Therefore, a blow delivered bv the 



The illustration at the left shows the hand in a relaxeJ, bent position, 
thus preventing its use as a weapon. At tlie right, above, the fingers 
are extended and the thumb is in the up position. This turns the edge 
of the hand into a sharp, hard weapon. 


This blow, de- 
livered at the point 
where the skull 
joins the spine, 
will cause a knock- 
out. In sporting 
circles it is called 
"the rabbit punch." 

O I' I- I-; N S I V K U N A U M I-: 1) (; <) M u A I 


This c.lg.--<.f-l,n,Kl l,l„„-, .llrcc-tcl u|>«nr.l niul l:,iuliiip on tlic poll 
wlici-c lliu l.:isc- <,f tl,c MMsc joins the fiicx, nil! ciMisc iinconsciousiR- 
ami possible lieinorrhapc. 


A kidney blow will have a temporary stunning effect. It is 
t)iost effective when the opponent is stooping over. 

K I r. 1. () i< r; i: r i< i i, i. 


.\ hUiw rci the tail btuic arcn. 
Iil;c rhu Kick witli tlie |)<iiiic of 
rile roc. is daiigcroiis. 

Imnd gives ;i slwrp-cdgcil tfTeci, cMusing ;i l)ienlf, frnctme or 
concussion. '1 lie foixx- i.s expcniled on a relatively small area. 
When applied to the aiea around the neck, the cords on 
either side of the hack of the neck, the base of the skull, 
the sides of the neck, tjie windpipe area just below the 
Adam's apple, the bridge of the nose, the kidneys, and the 

blUL or .M-.CK 151 .(JW 

A blow to tlic side of tlic mcK 
will hit vital nerves arul the 
carotid artery, causing a kiiocU- 


A downward blow, like the 
blow of a police baton, will frac- 
ture the collar bone and incapaci- 
tate the opponent. 

O I' I' I-. N S 1 V 1'. U N A U M V. 1) i; C) M H A r 


end of the spine— this type of blow lins a devnstacing effect. 
The bones of the forearm, the collar hone, the end of the 
chin, and the wrist area will fracture wlicn subjected to such 
a blow. It should be delivered with the elbow bent, utilizing 
body force by a chopping motion. Ciiopping is important 
because it tends to localize tlie force of the blow even more 

( ^ OR BIClil'S IJI.OVV 
A sharp clioppiiig hlow to die wrist or forearm will often c.tusc a 
fr.Tctiirc. Dclivcrcil to rlic muscles of tlic biceps, it will cniisc tliein 
to cramp. 

■\ ^ ''^ 


This blow will crush the most delicate bones of tlic facial structure. 
Delivered at the bridge of the nose, where the brow and nose join, 
it will cause concussion. Cerebral hemorrhage is a possibility. 

28 K I I. I. () It c: K r KILL F. I) 

in a small area. If the edge-of-the-hand blow is delivered 
without the chopping motion, ic will still be effective, but 
a great deal of the striking force will be expended over a 
larger area than when it is delivered properly. 

Edge-of-the-hand blows can be delivered with either hand 
in a downward direction, or can be directed horizontally, 
palm down, as in a backhand saber stroke. The best position 
from which to use the horizontal edge-of-the-hand blow is 
with the right foot forward, using the favorite hand (usually 
the right). From this position, body weight can be utilized 
more fully. The reverse foot position applies for the left hand. 
With a somewhat lessened effect, the blow can be delivered 
with either hand and from any free position where the arm 
can be swung. 

The Knuckles. Many sensitive spots have been well pro- 
tected by nature and can only be reached by a striking 
weapon that is small and pointed. This particularly applies 
to the head and face area, where the knuckle is the best 
weapon to use. By "knuckle" is meant the second joint of the 
second or third finger, protruding from the front of the 
clenched fist. It is best used at close quarters where accuracy 


The knuckle is very effective 
against the temple or hinge of the 

is more certain. Properly employed, the knuckle can be used 
against the temple or hinge of the jaw area. It can cause a 
knockout or inflict enough pain to effect a release from an 
opponent's hold; or it can create another, more vulnerable 
opening. Of course, the thumb and all the fingers can be 
used as weapons, principally for exerting pressure on vulner- 
able points, for gouging, and for pinching large muscles. 

The Bent Elbow. The point of the bent elbow is long and 
sharp and can often be used against tender parts of the anat- 
omy, such as the stomach, groin, and throat. The elbow is 
generally best used when it is impossible to swing the fist or 
hand, or to use the feet because the opponent is too close. 
It is very effective when used against the jaw, as a follow 
through from a wrist release, or as a jabbing instrument to 
the opponent's groin or mid-section. 

<) I- !• i: N S I \ 

r N A It M i; I) c (> M II \ r 



Use of the point of the elbow 
in a horizontal blow against the 
jaw or temple. Jab it into the 
groin, stomach, kiciiicys, or lib 
section wlicii tlic opporfnity 

Otiier Body Members. The liead will make a good battering 
ram against soft areas, such as the small of the back or the 
stomach. If covered by a protective helmet, it can be used 
against the bony facial area. 

The knees are capable of delivering extremely powerful 
blows to the groin or testicles, or to the small of the back 
and kidney areas. If the opponent is bent forward, they are 
very damaging against the chin and face. 

The teeth, in spite of any mental qualms as to their use, 
are very effective weapons. The jaw muscles can exert ter- 
rific pressure and a deep bite to almost any tender or exposed 
area will effect a release or cause an opponent to cease offen- 
sive action. 


Blows shoald always be used in preference to throws; but 
a well-rounded fighting man must understand, and will at 
times use, tlie principles of throwing. In executing a throw 
he will utilise some or all of the fundamental principles dis- 
cussed at the beginning of this chapter. When an opponent 
is falling, he is off balance, unable to fight back, and therefore 
susceptible to blows. If a throw is correctly applied, the 

30 R I L I, O K (; E T IC I L I. I'. I) 

adversary is usually momentarily stunned on impact with the 
ground, making a good target for hand and foot blows. 

The average man simply cannot pick up a determined ad- 
versary and throw him to the ground by use of strength alone. 
A person of great size and strength might be able to accom- 
plish such a feat, but the average individual nmst apply the 
scientific principles of throwing. 

After an opponent has been placed in an unbalanced posi- 
tion, he is thrown by the use of leverage, or by stopping or 
sweeping aside some part of his body. His body balance may 
be destroyed by lifting him, stopping him from advancing, 
pulling or pushing him. When any of these things happen, 
he is momentarily off balance, and it is then that a throw is 
applied. Leverage is applied by forcing the extremities of the 
opponent's body in opposite directions. For example, kick 
your opponent's legs out from under him and at the same time 
shove his head in the opposite direction. 

Sweeping away part of the body is exemplified, in throw- 
ing an opponent, by tripping him. When an individual is 
walking forward and his forefoot is caught and jerked just as 
he is about to put it down, he topples to the ground. 

There are many ways to throw any opponent, but most 
of them are variations of the few fundamental throws de- 
scribed below. Although every situation in combat cannot 
be foreseen, the adoption and use of these simple tactics 
will suffice in most instances. Some may be more adaptable 
by individual fighters than others, but they may serve as a 
foundation around which to build variations that will apply 
in most situations. 

The Hip Throw. The principle of the see-saw is here applied. 
The hip, acting as a fulcrum, is placed under the center of 
the adversary's body and his head is pulled toward the 
ground. One specific type of hip throw can be executed as 
follows: Facing your opponent, grasp his right wrist with 
your left hand; place your right arm under his left arm pit 
and around his back. Using the left foot as a pivot, step 
across in front of him with your right foot, so that your 
right side and hip arc against his stomach area. Use your right 
arm to. force the upper part of his body down and your left 
hand to pull down on his right arm while he is being forced 
over the hip by your right arm. If successfully executed, 
he will hit the ground head first. Simple variations of this 
throw can be used from the same initial position. This throw 
may be initiated from a locked embrace or by stepping be- 

() r !• I. N s I V I-: IN \ It ,M 1. 1) c o M n \ r 



The hip throw cnii be initiated in any situation wlierc the upper 
part of the opponent's trunk can be grasped and the hip placed in a 
position to act as a fulcrum. At the left, above, enough clearance has 
been obtained by a testicle blow (or similar blow) to allow the left 
leg to cross in front, thus placing the liip where it nets as a fulcrum 
(fight above). The upper part of the body is then pulled down 
across this pivot point to complete the throw. 

hind the opponent and pulling him backward over your 
right or left hip. The important thing is to get your hip 
in the center of the opponent's body before downward 
leverage is applied. 

Shoulder Throw. Another simple, effective throw is the 
"flying mare." It can be applied swiftly by grasping your 
opponent's right wrist with both hands, stepping in with your 
right foot and bringing his arm over your right shoulder 
with the hinge joint of his elbow up. in this position, you 
will have a firm grasp of his arm. Pressure on the arm will 
be exerted against the hinge resting on your shoulder, so that 
any sudden downward movement of your body, combined 
with a quick back thrust of your hips, will send him sailing 
through the air. If he doesn't go, his arm will break from 


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the leverage exerted. He can then be finished off in some 
other way. The flying mare, used with the elbow hinge 
reversed, has been used in wrestling circles for years as a 
spectacular type of throw. If you are working on a hard 
surface, instead of letting go of your opponent, after you flip 
him over your shoulder, maintain your hold on his arm 
and bring him down at your feet on his head and shoulders. 
A concussion or neck fracture will result when he strikes 
the ground. 

The shoulder throw is effective against an opponent who 
has grasped you around the neck, or around the shoulders 
from behind. Reaching up, grasp your opponent's right arm 
above the elbow with both hands. Pull his arm forward, so 
that his armpit is over the point of your right shoulder. As 
you do so, step forward, bend down and bring your elbows 
sharply down to a point level with the knees. The step for- 
ward or the use of a backward thrust of the hips will lift 
him off the ground; the downward pull on his arm will 
finish the throw. 

In any of these throws, the body must always be bent 
slightly forward when the throw is initiated. If it is bent 
backward, the use of powerful stomach muscles, as well as 
balance, can be lost. This is why the victim should always 
be pulled backward into an ofF-balance position in a skillful 
attack from the rear. 

Sometimes a fall back may be used if an opponent has 
grasped your body from the rear and bent it backward so 
that a shoulder throw cannot be applied. To execute this, 
step to the outside and back of one of his legs, slam back- 
ward with the upper part of the body and sit down. The 
opponent will land between you and the ground and the 
possibilities are good of stunning him, knocking him out, 
or breaking his hold. 

The Leg Hook. This is a surprise tactic that will usually 
catch an adversary off guard, particularly if he is coming in 
swinging. Drop your whole body to a crouch position under 
his swing as he closes in. From this crouch, drive upward so 
that the shoulder meets the pit of his stomach. At the same 
time hook the arms around his legs and lift upward. He will 
hit the ground hard. 

These tactics can often be preceded by a feinted blow to 
his head before the drop. Flying tackles, or dives, at an on- 
rushing opponent are dangerous because the arms swinging 
wide and the crouchintr body telegraph your intentions. Be 

34 I"- I I- •■ " i< '• !■ I '^ ' I- '• I' I' 

careful to use a crick, such as a leg lioolc, just before con- 
tact is established, not when the opponent is some distance 
away. If you arc unable to grasp both legs from the crouch, 
when contact is made, grasp the anlde or lower part of one 
leg and use the shoulder against the knee. 

Throws From tlic Rear. Many chr(jws can be applied against 
a man who is approached from the rear, but the use of blows 
to the neck or a kick to the hinge of the knee is very simple 
and effective. If body contact is desired, a variation of the 
hip throw can be used; or the opponent can be smashed to 
the ground by driving against his buttocks with the shoulder, 
as the hands pull his ankles backward. 


A properly applied strangle should eliminate all resistance 
within five seconds or less. Great pressure must be applied, 
either to the windpipe or to the large arteries on both sides 
of the neck. A strangle which affects both these areas is most 
effective. Strangling can be accomplished by use of mechan- 
ical aids (which will be discussed in a later chapter), by use 
of pressure against the hard bones of th.e wrist or forearm 
(against a standing opponent), or by the use of thumbs and 
fingers, if the opponent is down. The pressure applied by a 
strangle must be great, and must be applied in such a way 
that the victim's neck muscles do not have a chance to resist. 
In many cases a neck fracture will accompany strangulation. 

Whenever the edge-of-the-hand blow can be delivered 
across the windpipe or Adam's apple area, it should be used 
in preference to more complicated methods. It is advisable 
to use it even after a strangle has been completed. 

The Judo Choke. This is best performed on the ground. 
The pressure is applied against the large carotid arteries on 
both sides of the neck. These vessels supply blood to the 
brain. Unconsciousness results within a few seconds when 
they are closed by pinching. This choke is performed by util- 
izing the shirt, or coat, collar of the victim as a base for the 
application of leverage. 

There are two principal methods. The cross-arm choke is 
performed by crossing the forearms, grasping the inside of 
the collar with each hand (palm up) in a high up position, 
so that the thumbs are under the ears. By taking a firm hold 
and pulling the victim toward you while you force your 
elbows out, strangulation is accomplished. 

O !■ !• I-, \ S r \' I r \ \ l< \l I |> (■ (I M II A -I 


The cross-arm clioke utilizes die garment of the victim. Note that 
the grasp on the collar is well back. 


The outside clioUe will cut off the blood supply to the brain. It. 
too, uses the garment of the victim. 

3^ k I I. I. I) K i; I. 1 k I I, I, i: I) 

The oucsidc choke, best appUed on the ground, is accom- 
plished in the following manner. Astride your opponent, who 
is on iiis hack, grip the inside of jiis collar high up on both 
sides, so that the little fingers are next to the ground and the 
thumbs toward you. The elbows should be close to the 
ground when gripping the collar. Keep the wrists rigid, 
straighten out the elbows and bring them together. The 
leverage that results will force the knuckles and thumb into 
the arteries at the sides of the neck, causing the blood supply 
to the brain to be shut off. Intense pain is caused by pres- 
sure against nerves in the neck. 

Finger Strangle. The muscles of the throat are strong and 
often arc dcvclopcii to the point where they can resist pres- 
sure brought to bear by the fingers across the front of the 
throat. To execute a stran"le usinii the finger.s, therefore, an 
area not so well protected must be attacked. The best point 
is the windpipe, in an area as near the lower jaw as possible. 
Drive the fingers and thumb of the hand in a tong.s-likc 
action around anil behind the windpipe. Close them together, 
and pull o\it to cause strangulation. 

Japanese Strangle. This attack should be launchetl from the 
lear against a standing opponent. The fist should be driven 
into the victim's right kidney section with such force that 
he will be caused to bend backward and thus lose balance. 
At the same time, your left forearm should be swung around 
his neck in such maimer as to strike him across the Adam's 
apple. 'I'hcse two blows arc enough, initially, to stun him— for 
the fraction of a second necessary to complete the strangle. 

From this position, with your left forearm across his neck, 
place your right hand on the back of his head and hook your 
left hand inside the bend in the elbow of your right arm. 
With your hand in this position, you are able to e.xert enor- 
mous leverage by pushing forward with your right hand 
and pulling him back with your left at the same time. In a 
matter of seconds, you have strangled him completely or 
broken his neck. One of the most important things to remem- 
ber is that you must continually jnill your victim backward, 
so that he is off balance at all times. This is even more im- 
portant if you arc shorter than your victim. In that case, 
the use of the knee, instead of the fist, in the kidney section 
is best for the first blow. Another satisfactory way to get 
your victim off balance is to thrust your foot into the back 
of his knee. This will cause him to topple backward anil 
enable you to apjily the hold more easily. 

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Front Strangle. A strangle hold iiv.iy also be applied from 
the front. In this apphcation, it is easier when a man's head 
happens to be lowered, as it would be if he were attempting 
to niaJce a grab for your legs or waist. If he is stantiing up- 
right, it can be initiated as follows: Swing your right arm 
forward and around, bringing the palm ol; tlie iiand against 
the back of his neck. By giving your body weight to the 
swing, you will cause him to bring his head forward and 
downward, to a position where your left forearm can be 
brought across, up and under his throat and locked around 
his neck, with your right hand taking a grip on your left 
nand as a reinforcement. When you have iiim in this posi- 
tion, all you need to do to cause strangulation, or a neck 
break, is to push your hips forward and your shoulders well 
back, lifting upward as you do so. (Sec preceding page.) 

Rear Straight Choke. This choke can be executed from a 
standing or kneeling position in any situation where the at- 
tacker is in back of the opponent. Place the bony part of 
your right forearm across the front or side of the opponent's 
neck. Grasp the wrist of the right hand with the left and 
exert backward pressure so that the forearm comes hard 
against the throat. Place the point of the right shoulder 
against the back of the victim's head, forcing it forward 
while the forearm is being pulled back. 

Criminals often attack their robbery victims from the rear 
with cither the rear s.raight choke or the Japanese strangle. 

By placing the bony part of the left forcarin across the neck, grasp- 
ing tlic left wrist, and pulling back, a strangle can be made at the 
tiMie of back pressure against the neck. The point of the right shoulder 
is pressed against the back of the head, pushing it forward. 


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Although the intent in most cases is only rohbeiy, miun' 
victims hiwc lost thciv lives when they attempted to struggle. 
The attacker has often lost his head and applied too much 
pressure to subdue the victim, with fatal results. This form 
of attack is called "mugging" in some police circles. 


The following arc additional tried and proved methods of 
attack in given situations, when the element of surprise may 
be applied. 

Chin Jab and Trip. If, as you pass by an opponent, you wish 
to down him by utilizing your advantage of surprise, this 
is a very simple and efFeccive method. It can be used with- 
out any suspicious warning movements. As you pass your 
opponent, on his right side, and are directly opposite him, 
place your right leg in the rear of his right leg and execute 
a chin jab from a starting position of hands at side. He will 
go down and out. The leg in the rear lias a tripping effect. 
It ciHiscs riic l)()d\' to u;() up, then down with nunc force. 


This surprise attack froiii the rc;ir is licailly ami simple. It « ill result 
ill an instant neck fracture. 

42 !•; I I I. <) u <; I'. I' K r I, f. K n 

Sitting Neck-Break. If your opponent is sitting in a low- 
backed chair, approach him from the rear. As you pass by, 
on the right or left side, and are opposite him, with the arm 
nearest the victim reach across and under his chin, with the 
hand coming around to the back of tiie neck. From this 
position, a contraction of the arm muscles plus an upward 
and backward jerk, will cause his neck to break instantane- 
ously. It can be done almost without breaking your stride. 

Wrist Throw. The wrist throw has several practical appli- 
cations. The most practical would be in a situation in which 
a man has reached out and grabbed your shirt, coat lapel, 
or belt strap, with liis right hand. With your left hand reach 
over to the inside of the grasping hand and place your left 
thumb in the back of his hand across the small knuckle bones. 
Your fingers will pass underneath the palm of his hand. With 
your hand in this position, twist his hand back sharply to- 
ward him and to his right and force it toward a point on 
the ground three or four feet from his rigiit foot. He will 
immediately be forceil to drop to tiic ground. From tlicrc, 
you can eitlier release your hold on his hand as he goes down 
or retain it, pulling his arm out straight above his head as he 
goes down, and kicking him in the temple with your foot. 
In many cases, particularly when there is a great difference 
in size of opponents, it is advisable, after making the initial 
hold with your left hand, to use your right to give additional 
pressure and leverage in completing the throw. The same 
technique can be applied by doing just the opposite in the 
case of left-handed procedure. After practice, the individual 

() I- !■■ K N S I V P. V N \ l« M I I) C () M 11 A 



Grnsp tlie ojiponcnt's hand so time yotir thumb is across his knuckles, 
as in tlie upper picture. Twist the opponent's hand to his right, and out. 
Use your other hand to add strength, once the initial grip and twist 
is made with the left, (See lower picture). 

Continue the downward shove and step in as he starts to fall; as at 


R 1 1. T. o 11 r. v.y K 1 1. 1. V. 1) 

left. Tl\c grip can he released at any point, once balance is desuoycd. 
If desired, the grip on the wrist can be retained and a follow-up kick 
tu tlic head can be nindc, as at right. 

can initiate the same wrist throws against the opponent who 
has his liands hanErintr at his sides. 

Pushing Counter- iVlany times the soldier or police officer 
has been in a position where a belligerent drank has attempted 
to antagonize him by placing a hand on his chest and shoving 
him backward. The counter is simple and efTcctive. As your 
opponent's hand is placed oji your chest, take your own two 
iiands and, laying one flat on top of the other, raise them 
above your opponent's pushing hand, then come down sharply 
with the edge of your hands at the angular bend where his 
wrist joins his hand. Press his hand against your chest. As 
you do this, bend forward and step back. Your opponent 
will go down, for a very simple reason. When he is pushing 
you, his wrist is already at a right angle bend. Any additional 
bend will cause a break. When you strike his wrist with the 
edge of your hands and bend the body forward, he can do 
nothing but go to the ground to protect himself from a 
broken wrist. As he goes down, you can use your knee against 
his chin, or you can hit him on the shoulder so as to destroy 
his balance. It is important that you bend forward in applying 
the hold, at the time of the blow on the wrist angle. By so 
doing, you force him to the ground and also pin his hand 
aeainst vour clicst so lie cannot pull away. 

i> I !■ I S S I \ I I \ \ H \1 I II i; (I M I! \ I 


In die position shown in upper picture, tlic opponent's wrist is bent 
back, anil lie lays liinisclf open to attack. Place both hands on his 
inishing hand and press back against your chest. Be sure the edges 
of your hands arc directly on the wrist joint. Rend swiftly forward 
and step back with one foot, as in the lower illustration. 


K I I, I. o R r, i; r K I I, I, i: n 

If a knockout is desired, a follow witli the knee to the chin can 
be made, as in lower left above. If it is desired merely to spill the 
opponent, reach around in back of him, as he goes down, and pull 
him by grasping his shirt or the point of his shoulder, as In lower 
right above. 

Ear Concussion Blow. Approaching your opponent from the 
rear, you can rupture his eardrums by cupping both hands 
and simultaneously striking them against his ears. A type of 
concussion results which causes the victim to become "slap 
happy" and makes him an easy subject to do with as you will. 

Elbow Break. This is a particularly effective hold from a 
hand-shake position. At the moment wlien your right hand 
grasps the outstretched right hand of the victim, jerk him 
forward and step forward with the left foot. Retaining your 
grip on the hand, strike the outside of his right elbow with 
the palm of your left hand, or with your left forearm. A 
break will result. 

I'. N S I V I', II N A l< M K I) C <> M 11 A T 



Surprise ajiproacli from die rear, as shown Icfc aliovc, and tlu- 
siniuhancoiis boxing of the opponent's ears, will rupture both ear 
drums and cause a blackout. 

Testicle Blow. If you are standing beSide an opponent and, 
for some reason, such as a difference in size, a direct blow 
to his neck or head is not advisable, try the following. 
Clench the fist of the hand next to him and swing it into his 
groin, or testicle, area. When he bends fonvard from the 
blow, use the edge of either hand on the back of his neck. 

These specific attacks are only a few of many possible 
ones, once the use of foot and hand blows is mastered and 
other fundamentals of offensive combat are achieved. The 
individual can work out those best suited to his need. 


Once an opponent has been thrown, blows should be used 
to finish him off. Most of the tlirows and trips described can 
be used so that after practice they are all completed with 

48 Kill, (I K (; 1: I" k I I. I, K I) 

the attacker still retaining a controlling grip on the oppo- 
nent's wrist or arm. If the impact of the throw has not stunned 
him enough to permit the use of the feet, he may attempt 
to roll away. If so, a jerk, spin, or a pull on the arm that you 
have retained in your grasp (or grasped again if it has been 
dropped), will usually slow him up to the point where you 
can use a kick. Always try to keep the opponent from re- 
gaining his feet or from getting his feet or his arms solidly 
under him. If he falls free and tries to get up by scrambling 
forward on his hands and knees, a well-placed kick to the 
kidney or tail bone area will stop him. If he evades a kick, 
jump astraddle his back, as you would that of a horse, then 
drive your feet backward under his body and between the 
legs. Straighten the hips and lean forward. At the same time, 
reach under his chin and pull up hard. He will flatten out, 
and a strangle can be applied that should remain unbroken, 
even if he rolls over with you underneath him. Naturally, 
an edge-of-thc-hand blow should be used if possible at any 
time during this maneuver. If a general niclcc ensues, when 
both of you arc on the ground striving for position and holds, 
the first to resort to blows, bites and gouges will come out 
on top. Always attack parts of your opponent's body that 
are easily hurt. If the enemy can be kept in pain, he will be 
unable to do much offensive fighting. 


Again, unarmed combat tactics should be used when weap- 
ons are not available. It is not intended that the soldier or 
policeman lay aside his rifle and other weapons to engage in 
such combat. However, he must not be dependent on his 
weapons to the point where he is helpless without them— for 
psychological as well as practical reasons. Training and skill 
in this type of fighting creates all-around self-confidence and 
enables the soldier or policeman to handle all situations in 
which he must depend only on those weapons given him 
by nature. 

Chapter 3 


MUCH of the reader's combat experience will begin 
with the defensive phase. Circumstances will often 
be such that he is attacked first, or at least must wait for an 
initial offensive gesture from the enemy. When he meets 
such an attack, his first movements may have to be defensive. 
From this defense he will either undertake some degree of 
offensive action or apply restraint methods, as the situation 
dictates. In the case of the law enforcement officer, as guardian 
of the law lie is priniariiy concerned with defense ratlier 
than offense. 

An attack by an opponent will usually be launched in one 
of three ways. He may try to strike the defender by using 
l)Iows of fists, hands, or feet— if he is skillful enough. He may 
attempt to throw the defender to the ground by securing a 
hold on his body; or third, he may simply rush him, trying 
to upset him by the momentum and impact. When they can 
l)e foreseen, all these attempts should be met by having the 
body in the balanced, crouched position, with the hands 
poised, forearms in almost a vertical position, palms of the 
hands about six inches apart and facing each other, in posi- 
tion to protect the face and throat. The hands in this posi- 
tion are used to ward off and parry blows. They are also in a 
position from which fist or edge-of-the-hand blows can best 
be launched. In the balanced position, the body is slightly 
crouched, so that the upper middle part of the body, which 
is the natural target for blows, is at a maximum distance from 
the opponent. To reach vulnerable parts, the attacker must 
not only break through the protective screen of the hands, 
he must also lunge and possibly overreach in order to make 


The Striking Attack. Most individuals who use blows to at- 
tack will probably be unskilled in boxing and will attempt 


5() K I I. I. I) i< <, i: I k I I I. I' I) 

CO hit by using wide, frequently wild, swinging blows with 
the fists. Such blows may be parried outward with the edges 
of the hands and forearms, while closing inside tiie opponent's 
arms— where his arm and shoulders can be grasped preparatory 
to a throw, fist or edge-of-the-hand blows, a chin jab, or a 
knee to the testicles. 

If you are a sidlled boxer, the attack can be met with 
well-delivered blows of your own. Usually the knee kick 
will be the simplest defensive (or oflfensive) measure. Fre- 
quently an upright swinging attack of this type will be de- 
livered with little thought given to balance. One knee or the 
other of the attacker will be well-advanced, so that it pre- 
sents a vulnerable target for a well-placed kick. 

A successful alternative to meeting an attack by blows is 
to use the hands and arms to parry the striking arm out, so 
chat you are on the inside of the striking arms. The parry 
should be forceful and the body should be moved sidewise 
in the opposite direction to the opponent's swinging arm. In 
this manner the force of the opponent's swing, coupled with 
your parry, will leave him in an unbalanced position and will 
permit you to move in to his side, where a blow, throw, trip, 
or spin will put him on the ground. 

A man who is trained in boxing usually leads with his left, 
following up with his right. If confronted by such an antag- 
onist, duck quickly to his left as he jabs with his left fist. 
At the same time, slap the outer side of his left elbow with 
your right hand. He will spin into an off-balance position. 
Place your foot behind him and shove or hit him backwards 
so that he trips over your foot. 

The leg hook, described in chapter 2, is another good 
method of meeting a skilled striking attack. It must be exe- 
cuted when the opponent is very near and the element of 
surprise is present. 

Defense against an opponent who attempts a kick usually 
will also be against an unskillful individual, one who tries 
to kick, toe first, to the crotch or knee. By pivoting aside 
and grasping the heel and toe of his foot and twisting it, 
you can easily throw him. Defense against a man who uses 
his feet properly is more difficult. The best tactic is to kick 
him first. 

The Rushing Attack. The attacker who charges like the pro- 
verbial mad bull, at a well-balanced and trained opponent, 
can be easily handled in a number of ways. His momentum 

I) i: !■ i: N s I \- i: r x \ u m i: d c (i ,m ii a r 51 

can be used to liis disadvantage and downfall. In such an 
attack, lie usually strives to grab the upper or middle part 
of the body or drive into the legs. Me must not be met head 
on, as the force of his drive will carry a standing defender 
backward, and often to the ground. The simplest counter to 
this type attack is to step aside and apply a leg trip, par- 
ticularly when attacked with great speed' and momentum. 
A drop and leg hook can be used if he is coming in upright; 
but your own weight and body strength must be enough to 
counteract any advantage lie gains by momentum. 

When the opponent drives in with his head lowered and 
strives for a grip about the waist, he can best be met by a 
blow into his face with the knee. It is also often possible to 
deliver a trip and a blow by using the hands against this 
attack. At other rimes, his drive can be met squarely and a 
front strangle applied. Whenever any type of rush attack 
is met head on, contact should be made with the defender's 
legs stretched out to the rear and his body leaning forward. 

l:y1'. gougk as a rI'IlI'AsI'. 

The eye gouge will almost 
always be an effective release. It 
is best to use the thumb against 
tlie inside of the eye socket, witli 
force exerted toward the outside 
of the Iicad. 

Hooking tlie thumb in the 
corner of the mouth, or in the 
nostril, is an elTectivc release. 


K 1 I, I. () U G K ■[• KILLED 

From a rear bear hug chat pins 
the arms, the point of the elbow 
can be used against the attacker's 

Tlie simplest and most effective 
of all releases is a knee to the 
groin or testicles. 

No attempt should be made to stop the opponent's drive 
completely. Rather, the legs should be kept extended, and 
the force of the impact and momentum should be absorbed 
by "riding it out," letting the attack carry you to the rear. 
The opponent who tries to drive to the legs in a football- 
type tackle can be handled as he is by the ball carrier— <by 
simply sidestepping and pushing down on his head. He will 
drive himself into the ground. 


The following breaks are intended for use in situations in 
which the bodies of the attacker and defender are in close 
contact. They will result from a surprise attack, or from 
faulty execution of a blow or throw. Obviously, no defender 
in possession of his normal faculties would permit any such 
blows to be used if he could see them coming. Many of them 
are of a type which would be applied only by an inexperi- 
enced individual. Generally, in such situations, there is not 

I) I I I. \ s I V |- IN \ li ,\i I 1) c () M i; \ r 


A rear attack in wliich tlie arms 
arc not pinned can be broken by 
grasping a finger and bending it 
back, or by stamping on the instep 
witli the heel. 

This type of encumbering hold 
can be broken by a kick to the 
siiins with the inside edge of the 
foot, or by grasping the op- 
ponent's testicles. 

much motion and the encumbering or offensive action of the 
attacker must be broken by some sort of a blow, or release, 
before counter action can begin. 

When a hold such as a bear hug, arm hug, or strangle is 
applied and the trunk of the attacker's body is pressed against 
that of the defender, the following general rules should be 
observed: (i) Strive to keep balance; try to prevent your 
body from being pulled, pushed, or bent off balance. (2) 
The instant contact is made, drop the body into a slight 
crouch and force the opponent to support part of your 
weight. (3) Attack sensitive points. The opponent's testicles, 
eyes, toes, and shins arc either collectively or singly vul- 
nerable—almost invariably wlien he is applying encumbering 
holds. Blows and kicks to these areas will loosen his grip, 
or break it so that other blows and types of releases can be 
used, or a counter attack launched. 


K I 1, I. I) H C K r KILLED 


A frontal hold about the waisr 
can be broken simply by pushing 
l)nck on the chin and desrjoying 
the aggressor's balance. 

The Wrist Release. The principles of the wrist release 
should be familiar to every soldier and police officer. The 
wrist release has long been known in wrestling and iiu jitsu 
circles and has a practical application in lifesaving tecnniques. 
A knowledge of the wrist release enables any person to 
break any grip, no matter now strong, that is applied to his 
wrists or arms by the opponent's thumb and fingers. This is 
important, since defenses and many attacks, or throws, are 
started when an opponent grasps one or both wrists with 
his hands. 

When an opponent grabs your wrist or forearm with his 
hand, he will have four fingers on one side of the arm and 
his thumb on the other. Regardless of the strength of the 
grip, it will never be stronger on the thumb side than the 
strength of your entire arm. The thumb side of the grip is 
weak. The necessary force to effect a release is concentrated 
against the thumb by always rolling the wrist outward against 
it, and by jerking as the roll is started. The opponent's grip 
will be broken, no matter whether the grip is left- or right- 
handed, as long as the roll is out\\'ard against the thumb. 

If a two-handed grip is applied to the wrist, a sharp pull 
against the thumbs will break it. It is advisable in this case 

I) I'. i- I-; \ s I \ i- r N A u .\i I', I) c I) M I! A r 






-•> - 


1 1 



A grip that pinions tlie wrist, (illustrntcd at to])), is wcal<cst on the 
thunil) side. To hreak it, forcefully turn the wrist onfvcard, in the 
direction of rhc tlunnh Isce Imtroiu plKinu ;inil ierk tlic ;\rui -.iums . 
[•'ollow up willi rhc p<iiiu of rhc clho\i to rlic opimncnt's chin. ;is tlic 
arm is jcrla'd ;n\ ;i\'. 

56 K I I, I. R a F. I K I r, I, r. d 

to use your free hand to grasp the pinioned hand and help 
in the outward jerk against the thumbs. If the opponent's 
thumbs arc on tlic underneath side of tlie arm, reacii under 
with the free hand and pull down. Another reason why this 
grip is so effective is that at the time the release is made 
a follow-through blow, with the elbow of the previously 
pinioned arm against the body or face, can be made without 
any extra motion. Practice of the wrist release should be so 
thorough that it can be done instinctively, and at the instant 
a grip is made. The principle of the wrist release can also 
be applied to break a grip made on the coat sleeve. A4ake 
a circular, backward and upward motion with the pinioned 
arm. As the down swing is completed, the grip will be broken. 
Arm Jerk. An arm jerk, prior to the application of a come- 
along or an attack, will help soften up the opponent. It will 
help destroy his physical balance and will result in a slight 
concussion when forcefully applied. Grasp the opponent's 
arm at the wrist with both hands. Lift his arm about six inches 
and jerk it sharply downward. Tiiis often destroys his body 
balance and causes a jolt to tiie brain. If the right arm is 
jerked, the force of the jolt will be felt on the left side of the 
head. This tactic must be practiced gently. Although it 
sounds mild, it does have a very marked effect on the op- 
ponent. Some judo experts use it instinctively whenever they 
can grasp an opponent's arm. A policeman may well use it, 
before applying ninny of the coinc-aloniir Iiolds. to destroy, 
momentarily, tiic oi>poncnt's mciital antl pliysical hnlancc. 


The defender may be confronted by two assailants at the 
same time. In cases where offensive action by his opponents 
is imminent, he should always take advantage of the element 
of surprise by launching his attack first. A quick kick to the 
knee, or an edge-of-the-hand blow, delivered without warn- 
ing at one of tiie assailants, will incapacitate him long enough 
to permit special attention to the remaining opponent. Tiie 
attack should be launched before the two opponents can 
maneuver. Prior to any action, the defender should try to 
keep the opponents in front of him. He should never allow 
them to close in simultaneously from the sides or to attack 
from the rear. If a surprise attack is launched against a 
defender by two or more assailants, there is every justification 
for using the quickest and most effective tactics to put them 
out of action. Restraint methods are ineffective and foolish 
in such a situation. 

l> f. I' !■■, N s I \ i: r N \ n M c I) CO m ii ,\ i 





If the arm is grasped with two hands, as shown at the top, the thumb 
side is still the weakest. Force must be exerted against it. With the 
free hand, reach over and grasp the pinioned fist, as in the lower 
picture, and jerk out against the thumbs. Follow with tlic point of the 
elbow to the opponent's ciiin. 

58 K I I. L O K a K r K I L I. I', I) 

Crowd Escape. A defender cannot always choose the time 
and place to fight. Frequently escape should be his only 
object, especially when he is unarmed and is faced by several 
opponents. He may be caught in the midst of a riot or may 
be the victim of a surprise gang attack. 

The only hope of escape from an overwhelming number of 
opponents is continual movement. Each time the defender 
takes a new position a few seconds are required for his 
antagonist to balance himself for a forceful attack. This 
constant movement should be accompanied by indiscriminate 
blows of the hands, feet, elbows, knees. Alovement may be 
in any direction, but must never cease. The body should be 
kept low, with the knees bent. A bobbing motion is most 
successful. Any of these movements, made rapidly, will be- 
wilder the opponent. By the use of blows, and by shoving 
one opponent against the other, it will often be possible to 
create more room in which to keep moving. This technique 
can be practiced by hanging dummies in a small space and 
letting the trainee work his way through them. It should be 
remembered that the object is to get away, not to stay 
and fight it out against hopeless odds. 


A'lilitary and civil police officers have frequent use for 
come-along type holds. Once the criminal, or law breaker, 
has been apprehended or subdued, the police must "take him 
in," in order to complete the arrest. If he is drunk, unruly, 
or potentially dangerous, he must be kept helpless. By appli- 
cation of the proper come-along, the prisoner is made amen- 
able to movement or to other actions by the officer. A come- 
along, or other type pressure hold, also is often used before 

Usually it is difficult to apply pressure holds when the 
antagonist is suspicious. Such holds are almost always in- 
tended for use after the opponent has been subdued. Certain 
kinds of come-along can be applied as a type of attack by a 
skilled man; others can be used after a break from an en- 
cumbering hold by the opponent. However, there is always 
a risk in applying the come-along if the opponent has not 
been subdued, or if the user does not have a marked superiority 
of physique, knowledge and experience. 

No come-along hold, applied with the bare hands, has been 
developed that can be maintained successfully over a long 

1) K !•' F. N S 1 V K UN A II M K l> t". <> ;N) II \ T 59 

period of time against an opponent wlio is in full possession 
of his faculties and who is determined to break it. It is true 
that some escapes from come-alongs may be made— at the 
expense of broken bones or painful dislocations. If the victim 
is desperate enough, this will not deter him. If the come-along 
must be maintained over a considerable distance or for a 
considerable length of time, it is advisable to keep a dangerous 
man groggy by edge-of-the-hand blows, short jabs to the 
chin, or similar blows. 

Mechanical come-along devices, sucii as the iron claw or 
chain twister— when they are available and if their use is 
permitted— will often provide better control and allow more 
freedom of movement by the user. Handcuffs and their correct 
use is a separate subject, warranting complete training for any 
law enforcement officer (see chapter 8). 

Come-along holds can be divided into two general cate- 
gories: holds which restrain by inflicting pain or the threat 
of pain and those which destroy balance or dignity. In 
the latter category are the holds that cause the victim to 
lose face and be an object of ridicule and laughter. In some 
cases, as when evicting a quarrelsome drunk from a room, 
the policeman should use this type of hold. The come-alongs 
and restraint holds described below are selected from the 
best and most practical of niaiiy holds. 

Where the coiiic-along is used and the victim has a free 
arm that can be used ofl'ensively, he can be made to keep it 
inside his belt; or his belt can be removed, so that he must 
hold up his trousers with his free hand. Again, the come- 
along is not an attack; it is applied as a mastering hold after 
the victim has been subdued by other means. 

The Wrist Come-Along. The following technique is the most 
effective of all come-alongs, especially when you arc forced 
to walk a man a long distance and keep him under control. 
You are facing your opponent, who has his arms hanging 
at his sides. With your right hand outstretched, palm up, 
hook your thumb inside his left thumb. With your left hand, 
reach over to the outside of your prisoner's left elbow and 
pull it toward your right foot to a point where you are 
directly up against the victim. You will find that the victim's 
left elbow will be next to your body, with your right 
elbow between his arm and his body. You have not changed 
your grip during this process. By keeping his elbow close to 
your body and locked in place by your right arm, and by 




With the palm of the right hand up, hook your thumb with tite 
opponent's left thumb, as shown at top. An alternate initial grip is to 
grasp the back of the opponent's left hand with your right hand, as in 
the bottom picture. After applying one of these grips, reach over with 
your left hand and grasp the outside of your opponent's left elbow, 
as at left on next page. Pull his elbow toward you and step in to 
his side. After getting his pinioned . . . 

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raising his forearm to a vertical position, you have a very 
effective come-along. This position is maintained by twisting 
liis iiand and wrist toward you at any sign of rebellion. By 
applying a few pounds pressure on the wrist, you can raise 
your victim on his toes, and it is by this means that you will 
know that he is completely under your control. This come- 
along has the advantage of allowing you, in most cases, to 
maintain sufficient pressure with one hand while you walk 
along with a weapon, or some other implement, in your left 
hand. This application can be reversed for the purpose of 
leaving your right hand free. 

The Arm Lock Come-Along. Another come-along which has 
a great deal of merit is the arm lock. Properly applied, it 
makes a hold strong enough to escort a prisoner a short dis- 
tance. If pressure is maintained on the forearm, you have 
complete control of your opponent. This come-along is useful 
in applying handcuffs or in taking a man to the ground before 
tying him. 

It is applied as follows: Facing your opponent, reach out 
with your left hand, palm down, and grab the opponent 
about the right wrist. Shove his arm to the side and rear of 
his body. As you do this, strike his left arm on the inside of 
the elbow joint with the flat of your right hand. The hand 
should be withdrawn immediately after the slap has been 
given, causing the elbow to bend. Step in and turn his body, 
so that you are beside him, facing in the same direction. P'roni 
this position, disengage your left hand, which has been about 
his wrist, and, grasping his right hand, shove it under and 
up between the opponent's forearm and his back. Place 
your left hand on, or just below, the shoulder point on 
his arm. By bending forward, with his right arm locked 
in this position, you have him completely under control. 
Your right hand can then be placed on his left shoulder, 
to prevent him from pulling sideways out of the hold; 
or it can be used to exert extra pressure on his pinioned 
arm by pulling it out from his back. This will force him to 
do as you wish, because of pain or the possibility of a broken 
elbow. This come-along can be maintained over a long dis- 
tance but has a disadvantage in that your own body must 
be bent forward, alongside and slightly over your opponent's 
body, in order to keep him under control. However, this 
liability is offset by the fact that this hold can be used for 
other purposes than those mentioned above. 



F-Ace the opponent; rcncli out and grnsp Iiis right wrist with y()ut 
left hand, ns in left top above. With your right hand strike the inside 
of his right elbow, so as to bend the aim, as shown in right top above. 
Step in and turn liis body, so that you arc beside the opponent, facing 
in the snnie direction he is facing. By disengaging your left hand and 
slioviiig it U|5 and under, bctuxcn the opponent's arm and back, tlie 
lock is applied (see lower picture). By bending forward and exerting 
U|)uard pressure on tlic pinned forearm, tlic victim is put urulcr control. 
Your riglit l\and can be used to grasp his sliirt collar or left slinuldcr, 
to prevent liis pulling out sideways. 

64 K 1 I- r. II G K T KILL !•: D 

Forearm Come-Along. Facing your opponent, with your 
right hand grasp the back of his left hand, at the same time 
taking a firm hold on his left arm by grasping the outside 

This type of forearm come-along will give you control of the most 
unruly prisoner. Upward pressure on the arm will cause intense pain. 

of it at the elbow with your left hand. Force the opponent's 
left hand and wrist up behind his back. Use your left hand to 
hold his elbow tight against the right side of your body. By 
bending the victim's captured wrist toward his elbow, great 
pain can be inflicted. Once the hold has been secured, face 
in the same direction as the opponent. He is forced to walk 
with you. 

Forearm Lock. Face the opponent, reach across and grab his 
right wrist with your right hand, raising it about waist high. 
Move over to his right and slip your left arm over his fore- 
arm and under his right elbow, at a point just above the 
elbow. In this position, the sharp bone of your left forearm 
can be used to lift upward, against the elbow which the right 
hand can press down. To make the hold more secure, grip 
your opponent's coat or lapel with your left hand, once the 
arm is in place. 


This type of coriie-along is 
effective against a troublesome 
drunk. By grasping the seat of his 
pants at the rear and Hfting, and 
at the same time shoving forward 
with the hand tliat grasps his col- 
lar, he can be moved along easily. 

This is anitlicr come-along that 
is effective against a small or 
inebriated person. Grasp both 
wrists, lift his arms so as to put 
him off balance, then cross them. 
Shove him forward. This Is a good 
method to use in putting a man 
through a narrow hall or door. 

A man sitting in a chair, or in 
the scat of a car, can easily be 
|ndlcd out by putting one hand 
under the point of his cliin and 
the other on the back of his head. 
I!v existing his head and lifting 
at the same time, he can be forced 
to come. 




A man lying on the ground or sitting in a scat can be moved quickly 
by pushing the forefingers in and up against the nerve centers which 
are at the hinge of the jaw, under the cars. This is a good way to test 
faked death or unconsciousness, since die pain is extremely intense. 
It is also effective as a release. 

Two Other humorous, but effective, come-alongs against 
persons who resist getting up from the prone or sitting posi- 
tion, are as follows: 

(i) With the thumb and forefinger grasp the short hairs 
on the back of the head or nape of the neck, and pull force- 
fully. Although most people can resist the pulling of hairs 
on top of the head, the short ones on the back of the head 
and neck are placed where pressure on them causes intense 
pain. Men are usually more susceptible to this than women. 

(2) A drunken man or woman can also usually be handled 
by using the thumb and forefinger to grab the lower lip. By 
pinching hard and twisting, as the pull is made, the victim 
will come along. 

Chapter 4. 


IT is probable that the soldier or law enforcement officer 
sometime will face an enemy, a criminal, or a demented 
person who is armed with a knife or some other kind of 
bladed weapon. He may encounter a trained knife fighter, 
but it is more likely that he will be assigned to duty in areas 
dominated by racial groups or by underworld elements who 
rely upon bladed weapons as their principal means of combat. 

The average American does not like the idea of encounter- 
ing a knife in personal combat. He would much rather use 
his fists, a hand gun or a club as a fighting weapon. He would 
much rather face such weapons than an opponent armed 
with a sharp blade. Because of this repugnance, he often 
shrinks from the possibility of facing an adversary so armed; 
and this destroys his self-confidence. This condition is espe- 
cially true if a knife attack is made unexpectedly and the 
defendant has had no time either to condition himself men- 
tally or to have a defense or weapon ready. 

Because of the strong probability of his encountering a 
bladed weapon, every soldier and law enforcement ofiicer 
should receive training in knife offense and in the general 
defensive precautions and techniques to be used in areas 
where opponents arc likely to carry knives. . 

Before undertaking a successful knife defense— which should 
be concluded by disarming, subduing, or killing— it is neces- 
sary to understand and practice the principal methods of knife 
attack. Once a person with a defensive mission, such as a 
policeman, understands how the knife is most likely to be 
used against him, he will be more confident and proficient. 

With respect to technique, knife wielders usually fall into 
three categories: (i) the trained knife fighter, who uses both 
a cutting and a slashing type of attack; (2) the unskilled knife 



user, who usually employs either an upward or downward 
thrust in attacking; and (3) the slasher, who usually uses a 
short-bladed knife, or razor, and who takes advantage only of 
the cutting effect of the blade. There will always be ex- 
ceptions. Some knife wielders, because of animal courage, 
past successes or reputation, are, for defense purposes, in the 
same category as the highly skilled fighting knife wielder, 
even though they do not use the knife with the approved 
and best fighting technique. This type of attack can be 
readily recognized when made from the front, provided there 
is time to see it coming. 

The kinds of bladed weapons encountered may vary from 
the common pen knife to the World War I fighting knife, 
complete with brass knuckles. The razor, the popular hunt- 
ing knife, knives with retracting or snapout blades, the 
standard pocket knife, the kitchen or butcher knife, or the 
real fighting knife— may be employed in an assault. All are 
dangerous and can inflict serious wounds; but some are more 
to be feared than others. 


This stiletto type weapon is ideal for close-ln fighting. It 
can be used both for cutting and thrusting, and it is easy to 
maneuver, because of its design and balance. This last feature 
is very important. The handle is similar to that of a fencing 
foil, so the knife can be used for cutting and thrusting in any 
direction without a change in the grip. The weight is toward 
the hilt. The blade is about six inches long, is double-edged 
and tapers to a point. This length blade is ideal for balance, 
is good for both the cut and the thrust, and is long enough 
to penetrate heavy clothing without losing its eflFectiveness. 
Its width, at its widest part near the guard, usually is not 
over one inch. It either can be hollow ground or can taper 
evenly toward both edges, from the strengthening ridge which 
runs down the center of the blade to the point of the knife. 

The handle is round or oval in shape, its largest diameter 
is toward the center, and it tapers off toward the guard as 
well as at the butt. The over-all weight is approximately ten 
ounces. The handle, in addition to being rounded, is checkered. 

Such a knife, with balance toward the handle, is adapted 
more easily to maneuverability, is more easily passed from 
hand to hand, and, with more weight in the handle, affords a 
better grip for passing, thrusting and slashing. Its very design 



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Top: Trench knife, World War I, with case shown above it. 

Second: Utility knife, constructed along the lines of a hunting knife. 

Third: Fighting knife. 

Bottorn: Figliting knife, modified from utility knife, issued to United 
States troops. The cross guard has been .strengtlicncd, the back edge 
ground to a cutting edge, and the blade tapered to a point. 

makes it a true fighting knife, combining with its double- 
edge both cutting and slashing qualities. The double edge is 
also useful in preventing an opponent from wresting it from 
the hand of the user. The opponent cannot grasp its blade, 
in defense, without receiving a severe cut. 

The proper grip on the handle of a knife of this type is as 
follows: The knife lies diagonally across the outstretched 
palm of the hand. The small part of the handle next to the 
cross guard is grasped by the thumb and forefinger. The 
middle finger lies over the handle at the point where its 
largest diameter occurs. With the knife held in this fashion, 
it is very easy to maneuver it in all directions. The direction 
of the blade can be controllable by a combination movement 

K N 1 If |.: A r r A c K and d f. f i'. n s f 



The propjr grip for use on a ^veil-designed fighting knife with 
handle, as illustrated on page 69. 


K I L [, () K n E T K I L I, K I) 

of the fore and middle fingers, plus a turning of the wrist. 
When the palm is up it is possible (holding knife in the right 
hand) to slash to the right. When the palm is turned down, 
it is possible to slash to the left. The thrust can be executed 
from either the palm-up or pahn-down position. At the time 
of contact, in -the thrust or the slash, the knife is grasped 
tightly by all fingers. The initial controlling grip of the fore 
and middle fingers has not changed and the blade become.s 
a mere continuation of the arm. 

Such knife manipulation is fairly simple. Skill can be ac- 
quired after a few hours practice, but only if the handle is 
generally constructed along the lines described above. The 
handle described here is round. However, a handle of similar 
size in oval shape works equally well. 

The trained man will use this knife, in the attack, from a 
crouch, with the left hand forward and the knife held 
(handle diagonally across the palm of the right hand) close 
CO the body. The outstretched left hand will act as a guard, 
a foil or a parry, and will help to create the opening for a 
slash or thrust. The left hand also may be used to distract 
the adversary's attention— by waving it in his face, by throw- 
ing something, or by making sudden darting motions toward 
him. When the knife fighter is in the crouch, with his left 


Beware of the man who 
holds his knife this way and 
who attacks from a crouch, 
with the blade held close to 
his body and with his free arm 
out in front to parry or to 
help create an opening for a 
slash or thrust. 


hand forward to parry, he is in a position of extreme mobility, 
because his knees are flexed and he is in perfect balance. In 
the fighting or crouch position, he also is protecting his vital 
mid-section and throat area from vital thrusts— by an op- 
ponent who also may be armed with a knife or a club. In 
this position, the trained knife fighter can foil the usual knife 
defenses of the unarmed opponent. Often he can maneuver 
successfully against such defenses as a chair, a club, or other 
object used to strike or to throw. 

The thrust and slash type of attack is best when used with 
a knife of correct design. However, any long-bladed, single- 
edged weapon— such as a jack knife or hunting knife— can be 
used in the manner described, with a somewhat lessened 
degree of effectiveness because of poorer basic design. A 
skilled knife user may employ such tactics as throwing dirt 
or other objects in his opponent's face when making his 
attack. This type of strategy is most likely to be used against 
an opponent who is standing his ground and readying him- 
self for a defense, or when the attacker has not had the ad- 
vantage of surprise. 


If a knife attack is made by an individual gripping his 
weapon in such a manner that he can deliver only an upward 
or downward thrust, he probably is unskilled and has re- 
ceived little training in the use of a knife as a weapon. This 
is the manner, in which a demented person will use the weapon, 
or in which weapons such as the butcher knife are frequently 
used in crimes of passion. When a knife is so gripped that 
the handle is directly across the palm, blade protruding from 
the little finger side, with all fingers wrapped around the hilt 
(as in using an ice pick), the user is limited to a downward 

The reverse type of grip is equally limiting. If the individual 
grasps the knife directly around the hilt so that the blade 
protrudes from the forefinger side of the hand (as in gripping 
a hammer) the same thing is true. Only an upward thrust can 
be delivered. To execute either one of these types of attack, 
the knife wielder must get close to his victim. It is easier to 
see such an attack coming and to block or parry it. This 
method of knife attack is the one usually demonstrated by in- 
structors of knife defense, and it is against this type of attack 
that most common knife defenses have been developed. 


K I I. I. OK GET K I L I, F, D 




The average knife wielder, who has never had special training, will 
grip his weapon in one of the two ways shown here. 

When depicting a knife attack, even the movies usually 
resort to this method of use of the knife. From the point of 
view of the audience, it is much more spectacular for the 
knife user to be shown charging his victim with a flashing 
blade upraised above his shoulder, preparatory to making a 
downward thrust. A knowledge of defense against knife 
attacks of this kind is necessary, but it is a serious omission 

K N I F 

A T I' A C K A N' 1) I) !■. F K. N S 


by any instructor to place all knife users in this category and 
CO conduct a training program accordingly. 


Any type of bladed weapon may be used in this attack. 
However, those most frequently used are sJiort-bladed pocket 
knife, pen knives, razors, and similar instruments. Since the 
blade can be readily concealed, a surprise attack is very easy. 
A planned defense often is difficult for this reason. 

In a slash attack, the knife is commonly held across the 
palm with fingers wrapped around the handle and with the 
blade protruding from the little finger side of the palm. The 
cutting edge is to the outside, or toward the fingers. It is very 
easy, by this method, to carry a small knife with the handle 
concealed in the hand and the wrist bent, so that the blade is 
concealed and lies flat along the inside of the wrist and 

When carried in this manner, the knife is in a ready posi- 
tion, and attack can be made without giving any warning. 
An unsuspecting person will not have enough warning to 

Slash attacks with the knife 
usually are made with the knife 
held in this manner. Note that 
the handle lies across the palm, 
butt on the thumb side and 
bl.Tde facing out. To get the 
cutting action, a horizontal 
swing is made. Straight razors, 
pen knives and such are often 
used in this manner. Gripped 
like this, with the palm down, 
so that the blade points up 
the arm, the knife is hard to 
sec until the swing actually 
calces place. 

-](■> K I I. I () U (; V I K I I. I. I I) 

defend himself. By swinging the arm and hand in a horizontal 
direction across the front of the body (called a "round house"), 
the sharp edge of the blade will cut anything in its path 
because of the tremendous force exerted by the swinging 
arm. By a more skilled ii^er, die blade is soiuerimcs used to 
execute a thrust on tlie return of the arm from the cross swing 
slash. Men who use the knife this way nmst be classed as 
skilled, or at least semi-skilled, and should be watched accord- 
ingly. The weaknesses of this type of attack, when not accom- 
panied by the element of surprise, is that the wielder must 
get very close to his victim and that the basic stroke can be 

If the blade of the knife is short, it usually is difficult to 
deliver an initial disabling wound, such as one to the throat. 
The penetration is not great enough, and any movement of 
the opponent's body, or his clothing, will limit the depth of 
the slash. Knife fighting of this type, common among certain 
racial minorities, can be and is a very bloody affair. It may 
result in a protracted figiit, due to the inability of tlie slasii 
type of attack to penetrate deeply enough to reach tiie vital 
organs and blood vessels. Naturally, slashes across the throat 
can be immediately fatal, but usually the cutting is confined 
to die less vulnerable parts of the arms, face and body. 


Knife throwing can be largely discounted as a practical 
means of combat. There arc few persons who can pick up 
a knife, throw it at a moving object at an unknown distance, 
and hit a vital spot. In the main, knife throwing is an art 
relegated to vaudeville and stage, because, to throw a knife 
properly, the exact distance from the thrower to the target 
must be known. Since the knife turns end over end as it 
travels through the air, the tiirower must know the exact dis- 
tance. He must be able to control the number of turns the 
knife makes, so that it will hit the target point first. 

There are, indeed, methods of knife throwing, at close 
ranges, without the blade turning end over end in the air; but 
considering the movement of the target, varying distances, 
heavy clothing, and the fact that if you miss you are without 
a weapon, knife throwing is not practical as a means of attack. 

Knives with spikes on the end of the hilt or with brass 
knuckles attached are very fearsome in appearance, but are nor 
commonly used and should not be greatly feared. In reality, 
these extra features only limit maneuverability and, in a melee, 

K N I F r. A r r a c k and d i-: k i-, n s k 77 

present almost as much threat to the user and his allies as to 
his opponent. It is very easy to catch such extra attachments 
as brass knuckles in the clothing. In turn, an attempt to use 
the brass knuckles for striking a blow makes the blade a 
hindrance that can cut or catch on the user's own clothing, 
as well as on that of the victim. 

The hacking type of attack with a light, bladed weapon, 
such as a knife, generally is not effective. Ordinary types 
of knives do not weigh enough to allow sufficient force 
to be employed. Machetes, brush knives, axes, and such are 
sometimes used and are much more effective because of their 
greater size and weight. 


A man attacked from the front by a bladed weapon has 
two spots he instinctively protects— the throat and the stomach, 
or abdominal section. Perhaps the reason why he instinctively 
protects these two areas is that they are easy for an opponent 
to reach. In any event, tiic psychological effect of a knife 
wound in those areas, wliether it is serious or not, is so great 
that the victim is usually momentarily incapacitated. 

Tiie throat area is vulnerable to either the thrust or the 
slash, the tiirust being most effective when driven into the 
hollow at the base of the throat just below the Adam's apple. 
A thrust there, into the jugular vein, or a slash on either side 
of the neck, cutting the arteries which furnish the blood to 
the brain, results in extreme loss of blood and death in a very 
short time. Thrusts in the abdominal area, which can be 
combined with the slash as the knife is withdrawn, have a 
great shocking effect and usually incapacitate the opponent to 
the point where another blow can be given with the weapon 
before he has a chance to recover. A deep wound in the 
abdominal area will cause death if unattended, but it is much 
slower in taking effect than a good thrust or slash in the 
throat area. The heart, of course, is a vital spot for the thrust, 
but the protection of the ribs makes it more difficult to hit. 
In some cases, knife thrusts directed toward the heart have 
been stopped by the ribs and the point of the knife broken off 
by the bony structure, without causing a vital wound. Usually, 
however, the blade will slide off the rib and go into the vital 
area. The heart thrust is, of course, fatal. 

It is possible to get an effective slash across the sides of the 
throat from the rear; but one of the most effective knife 
Strokes in th? rear of the victim is the thrust delivered into 


iv I I. I. o K «; i: r k i i. i i: n 

The throat, stomncli and abdominal areas are tlic points most vul- 
nerable to frontal attack. These are the areas that must be defejided 
against any type of attack. A slight wound in any of these will have 
a serious psychological effect; and a deep wound is potentially fatal. 

K N I i- \-: A r r a c ic a n n d i'. e k n s v. 


A slnsli across the biceps. A slash inside the wrist also is very 

the kidney or small-of-the-back area. Penetration here, in 
the form of a deep thrust, will cause great shock, internal 
hemorrhage, and often death. This back, or kidney, thrust 
is best used in the sentry attack, as will be explained later. 
The vital areas still are the throat, heart and abdominal 

The slash attack can be used effectively to sever the tendons 
on the inside of the wrist of an outstretched hand. This is 
most effective against a person who is trying to defend himself 
by striving to grasp the knife hand. A slash renders the hand 
useless. A slash across the large muscle of the biceps has the 
same effect. Also, a slash on the inside of the thigh, or arm, 
will cut arteries and will incapacitate, if delivered deeply 
enough. Slashes to these areas, in addition to disabling the 
opponent, cut various veins and arteries. If left unattended, 
the wounds will cause death from loss of blood. 


The following description of the correct attack technique 
for killing an enemy guard or sentry should be of general 
interest to any student of knife attack. To the soldier, plant 
guard, and policeman it will show the need for precautions 
against a surprise attack from the rear. It is a type of attack 


K I r. I. (IK 

K I I. I. I l> 

for which tliere is no defense if the victim is taken by sur- 
prise. It is not unhkely that it will be used again, since many 
individuals, in all armies during World War II, received train- 
ing in it, just as they received training in methods of strangu- 

In killing an enemy sentry, all factors regarding the a|> 
proach and initial attack, described for use with a rear strangle, 
apply. The approach from the rear is naturally a noiseless 
one. At the time of rising, a few feet in the rear of the victim, 
the knife should be taken either from the sheath where it 
has been during the crawl, or from the teeth where it mav 
have been carried. The attack is launched from a distance of 


Tills is the best nictlioil of surprise knife attack tauglic in the Armed 
Forces. Approach from the rear, grasp the nose and mouth with tlie left 
hand to prevent outcry, and thrust the knife into the kidney area, as 
shown at the left. After a short interval, withdraw the knife and cut the 

K N I I' 1', A r T A C. K AND I) l". K V. N S 1 


bo U 

Hi K 1 1. I. o u a I' 1 K I r. r, i- ii 

not less than 5 feet from the victim and is initiated as soon 
as the attacker has arrived at tiiat spot. It is important that 
the attack be immediate because of the animal instinct, em- 
phasized by keeping your eyes steadily on him as you ap- 
proach, whicli will ot'ten warn the victim that some one is 
approaching and watching him. The upward thrust of the 
knife into the right or left kidney section is executed at the 
end of the leap to the attack. At the same time, the free hand 
is clasped over the mouth and nose of the victim, pulling him 
backw^ard, off balance. The thrust into the kidney area has 
initially a great shocking effect, but no outcry will occur if 
the free hand goes ovei" the mouth and nose at the time of 
the thrust. The victim is pulled backward upon tiie blade con- 
tinually and after a few seconds the knife is withdrawn, and 
maintaining the same grip on nose and throat, the head is 
lifted up and the jugular vein slashed. 

Another method of knife attack or assassination, not un- 
common in some areas of the world, may be encountered. It 
is as old as history and was a method taught to certain groups 
for use in as.sassinati()n in Cicrman-occupicd countries during 
World War II. 

The assassin spies his victim in a crowd and approaches 
him from the front. His knife is held in his hand with tiic 
hilt down and the l)lade lying flat along the inside of the 
forearm, or concealed up the sleeve. The handle, of course, 
is concealed by the fingers. The assassin, with the knife iti 
this position, faces the intended victim, walking toward liim. 
As he reaches a point directly opposite the victim, a simple 
movement of his wrist frees the blade, and a short arm move- 
ment, as he passes, plunges it into the kidney area of the 
victim. The knife is' either left sticking in the wound or may 
be pulled out while the assassin walks on through the crowd, 
his movement generally undetected. 


The places in which a bladed weapon may be carried are 
many. Usually local custom and the type of garment worn 
by the individual will determine the places in which it is 
most likely to be carried, and from which it is usually drawn 
prior to an attack. 

Knives have been carried successfully in the following 
places: in a sheath at the side; on a string down the back of 
the neck; up the sleeve; in a special holster taped to the wrist; 

K N I K E ATTACK A N D D F. F E N S F. 83 

Stuck in the top of a boot or legging; with the sheath sewn 
inside the front pocket; under the lapel of a suit coat; in the 
crown of a hat; between the belt and the trousers; strapped 
to the inside of the tliigh, beneath the trouser leg; in a sheath 
sewn diagonally across the chest, on a vest; or in any other 
place that combines both concealment and the element of 

Small knives or cutting edges, such as razor blades, have 
been carried and concealed by criminals, sewn in all parts of 
their clothing and taped to various parts of their bodies, even 
to the balls of the feet. They have been carried sometimes 
in special sheaths strapped to the testicles. Even though such 
weapons may seem inadequate, it must be remembered that, 
in some body areas, a cut or slash one half inch deep can be 
crippling or perhaps fatal. Such bladed weapons can also be 
used in cutting cords, ropes, and other temporary means of 
restraint. It should be obvious that, in any initial search of a 
known criminal, or of a suspect from a racial group or 
criminal clement addicted to the use of ijladed weapons, the 
scarciier should be cognizant of and most careful of the 
concealment possibilities of this type of weapon. 


A successful knife defense depends upon being able to see 
the attack coming, or at least being forewarned through 
knowledge and training. A knife assault is many times 
launched in darkness, or in such a way that it is impossible 
to detect immediately the opening move of the attack, such as 
drawing the weapon. 

The soldier, military policeman, or law enforcement officer, 
therefore, should use the following general precautions in any 
area where he suspects a knife may be used against him. 
He should: 

(1) Dominate any threatening situation by maintaining a 
bearing that indicates confidence and aggressiveness. 

(z) Keep his back well-protected at all times by keeping 
well away from dark corners, the sides of buildings and 
driveways, or by having a wall or some other solid object 
immediately at his rear. 

(3) Keep his own hands and weapons in such position that 
they are readily available for undertaking immediately the 
proper offensive or defensive action. 


1^ I I I " u (; K r K I I. I. i: I) 












(4) Prevent being placed in such a position that unknown 
and suspicious persons are within arm's reach of his body. 

(5) Always watch the movement and position of any 
suspect's hands. 

(6) In areas where slash knife attacks may be expected, 
wear heavy clothing (overcoat, shortcoat, or other), since 
this will furnish a certain degree of protection. 

Even strict observance of these precautions will not always 

KNIFE A T r A C K A N I) D K K E N S i: 85 

suffice to prevent a surprise attack. On the other hand, too 
obvious precautions against possible attack may indicate a 
lack of confidence and fear which will only encourage an 

If an attack is launched at close quarters and the victim of 
the assault is unable to employ any of the common defenses, 
the only thing he can do is try to block or parry the thrust or 
slash with his hands and arms. Such a reaction is instinctive 
and is the only one possible under the circumstances. Al- 
though inadequate, it is better to sustain a wound on the arm 
or hand than one on the body, face, or throat area. 

A number of unarmed knife defenses can be undertaken 
in certain circumstances, but the soldier or police officer on 
duty should never be without his weapons. He should rely 
on them first. 

In police usage, certain types of knife attacks, such as those 
made by demented persons, can be stopped or otherwise 
restrained by conventional metliods. At the other extreme 
is the cold-blooded attack made by the criminal of the most 
vicious type. In such a case, few explanations will have to be 
made if the officer draws his weapon and shoots the attacker 
down. As in other cases, the degree of force used in knife 
defense is dependent on the local situation and the judgment 
of the officer concerned. 

If he is carrying a baton or riot stick, the policeman can 
stop such knife assaults with this weapon alone. A sharp blow 
to the knife wrist, hand, or elbow will often stop the attack 
long enough to permit a more disabling blow. 

In many cases, if the hand gun is drawn, the mere presence 
of the weapon will deter the potential attacker. If time per- 
mits, a well-placed shot in the legs or shoulder can be used 
to stop the assault. Other circumstances may justify shooting 
to kill. 


The following knife defenses are designed for situations in 
which the individual is imarmed, or for some other reason 
cannot use the weapon which he normally carries. It is here, 
especially, that knowledge of the ways in which a knife 
attack can be made is valuable in estimating the capabilities 
of the opponent. For example, the man who holds his knife 
diagonally across his palm and carries it close to his side while 
advancing to an attack in a crouch is obviously to be re- 


K I 1. 

() l( C IC r K I I. I. K I) 


spectcd, nnd defenses such as the parry mid tlie black (shown 
under "Defense IV" and "Defense V" on the following 
pages) cannot he used as effectively as those discussed first. 
Defense I. Throw anything tiiat is witliin reach, a iiandful 
of dirt, a liat, a piece of clothing, furniture. Follow up by 
using any ohject at iiand for striking a blow; or use the feet 
in olTcnsivc action. Once the aggressor has been momentarily 
stopped or disconcerted, a counterattack uuist he launched 


K N I F li ATTACK A N U O E F F. N S I". 87 

Defense II. Use a chair. The chair defense against a knife 
man is good, provided you have a chair handy. Grip it by the 
back and point the legs at your attacker. Advance toward 
him, making short jabs as you advance. 

The principle involved here is the same as that used in lion 
taming. The knife man cannot possibly watch all four legs 
of the chair at once when they are moving. He becomes 
confused and is susceptible to blows from the feet, which 
can be directed towards his body in coordination with a 
thrust of the chair. 

Defense III. Kick out the opponent's knee. When he is 
down, follow up with an attack on other parts of his body. 
Stamp on his knife hand when he goes down, or kick him in 
the ribs or the head. In some cases, a block of the thrust, 
followed by stamping on his shin or top of the foot, will 

If you find yourself outnumbered and facing attackers who 


The kick to the knee is one of the best of the unarmed defenses. 
Note that the body of the kicker is bent back and is away out of range 
of the knife wielder. Delivered properly, with the element of sur- 
prise, the knee kick will stop any knife or club attack. 

88 Iv 1 L L O K (; K 1 K I 1. I. I-. D 

are apt to use knives, back into a corner and use your feet 
to keep tliem out of arm's reach. Never discount the value 
of the feet when facing an opponent wlio is unarmed, or 
armed with a clul) or a biadcd weapon. 

Def 67156 IV. The parry is a good defense against the down- 
ward knife thrust. It diverts the initial direction of the thrust 
as it sweeps downward. This is better than the block defense, 
because the whole length of the arm can be used. By using 
the right arm to parry to the right, the hand holding the 







K N I r E A T r A C K A N I) I) i', F I'. N S i; 89 

knife will follow down along the outside of the body. Even 
in case the parry is not entirely successful, a flesh wound in 
a non-vital area will result. Here again, the defender takes 
advantage of the instinctive movement of thrusting his master 
hand above his head in order to protect himself from the 
downward blow. The only difference is that the movement 
of the right arm is a sweep to the right across the front of 
the body in place of a block. Conversely, one can parry the 
downward blow of a right-handed man, by using the left 
arm to parry to the outside; but in this case the chance is 
greater of the knife crashing through if the parry is un- 
successful. This is because the defender's body is directly 
facing the knife man; whereas when he uses his right arm, 
the trunk of his body is turned away from danger. 

When you are faced with a knife held in the hand of an 
enemy for an upward thrust into your abdominal region, 

The parry defense can be used even after the downward motion of 
the knife arm has started. By using a sweeping motion with the riglit 
arm across the body and knocking the knife arm aside, so as to divert 
the path of the blow, the attack is foiled. The picture on the right above 
illustrates knocking aside tlie arm of the knife wielder by the parry 
method. The defender must step in toward the attacker the instant the 
path of the blade is diverted to the side, as shown. A trip, arm lock, or 
blow can be used as the follow-up. 


K I I. I, () K c I-. T K r I, I. r. I) 

15cttcr knife defense, using tlie Applying nrni lock after gnisp 

riglit liand ami twisting tiic body ing wrist in the riglit liand. 
so as to escape a blow if tlic grip 

Ann parry of a . . . downward thrust 




Parrying an uiuIcrhaiKl thrust, using right, or master, arm. 

Using tlie left hand to parry a 
right-lianilcd thrust to the outside. 

KNIFE PARRY (Continued) 


K I 1, r. OK a E I K I I, r. f. d 

■Usual knife defense, initiated with the left hand. Note the danger if 
the hand misses the wrist. 

KNIFE PARRY (Continued) 

the parry ngaiii is n gfxxl means of defense. TIic parry can 
be executed either with the right or left arm as follows. As 
the attacker makes an upward thrust, sweep your right arm 
across the front of your body and catch the upward moving 
knife arm on the outside of your arm. This will divert the 
direction of the thrust to your right, or outside, of your body. 
The left arm also may be used to parry the weapon to the 
right, but better timing is necessary if the left is used. 

Any forceful cross sweep of the arm in any direction, such 
as in a parry, causes the body to pivot naturally out of line 
of the thrust. Once the parry or block has been successfully 
completed, you must move in close to your man and attack. 

Defense V. The block knife defense. Almost all the knife 
defenses involve a block of the descending knife arm by 
grasping the wrist or by using the forearm. However, these 
do not take into account the extreme force of the downward 
thrust and its resulting momentum, which may cause the blade 
to crash through such a defense and penetrate a vital body 

Arm. Lock Defense. The most common knife defense is the 
one which utilizes a grip of the knife wrist by the left hand, 
followed by an arm lock. In this, the momentum of the knife 

K N' r F F, A T T A V. K A N D U IC F F. N S I', 


An underhand thrust, shown above on the left, can be diverted by the 
parry— as well as the thrust of the attacker who strives to thrust from 
the arm-raised position. In tliis instance the right arm is brought across 
to Itnock tlie knife arm aside, as shown above on the right. Either arm 
can be used to parry, depending on wliich is tlie more instinctive action 
of the defender. Again the parry must be followed by closing in for the 

arm may crash through the thumb to the knife's objective. 
Another danger in using the common block-type defense— of 
grasping the knife wrist with the left hand— is that such 
a method depends upon good light and perfect timing to 
make possible a grip on the moving knife wrist. If the blow 
is sweeping down with great force and the recipient tries 
to grip the wrist in his left hand, the force directed toward 
the body area may be such that the thumb side of the gripping 
hand is liable to give way, thus allowing the thrust to con- 
tinue toward its goal. 

Block Defense. The block defense is best employed when 
the gripping hand grasps the knife wrist while it is still 
cocked above the head, prior to the time when the momentum 
of the downward thrust is initiated. 

A block defense against the downward thrust, which is 
more certain to stop the momenmrn of the stroke is executed 
by crossing the arms and placing them above the head, with 
the body in a slight crouch, so that the arms are in the path 



of the descending knife arm. An attack may be initiated when 
the knife arm is stopped. The same procedure is workable 
against the upward thrust to the mid-section. In this case, the 
body should be bent forward, so that the crossed arms divert 
the thrust away from the body. A straight block of the 
downward knife-thrust, by tiie forearm with the ami bent, 
is not advisable, since the momentum and power of the blow 
are usually sufficient to cause the elbow to bend and allow 
the blade to continue in its original direction. Block defenses 
are best used against individuals striving to strike overhead 
blows with clubs, and similar weapons. 

The key factor in concluding an unarmed encounter with a 
knife wielder is immediate attack, moving in close to the 
attacker's body, once the thrust has been parried or blocked. 
If the knife man is allowed to withdraw and recover, the 


If tlie club, or knife, arm caa be 
grasped as shown, before the mo- 
mentum of the downward sweep 
of the arm is started, this block 
knife defense will work. It can be 
followed by an arm lock, by using 
the right hand to reach up under 
the knife arm, grasping the knife 
wrist and pulling it back and 


This is another block defense, 
successful only before momentum 
is achieved. In this type of forearm 
block, as well as that illustrated in 
Block Knife Defense and Arm 
Lock, there is always the danger 
of a miss, which will allow the 
blade to penetrate the chest area. 
Poor light, surprise, speed of at- 
tack, and slow reflexes will always 
interfere with the one-hand or arm 
block type of knife defense. 

K N I !■• I-. A V 1" A C K A N I) O I". F F. N S IC 



a forceful oownwaro 
thrust may crash 
C\throucm the thumb. 

,y // WRONG 






ARM Lock. 



whole procedure will have to be repeated. Either type of 
knife defense, parry or block, involves a certain amount of 
risk. This risk can be decreased only by the increased pro- 
ficiency achieved in practice. 

Instruction in knife defense must be preceded by a 
thorough demonstration of the various types of knife attack. 
Afterwards, trainees may practice the techniques against one 
another. For this purpose rubber knives, wooden knives, or 
pup tent pegs, as issued in the Army, are ideal substitutes for 


K I 

1(1' (; !■: r k i l r. r. n 

If the right hand is used to block 
the knife wrist, the follow-up can 
be as illustrated, retaining the grip 
on the knife wrist and using the 
left hand to knock the attacker 
backward to the ground. There the 
feet can be used to finish him off. 

Training Aids 
For training niils in knife tnctics, sec page 127. 

Chapter 5 


COMBAT shooting with a pistol or revolver is a type of 
shooting that occurs frequently in certain types of mili- 
tary service and between police and criminal elements. It is 
neither target shooting nor defensive shooting. It is offensive 
shooting, and is the quickest way to insure the successful con- 
clusion of a gun battle with a shooting enemy. 

The hand gun is the basic weapon of many military and 
police units. Like other skilled craftsmen, members of these 
organizations must be trained to use it as a tool of their trade. 
When a man is faced fay an assailant who has a gun in his 
hand and murder in his heart, he must be able to use his 
firearm instantly and effectively. Only his superior speed and 
accuracy will enable him to come out of most combat situa- 
tions alive. 

Some persons carry their sidearms for years without actually 
having to fire them; while others, by virtue of their assign- 
ments, have to use them frequently. Regardless of the num- 
ber of times a shooter has to use his weapon, he sliould always 
employ it so as to get the maximum result from its offensive, 
combat potentialities. To do this, he must have had thorough 
training in its combat use. Training and skill in target shooting 
alone will not make him proficient in actual combat. This is 
especially true when he is under combat tension and is faced, 
at close quarters, by a target that shoots back. 


The hand gun made its appearance upon the American 
scene in the days of our pioneer West. At that time it was 
considered primarily a weapon for use in personal combat. 
"Six-gun" experts, such as Hickok, Hardin, Holliday, and 



Wyatt Earp, regarded their revolvers as tools of their trade, 
not primarily as "game getters," or for use in the sport of 
target shooting. The person who carries a pistol or re- 
volver professionally should consider his sidearm in a like 

It has been almost four score years since gunmen of the 
pioneer West fought— and lived or died according to their 
individual skill in the combat use of the revolver. From then 
until World War II, military and law enforcement agencies 
gradually came to consider the hand gun a target-type shoot- 
ing and training weapon rather than a close combat weapon. 

In World War II, contrary to early predictions, there was 
a reversion to close-quarter, individual combat. It was evident 
in street fighting, in house fighting, and in the jungles, woods 
and mountains. And there was an increased emphasis on night 
attack and night combat. All this underscored the need for 
skilled, close-quarter combat use of the pistol or revolver. 

Early in World War II it was found that target shooting 
skill with the hand gun was not enough for the soldier in 
combat. It was proved that a man trained only in the target 
phase of the hand gun was proficient up to the point where 
lie could kill an enemy only when he iiad twie to aim and fire, 
and providing he could see tiie sights. Unfortunately, such 
ideal conditions were found to be the exception in most close 
combat situations. For this reason, military training with the 
hand gun and with other basic weapons changed from the 
formalized "by the numbers" target style of the prewar days 
to more realistic training. Battle and infiltration courses, where 
live ammunition and demolitions were used, were constructed. 
These simulated, as nearly as possible, the terrain conditions, 
tension, physical exertion and realities of actual combat. Such 
courses are now prescribed as standard methods of training. 
The rifle and bayonet are used on them as they would be in 
battle. In a like manner, combat training with the hand gun 
has been improved, so as to enable the soldier who carries 
a hand gun to get the most from its offensive potentialities. 

Early in World War II, American and Allied authorities 
were inclined to discount the pistol and revolver as first- 
line combat weapons; but this trend did not last long. Due 
to military necessity, combat firing training programs, stress- 
ing the use of the hand guns without the aid of sights, were 
soon instituted, and millions of hand guns were issued and 

U S r, (1 K T II F. It A N D n U N 99 

used with deadly effect. Tlie British and Canadian armies 
purchased many hundreds of thousands of Smith & Wesson 
revolvers, which were used by their troops. 

The United States Army began the war with the theory 
that the iiand gun should be replaced by tiie new carbine. 
It was found that most soldiers who carried sidearms had 
little skill or confidence in their combat use. It was recog- 
nized, however, that most of the poor performance with the 
pistol or revolver by our troops in combat was due not to 
the weapon itself but to the old concept of it as a defensive last- 
ditch weapon, and to the type of training which concentrated 
solely on aimed fire at stationary targets and bobbers. To- 
ward the end of the conflict pistols and revolvers were again 
issued in quantity; and combat training courses, films and 
training techniques vvere instituted to make up for previous 
training deficiencies. 

The hand gun is indispensable in law enforcement and in 
the Armed Forces, because a small firearm is needed that can 
be used at close quarters. It is always present in its holster 
and presents no carrying discomfort or inconvenience. The 
soldier, or police officer, tiioroughly trained in both the aimed 
and non-aimed phases of a sidearni, has a weapon that is 
superior to a club, knife, blackjack, or other type of in- 
dividual weapon in close-quarter fighting. 

The average individual will always be a little skeptical of his 
prowess if he has been trained only in the target, or aimed 
fire, phase of hand gun employment. There is a vast difference 
between the training and formalized atmosphere of the target 
range and tiie scene of a gun battle or other combat situation. 
In reality, after the target, aimed-shot phase of training has 
been completed and the shooter becomes familiar with his 
weapon, he is only about 50% combat efficient, because the 
conditions under which most combat shooting occurs are 
entirely different from those presented in the bulls-eye type 
of training. In a gun battle, the utmost speed, confidence, 
and ability to use the hand gun from any position— usually 
without the aid of sights— are paramount. The man who 
can instinctively handle his weapon quickly and accurately, in 
varying degrees of light, under all terrain conditions and 
while under the physical and mental stress and strain of actual 
combat, stands a good chance of avoiding becoming an 
object of interest to the stretcher bearer. 

loo K I I. I. <) II <; :• I K 1 1. I. I, I) 

Visualize tlie first-class target shot iti the following com- 
bat situation: It is dark, he is in an alley, a poorly lighted 
street, or a room in a building. He can hardly see his gun 
at arm's length, to say nothing of the sights. His muscles 
are tense, his nerves keyed up to a fighting pitch. Suddenly 
the enemy starts shooting at him from an unexpected quarter. 
Even if he could see the sights, would he take time to line 
them up and fire at the enemy'' s gun flash? Does he take up 
the trigger slack and squeeze off the shot as lie has been taught 
to do in target shooting? Will he make sure that his feet 
are properly positioned and that he is breathing correctly? He 
certainly will not! He will grip his gun convulsively, raise it. 
point or shove it in the general direction of the enemy, and 
pull (not squeeze) the trigger. That is the natural, instinctive 
thing to do. Most of the formalized styles he has been taught, 
for making good scores on paper targets, are dropped by 
the wayside and forgotten. In daylight he will do exactly the 
same thing, for it is still a matter of "getting there fastest 
with the mostest lead." Of course, when there is time, when 
the enemy is moving away from him, when he is lying in 
ambush, or when the range is great, the sights should be 
used; but when being fired upon at close quarters, few men, 
unless they have the attributes of a superman, will take time 
to use their weapons as they are trained to do on the target 


Few pistol shooters, whether they are expert or only fair 
at regulation bull's-eye targets, are good all-around combat 
shots. The kind of training that makes fine scores on bull's- 
eye targets does not produce skill in the kind of shooting most 
frequently needed for man-to-man combat. However, to say 
that skill with a hand gun acquired in the usual kind of target 
shooting is not desirable for the man who principally carries 
his gun for use in combat, is a mistake. 

To be the ideal all-around combat shot, the shooter must 
first have the necessary knowledge in the loading, mainte- 
nance and capabilities of his weapon; and he must be com- 
petent in the use of his weapon when deliberate sighting shots 
are possible. While target shooting skill is being acquired, he 
naturally becomes familiar with his weapon; and after con- 
siderable training, he is able to score hits at a considerable 

V S F. r T n F. 11 A N I) C, V S lOI 

range. Consequently lie caiv use the weapon elTectively against 
an enemy when he can take a dehberately aimed shot. 

The average hand gun user can do a much better job, when 
using sighted shots against a hve enemy, if lie uses both 
hands, or a rest, to steady tiie weapon. In some circumstances, 
of course, time and local considerations may prevent him 
doing so. The use of these expedients to enable the shooter 
to hold his weapon steadier may be severely criticized by the 
better-than-average pistol shot, who can shoot as well in the 
customary one-hand position; but the psychological factors of 
combat and the strain upon the muscular and nervous sys- 
tems of the shooter must be compensated for by the best 
available means. In cases of extreme physical exhaustion, or 
in situations in which there has been sudden physical exertion, 
the pistol shooter, no matter how good he is, cannot use his 
weapon and make an aimed shot as well with one hand 
as he can with two, regardless of how well he does under 
ideal conditions on the target range. 

In many training programs, the average trainee is not given 
the time, nor docs he have the money, inclination, or op- 
portunity, on his own, to perfect a high degree of skill, 
even in target shooting. Usually, he fires only the course re- 
quired by his department regulations and puts his gun back 
in its holster. Such a concept eventually costs lives. 


The law enforcement oflicer must be trained in the same 
technique as the soldier, and under like conditions, if he is 
to realize the most from his hand gun. A pistol or revolver 
in the hands of a confident, well-trained policeman will cause 
more respect and be much more effective than any other 
weapon of similar size he can carry. 

Those police departments that provide a financial incentive 
to increase shooting efficiency are on the right track; but 
again too much emphasis is placed upon bull's-eye or silver 
cup shooting and too little on the more practical training 
techniques, programs and ranges which will develop, not 
an occasional ci'ack-shot who can kill an enemy at 200 yards, 
but an average officer who can use his sideariu quickly and 
accurately in most man-to-man combat situations. 

If the trainee is not interested in target shooting as a sport, 
he will not show much enthusiasm in dcvclopiny; his target 
skill with his sidcarm, once his rookie training days are over. 

I02 K I I. f. o K c. y, r K I I, r. i: n 

He will always question in his own mind the need for in- 
creasing Ills score from Ko%, or whatever his organization re- 
quires, to 90 or 95%. He will realize that such an increase 
in his target shooting ability has little relation to how he 
will use his gun against an enemy who shoots back. How- 
ever, the same trainee, who shows little interest in develop- 
ing himself as a target shot, will readily see the advantages 
of a training program that will enable him to use his gun in a 
practical manner in tense situations. Practical combat firing 
training will enable him to use his gun effectively at close 
quarters, under conditions which demand skill and accuracy, 
without recourse to the sighted or aimed shot. Knowing this, 
he will apply himself accordingly, because he can see the 
personal benefit to be derived from such a method of 

Many police and military police departments encourage 
and develop fine pistol teams, which in target competition 
gain fame for their organizations. It is argued that the repu- 
tation and attendant publicity given these teams will increase 
respect for the law enforcement agency in the eyes of crimi- 
nal elements. This may be true, but organizational or indi- 
vidual reputations of a few men arc of little help to the 
average officer when he is actually involved in a fire fight. 

Nearly every large police department has on hand records 
of shooting affiMys with criminals in which an incredible 
number of shots were fired at close range by both parties with 
few if any casualties resulting. Despite this conclusive evi- 
dence of something lacking in the training programs, rela- 
tively few departments have taken steps to improve the com- 
bat efficiency of the individual officer with his sidearni. 
Although target shooting, beyond a certain point, will not 
fill such a need, many depanments still try to adapt the 
Sport of target shooti7ig to the realities of covibat. Actually, 
combat firing training is needed, to enable the officer to shoot 
his weapon without the need of sights. Only thus can he be- 
come proficient with the hand gun. 

In the past decade, a few of the more advanced law en- 
forcement organizations have instituted training programs 
that have stressed to some degree the combat-type hand 
gun shooting, without the aid of sights. The only criticism 
that can be made of these departments is that they have not 
stressed it enough, that in some cases the training and shoot- 


ing techniques have not been the best, and that the average 
officer does not achieve real, lastirig proficiency. 

Some departments have called the courses in the combat 
use of their sidcarms "defensive shooting"; yet the very word 
"defense" is a misnomer wlien applied to any type of closc- 
combac sliooting in which the enemy returns the fire. A pure 
definition of the term "defensive shooting" is: "fire returned 
by an individual after the enemy fires the first shot." The 
individual is then considered to be shooting in defense of his 
life. This often occurs in law enforcement, without any in- 
tent of the officer involved. In some cases, such instructions— 
that is, to shoot only when shot at— have actually been issued 
to law enforcement officers in combating known desperate 
men. The result has been casualties among those who have 
faithfully tried to follow them. Fortunately, in most cases, 
the criminals involved have been even less skilled than the 
police in combat firing. 


We must recognize that there is no such thing as "defen- 
sive" shooting where lives are at stake. This is as true in police 
circles as it is in the armed services. When a weapon is 
primarily carried for the elimination or subjugation of an 
enemy it ceases to be defensive. Neither wars nor individual 
combat can be won by a defensive spirit. Ratlicr, the all-im- 
portant offensive spirit must be developed in the training 
for any type of combat work. This is true of hand guns. 
Courses in the combat use of these weapons should be called 
just that: Combat Shooting. 

Once a man has a pistol or revolver in his hand, it should 
be considered that it is there for immediate use against an 
enemy. There should not be any hesitation in using it if 
conditions require its use. If the gun is in the hand, it should 
be there for the purpose of shooting. Otherwise, it should be 
left in the holster. If this seems to be too strong a statement, 
it should be remembered that a gun in the hand implies that 
the trigger will be pulled— if the mere presence of the weapon 
is not enough to stop the criminal. If this implication were 
not understood by the criminal, there would be no reason 
for the appearance of the weapon in the officer's hand. If the 
police officer considers his revolver principally as a sporting 
weapon, a badge of authority, or something to be used only 

ro4 K 1 I. I- o !<■ c, E I K I r, I. k d 

in self-defense, he does not appreciate tiie capabilities of his 
basic sidearm. This deficiency must be made up in training. 


What is meant by close-quarter combat shooting? It is a 
matter of record that the average hand gun shooting affray 
takes place at a distance not exceeding 20 feet. Any distance 
not exceeding 40 feet can be considered as close quarters in 
the combat use of the pistol or revolver. Beyond that distance 
the capabilities of the average individual and of the weapon 
show a marked decline. 

This applies either when the sights are used or when they 
are not. It must be remembered that the enemy will seldom 
remain stationary and that many times the light and other 
external conditions will be very poor, maldng shooting condi- 
tions far from ideal. Muzzle blast from an enemy gun at close 
quarters will also have a decided effect on the shooter and 
his accuracy, particularly if he is using aimed fire. 

A study of the records of military and police combat use 
of hand guns siiows that use of these weapons falls into one 
of the following categories, listed in the order of frequency: 

(i) Close quarters, where the firing is done without the 
aid of, or without time for, the sights. 

(2) Instances where the deliberate type of aijned shooting 
is employed. 

(3) Instances where the enemy fires the first shot without 
warning and a draw of the weapon has to be made prior to 
firing. In this category of shooting incidents, many men 
lose their lives without being given the opportunity to shoot 
back. If the enemy's shot is a miss or is not incapacitating, 
the draw is made and either combat type or the deliberate 
aimed type of shooting is used, depending on the situation. 

(4) Circumstances where the shooter and the enemy "go 
for their guns" at the same instant, the one making the 
quickest draw placing the first shot. There are not many in- 
stances on record where a situation such as this, reminiscent of 
the gunmen of the old West, has occurred; but there have 
been enough to justify, in varying degrees, the amount of 
training given in quick draw to selected categories of mili- 
tary and police units. 

Principles of Combat Training. By proper training at com- 
bat ranges, vraji-killing accuracy, •without the use of sights 

L S I', () !■ T II I'. II A N l> <; L N 105 

a7id with extreme speed, can be acquired by the average sol- 
dier or police officer. This can be done in less time, and witii 
less expenditure of ammunition, than is required to become 
even a fair target shot. 

The training course must be balanced, with equal emphasis 
on die aimed shot and on combat type training. The combat 
phase should not consist of shooting 50 shots every 12 months 
at silhouettes hanging in the target range, then no further 
training until another year. After initial familiarization and 
training on the target range, the shooter should be required 
to shoot regularly a balanced program of both types of 
shooting as long as he remains on tiie active list. This kind of 
shooting program will enable him to do the most effective 
job when called on to shoot iiis weapon. At the same time 
it will give him the confidence in himself and his sidearin 
that will carry him through emergencies successfully. 

The training and combat shooting techniques described be- 
low have stood the test of recent battle and are based on 
results achieved by all categories of troops in all imaginable situations. 

It is assumed that in the vast majority of cases involving 
use of the sidearm, the policeman, or soldier, will be fore- 
warned and have his weapon already in his hand. This is a 
sound assumption because, in most situations, he will know 
approximately when he may have to use it. 

This is the type of shooting that is designed to fill in 
the training gap between the aimed shot and the close-quarter 
use of the hand gun without aid of sights. Its objective is to 
present a method of shooting and training whereby the 
average man, who is not too interested in becoming a good 
target shot, can learn to use his hand gun more effectively as 
a tool of his trade. It is a type of shooting based on a simple 
common sense approach and is adaptable to the realities of 
combat. A quick, offensive shooter can be developed by using 
this technique, with little expenditure of money, ammunition 
and training time. 

The best descriptive term for using the hand gun in com- 
bat without the aid of sights is shooting by "instinctive point- 
ing." This is a close-quarter method and should not generally 
be advocated for distances greater than fifty feet. Combat 
proficiency at ranges of fifty feet and less will be attained by 
using this technique. Almost all pistol shooting affrays will 
take place within this distance. 

1 o6 K r L I, O R G F. T K I L L IC D 

Combat Firing vs. Target Shooting. Three basic differences 
exist between combat firing and target shooting: 

(i) In close coinbat 'work, the sights will not ordmarily be 
used, due to lack of time, darkness or poor light conditions, 
enemy fire, or other considerations. To shoot without the 
sights, consider the frame of the gun merely as an extension 
of the hand, and the barrel as an extension of the forefinger, 
which you are able to raise and point instinctively, accurately, 
and naturally at any close object. In other words, all that 
is being done, is to add a gun to the hand, the barrel being an 
extension of the forefinger. If, when looking at an object, 
you instinctively raise your hand, point the finger toward 
the object and sight along your finger, you will find that the 
forefinger is pointing at it accurately. This is a basic principle 
in combat shooting of the hand gun without the aid of 

(2) The basic position for all combat firing is -with the 
body in 071 aggressive forivard crouch. When a man is in com- 
bat or subject to enemy fire, he will instinctively crouch. 
This is especially true when he is stealthily moving forward. 
No one will have to tell him to assume a crouching position 
when he is being fired upon or expects to be fired upon. In 
practice, however, he will have to be forced to assume this 
basic firing position. 

The crouch which he assumes should be natural, with the 
knees flexed and the trunk bent forward aggressively from 
the hips. The position of the feet must be natural, and al- 
though he may ordinarily pause when actually firing, he must 
be able to take another step in the target direction in a 
natural manner. Unnatural and forced positions assumed in 
practice are not desirable. Many shooters, when firing from a 
crouch, neglect to put one foot in front of the other in a 
natural manner. They are inclined to place their feet in a 
straddle-trench position which, although seemingly more 
ideal in practice, will not be instinctive or normal in combat. 
There will be times when immediate circumstances will not 
allow the shooter to use the crouch, but in most cases tliis 
will be his basic firing position. The instinctive pointing 
method, however, can be equally accurate and effective from 
an upright standing position. 

(3) The grip on the -weapon in actual combat, -when firing, 
is extremely tight and convulsive, and double action is always 
wed when the revolver is carried. When a man is in combat. 

U S F. O K T M V. II A N I) (J V S 




WRI^T - 

ST R AIGHT . ' "-^ '^'i^^':*;^^ ' 



The grip on the weapon muse be extremely tight, as it is in combat. 
The wrist must be locked, since any flexing will result in extremes in 
elevation, even at close range. The pistol or revolver must be gripped 
in a vise-like manner in order to have control when more than one shot 
is fired. 

his muscles and nerves are tense, because of the excitement 
and danger to which he is being mentally and physically sub- 
jected. There will be no inclination to talcc a stance, raise the 
weapon, line up the sights, and squeeze the trigger when the 

I o8 K I 1. L OK G F, T K I I. I, F. D 

enemy is firing or about to fire at him. The shooter will 
grip his weapon, exerting great pressure when he fires it. 

The Convulsive Grip. The extremely tight grip used in com- 
bat has a decided effect upon the accurate application of the 
weapon in the fire fight. This is due to different pointing 
qualities of various weapons when gripped convulsively. 
There are two general classifications of these weapons. The 
first is the .45 Colt Automatic Pistol, the official Army issue. 
It is in a class by itself with respect to pointing qualities. In 
the second category will be found the two well-known makes 
of revolvers, Colt, and Smith and Wesson, both of which are 
generally favored by our law enforcement organizations. 
Then there are two popular German military pistols, the 
Luger and Walther. 

The .45 cal. pistol has pointing qualities unlike those of 
any other weapon and it is because of these pointing qualities 
that inaccuracy often results in combat. When the .45 pistol 
is gripped in a vise-like manner by the shooter, the structure 
of the weapon affects accurate firing. The combination of 
the convulsive grip and the general structural design causes 
the barrel to point down when it is forcefully shoved out at 
the target, as it will be in combat when used by an untrained 
combat shooter. This fact, although long known in sporting 
circles, was not considered until recently in training for its 
combat use. 


Note how the muzzle of the .45 automatic is pointing down, not 
straight. This is what happens when the average shooter, engaged in 
combat firing, shoves the weapon ac tlie target and instinctively uses a 
convulsive grip. 

II \ \ II (i l' \ 



From this carrying position, the weapon must be shoved toward the 
target in order to bring it into action. When the weapon is shoved 
forcefully, as is done under combat conditions, the barrel will point 
do'um, not straight. 

I'or the proper position sec p;igc 113. 

Shoving Weapon at Target When tlie hand gun user car- 
ries his weapon ac any degree of a raised pistol position, which 
is a habit he acquired on the target range, and he is suddenly 
confronted with a target at close quarters, his natural re- 
action is to shove the weapon at the target and pull the trig- 
ger. VVhcn he docs this with the .45 automatic, the barrel 


From tlie raise pistol "ready" position, the revolver will point horizon- 
tally if not slioved forward too forcefully. The pistol points down— 
unless the wrist is cocked. Inaccuracy will result, with eitlicr type 
weapon, if the arm is shoved forward forcefully, to bring the hand gun 
into action from the raised pistol position. 

points down and a miss usually results, sometimes even at 
distances of less than lo feet. 

Any shooter can test this fact for himself by grasping the 
.45 convulsively as he would in combat, holding it in a 
raised pistol position, picking out a target a short distance 
away, closing his eyes, and shoving the pistol forcefully in 
the direction of the target. Upon opening his eyes, he will 
see that the barrel is pointing down at a decided angle. 

This structural effect of the weapon must be counteracted 
from the outset. It can be done in two ways: One is by equip- 
ping the gun with an adapter which will cause it to point 
straight when shoved forward forcefully, and the other is by 
developing a slight upward cocking of the wrist to compen- 
sate for the barrel slant. The latter method is used in target 
shooting when the arm is outstretched, but will not be used 
instinctively in combat without a great amount of practice. 

USE O 1' T II ]■; II A N D (J U N III 

Neither of the above expedients will be necessary if the 
weapon is carried pointing toward the ground at about a 
45 degree angle from the body. Then, if the individual will 
have his arm extended and will raise the weapon to a level 
with his eyes and fire it, he will do so accurately, without 
having to compensate in any manner for the gun type. 

When the Colt or Smith and Wesson, and the two German 
automatics mentioned, are tested by the convulsive grip, 
raised pistol, shoving method, they point more sciuarely at 
the target, and the barrel remains more nearly parallel to the 
ground. These weapons will point satisfactorily, if not shoved 
too forcefully toward the target. This does not mean, how- 
ever, that they should be fired in combat by the raised- 
pistol, shoving method, although this method is commonly 
accepted as a way of firing without the sights. It is not 
always accurate and results in loss of control, particularly 
when the target is in any position except directly in front 
of the shooter. 

When the gun arm is shoved forcefully to the front, the 
structure of the arm itself and the effect of the momentum 
of the forward shove upon the wrist, when the arm becomes 
fully extended, will cause the wrist to drop and the barrel to 
point downward, regardless of the structural design of the 
weapon. This effect in firing will occur with most individuals, 
regardless of the good pointing qualities of any hand gun. 
However il is not so apparent with the revolver, as with the 
Colt .45 pistol. The combination of the convulsive grip, the 
structural design of the various weapons, and the effects pro- 
duced when shoving the weapon forcefully forward, are 
such that few men can use hand guns instinctively and ac- 
curately in combat, when firing them in the above manner, 
without a prohibitive amount of practice. 

The size and structure of the shooter's hand and arm and 
the design and size of the grip of the weapon will also affect 
accuracy when the weapon is fired by the point-shoving 
method. If possible, all weapons should be selected so that 
they fit the individual's hand, whether it be large or small. 
However, in the Army and in large police organizations, 
such practices arc not always feasible. Rather, the hand must 
fit the gun, not the gun fit the hand. 

Position of Wrist. Because one of the basic fundamentals of 
combat firing is shooting with the weapon grasped convul- 

li I I. I. (I K c i: 1 K I I. I, !■: I) 

In combof firing, DON'T carry your 
hand gun at any degree of a raise pistol 
'reody"po»ition . DON'T shove It 

toward the to/get . 

Under combot tension, the forceful 
shove toword the target from the raise 
pistol ready position results in this — 
not this — 

' M-. 

[_^ combot (light) 

Use a downward 

'ready* posit ion ; 

have a locked wrist and ~~~, '.V' -Vj 

elbow when you raise pistol to eye level to fire. 


sively, the position of the wrist will exercise great influence 
upon accuracy. At the time the trigger is pulled, whether it 
be a single shot or a burst, the wrist must be in a straight 
locked position and should not be flexed or "cocked." The 
slightest variation of the wrist up or down from its straight 
locked position creates a difference in elevation of the barrel 
of the weapon which is translnted into extremes at the im- 
pact point of the bullet, even though tlic target is very close. 
Any cocked and locked, up-and-down position of the wrist, 

V s i: 

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which is developed to compensate for the effect of the con- 
vulsive grip upon pointing qualities of a particular weapon, 
such as the .45, is not advisable because it cannot be used in- 
stinctively in combat without an extreme amount of practice. 
Another disadvantage of the habit of coclting the wrist to 
compensate for the downward pointing qualities of a specific 
hand gun, such as the Colt .45 automatic, when it is fired 
by the pointing metliod, is that ail guns do not react in tlie 
same way to the cocked wrist position. Once a certain style 
of wrist cock has been developed for use on a particular 


K [ r, [, OH GET KILLED 

weapon, it will instinctively be used on all types of hand 
guns thereafter. Because of different structural characteristics 
of hand guns and the effect of the convulsive grip on them, 
tlieir pointing qualities react differently to a certain wrist 
adaption or "cock," developed for use on one particular 
make and model of gun. 

Forward Crouch. Tlic best all-around method for combat 
firing without the aid of sights is as follows: the body is in a 
forivard crouch; the feet are in a natural position, permitting 
another step forward. To fire the weapon, the shooter will 
grip the "weapon convulsively and with a straight locked 
wrist and elbow (the pivot point being the shoulder joint), 
raise the weapon from the ready position to a level with the 
eyes, and fire. The weapon always should be raised high 
enough so that, at the time the trigger is pulled, the gun is 
directly in the shooter's line of vision to the target. Do not 
let the shooter pause before firing, once the gun is at eye level. 

The weapon should be carried in the ready position, with 
an extended arm pointing downward at about a 45-degree 
angle from the body. This does not mean that it will always 
be carried with a convulsive grip and the arm rigidly ex- 
tended. It will ordinarily be carried with the arm and hand 
relaxed and the elbow slightly fiexed; but in all cases the 
arm and elbow should be well out in front of the shooter. 

After initial practice, the hand 
gun should be carried in tiiis 
"ready" position. The elbow is 
slightly flexed, to prevent tiring. 
It is an easy matter to straighten 
tlic arm to the str.niglu locked 
|)()sition while the gun is being 
raised to eye level. 



From this natural, relaxed, carrying position it is very easy 
to assume the straight-arm, locked-wrist position before or 
while raising the weapon for firing. This will be done nat- 
urally by the shooter; no special emphasis will have to be 
placed on it after initial training. 

At the outset, the straight, locked-wrist-and-elbow ready 
position should be emphasized, so that the student can de- 
velop accuracy and will understand the shooting principles. 
Later on, after proficiency is acquired, he can be allowed to 
carry his weapon in the more relaxed ready position in which 
he will normally carry it in potential combat areas when 
not actually firing. 

Looking at the carrying or ready position from the front, 
it will be noted, in the training stage, that the gun arm ideally 

The gun is carried toward the body center and, when raised, it is at 
eye level and between the eyes. 

J i6 

K. I I. 1, OR r. li T KILLED 

should be swung in toward the body center and that the 
wrist of the gun hand should be flexed slightly to the right, 
so that a perpendicular line could be drawn from the belt 
bucldc, througii the muzzle of the weapon, the tip of the 
nose, and exactly through the center of the forehead between 
the eyes. If the shooter carries his weapon in this basic ready 
position and raises it straight up until the gun is between his 
eyes and the target, as he would in raising his hand to point 





If the weapon is always kept in che same relative position to the 
eyes and body, you will shoo: where you look. From the basic 
"ready" or carrying position, the shooter wheels his body for angle 
shots. The gun is brought up to . . . 



at an object, windage automatically takes care of itself. The 
elevation will always be accurate as long as tlie shooter raises 
the weapon so that it is at eye level when it is fired. 

The basic position, with the gun iickl in body center and 
the wrist slightly (Icxcd to the right, should be maintained 
throughout the early training stage. Later, as proficiency de- 
velops, the shooter will adapt his own particular ready posi- 




the eye (firing) level during die time that the change in body direction 
is made. 

To hit angle targets without changing direction, don't swing the 
arm; point the body at the target. 


tion, which may not carry the weapon as near to body center 
as the ideal. However, if he still gets the weapon up to the 
firing position so that it is in line with the eyes and target, 
and if he is making hits, no correction need be made. 

Pointing the Body. The individual who shoots in this man- 
ner is directly facing the target and firing in the direction 
his body is pointing. In other words, with the wrist and elbow 
locked and the arm extended and maintained in the same rela- 
tionship to the body center and eyes, he will shoot where he 
looks. In firing at a target directly in front of him, it will 
be necessary only to raise the weapon from the ready posi- 
tion, using the shoulder as a pivot point, and fire. 

Whenever the shooter is forced to fire at a target which is 
not directly at his front, he need only wheel his body so that 
he is directly facing the target-, then fire. In other words, 
the body points the weapon, and as long as the same rela- 
tionship between the weapon, the body center, and the eyes 
is maintained, accuracy will result. He will shoot where he 
looks if he points his body at the target instead of swinging 
his arm. 

When the shooter wheels his body to make an angle shot, 
the gun hand should be brought up to eye level while the 
body is changing direction. The shooter should not raise his 
weapon to eye level and then wheel; nor should he wheel 
and then raise it. To make either of these movements prior 
to, or after, the actual wheeling of the body complicates the 
action and makes the shooting more difficult, since a separate 
movement must be mastered. Most shooters, when making 
angle shots, will automatically raise their weapons gradually 
upward in a curve so that the gun is at eye level at the time 
the body comes to a stop in the new direction. It is usually 
not necessary to stress this in practice since most shooters do 
it automatically. 

Naturally, a correction will have to be made for those who 
are observed trying to make two separate movements (body 
and arm) when the change in body pointing direction occurs. 
A few shooters, when they change body direction, will force 
the arm separately, so that the body and arm arc not syn- 
chronized. When this occurs, the basic body-center weapon 
relationship will not be maintained. 

To demonstrate the desirability of wheeling the body in- 
stead of swinging the arm, to shoot at a target which is at a 
right or left angle, place yourself so that your body is facing 

U S F. OK T ri P. HAND O U N 



The firing position with the slightly bent and locked elbow can be 
used, but more practice will be needed than when using the straight arm 
method. The position shown by the shaded arm is best for the average 

at a right or left angle from a chosen target. Instead of turn- 
ing your body to face the target, and raising the weapon to 
fire, merely turn the head and swing the arm forcefully 
from the right or left toward the target. It will be apparent 
that it is very difficult to swing your arm horizontally in a 
new direction and stop it in time to obtain the proper windage 
for accurate firing. This is especially true in combat. Ordi- 
narily, two-thirds of the shots will be fired at the target either 
before the weapon reaches it or after it has passed across 
it and is on the other side. You can't make your arm stop 
in the same place twice without excessive practice. After 
this simple demonstration, the advantages of using the body 
to do the actual pointing of the weapon at angle targets 
should be apparent. 

K I I. I, OK G E r IC I I. I. r. D 

Use a lock«d wrtst and a locKed elbow. 

Margin of trror possible with a flexed wrist. /-' 


Margin of error possible with o flexed elbow. /^ 

The elbow and wrist must be kept straight and locked for consistent 
shooting. A slight movement of the wrist from the locked straight posi- 
tion will result in extremes of elevation, even at close range. To a lesser 
degree the bent elbow has the sainc effect. 

There is another slight variation of the method of shooting 
by instinctive pointing which is used successfully by a num- 
ber of shooters. However, it takes considerably more prac- 
tice to acquire the same degree of accuracy and proficiency. 
The only difference between it and the method discussed 
above is that at the time of firing the arm is not in a straight 

U S E O 1' T II li H A N U U U N 12 1 

locked position, buc rather tlie elbow is slightly bent and 
locked. The arm is still well out in front of the body. This 
method is favored by certain shooters because it brings the 
barrel of the weapon to a horizontal position at a point half 
way between the ready position and eye level. This allows 
the shooter to bring the weapon into play a fraction of a 
second sooner than if he raised it the remaining distance, as 
he does in the straight arm method. Although some shooters 
favor this method because of the time element, the fraction 
of a second saved in bringing the weapon into play is not 
enough of an advantage to justify its adoption by the average 

Shooting from the Hip. Although the method of shooting 
by instinctive pointing has been called hip shooting, it is not. 
A pure definition of the term hip shooting is: "the type of 
shooting done when either the wrist or the elbow is pressed 
or held tightly against the side or center of the body at 
hip level at the time of firing." There are many who can shoot 
accurately at targets on a horizontal level from the hip posi- 
tion, but it is not a method by which the ordinary individual 
can achieve proficiency without a prohibitive amount of prac- 

There are numerous disadvantages in the hip method. Fac- 
ing the man who fires from the hip, it will be noted that the 
barrel (gun hand resting on hip) is usually pointing about 
eight or lo inches to the right of the body center, hence to 
the right of the line of vision. This does not help accuracy 
and will have to be compensated for in practice. The hip 
shooter will also be unable to fire at targets above his natural 
eye level from this position. He will be forced to extend his 
arm and raise it to shoot at high targets. It is awkward and 
impractical to shoot from the hip position when the body is 
in a crouch. In this position, the shooter is forced to ex- 
tend his arm. Bulky clothing, ammunition belts, and such, 
interfere with placing the elbow or wrist firmly against the 
hip in the same place each time the weapon is fired. All such 
minor considerations cause changes in elevation which will 
influence accuracy, especially at distances greater than lo feet. 

Using Your Own Weapon. Although, above, the .45 pistol 
has been mentioned specifically, the principles and the system 
of firing discussed are the same regardless of the kind or 
caliber of weapon, whether it be automatic or double action 
revolver. It is only common sense to advise that it is always 

K 1 1. L O K (; j; T KILLED 



You can't shoot accurately from the hip at targets above or below 
the horizontal. Except when firing to the front, the arm will usually 
have to be extended in order to get accuracy, as in the instinctive 
pointing method. 

best to practice with the weapon which will be used and 
carried in actual combat, if it can be determined. A gun is 
like a favorite golf club. Different makes of guns and re- 
volvers, like various kinds and sizes of clubs, feel different in 
the hand of an individual. The balance and feel of one par- 
ticular weapon will usually appeal more than any of the 
others. Whenever possible, let each shooter choose his own 






\ 1 \iHO«TIN( UHC 

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g^ )/ BWTJNUW 

^ v»rm rtu 

HIP SHOOTING (Continued) 

There are too many danger points affecting accuracy in this type 
of firing. A prohibitive amount of practice is necessary to achieve 
any degree of combat proficiency by this method. 

weapon. For psychological reasons, a man will have more 
confidence in a weapon of his own choosing; hence the 
weapon will have a direct bearing on his proficiency in prac- 
tice and in combat. 

In training groups of men in combat firing, it is very im- 
portant that the proper introduction be given. In the intro- 
ductory phase, the differences between target firing and com- 
bat firing must clearly be defined. Each must be put in its 
proper perspective. It must be stressed that each way of fir- 
ing complements the other, to make the ideal hand gun user. 



HIP SHOOTING (Continued) 

It is difficult ro master this 
method of shooting, where the 
elbow is bent as much as shown 
above, or when it is resting on 
the hip. It is hard to achieve, 
tlirough practice, the ability al- 
ways to bend the elbow at the 
same angle under combat condi- 

It is advisable to sliow the various methods of combat firing 
and to explain why one method is superior to another. Amer- 
ican shooters, more than those of any other nationality, have 
to be shown the whys and wherefores of anything they use 
personally, especially when it is to be their basic combat 

Define the term "instinctive pointing"; then let each student 
raise his arm and point toward any object, sighting along his 
finger to see the accuracy with which he instinctively points 
at the object. Then explain that this is the basis of combat 

Ideally, before a group of men is introduced to combat 
firing, they should have completed the target phase of in- 
struction and be familiar with the weapons which they are 
going to use. The three basic differences between target 
work and combat work must be clearly explained and demon- 
strated. If the men arc to use the .45 pistol, the effect of the 
convulsive grip upon the weapon's pointing qualities must 
especially be emphasized. Each student should make for him- 
self the simple test described above, so that he can see the 
effect of the tight grip on the weapon when it is shoved to- 
ward the target. It should be brought out that, from the 

USIC OK TIIK II A N U (; U N 1 25 

raised pistol position, other hand guns, when shoved at the 
target, will react in the same manner in lesser degree. 

All members of the group will not have the same degree 
of familiarity with hand guns and their firing, but all, includ- 
ing the dyed-in-the-wool target shooting advocates, must be 
convinced of the limitations of sighting methods in close 

Every possible means must be used to develop an aggressive 
spirit in the hand gun user. In the "fire fight" the shooter 
should always be going in toward the enemy. If he remains 
stationary, he is a better target. If he fires and keeps advanc- 
ing, he is harder to hit, and the psychological effect on the 
enemy is great, even if he misses. Tell him, right off the bat, 
that he can get shot just as easily backing away from an 
enemy as walking toward him. 

The Safety Habit As in any type of shooting, the safety 
factor must be stressed. However, in combat work the em- 
phasis can not be too great, because training methods and 
practice will include pointing the gun at other individuals, 
as is necessary in combat. It must be impressed upon the stu- 
dent that he must never point his gun at another student until 
so instructed. The importance of automatically checking the 
weapon for live ammunition each time it is picked up must 
be drilled in from the very start. The student should do this 
until checlcing the firearm, whenever it comes into the hand, 
is instinctive. Impress upon the student that he is checking 
the piece not only because of the safety factor, but also be- 
cause, prior to possible combat, he should be sure that the 
weapon he will use is loaded. 

One of the most direct methods of ingraining the safety 
habit in men who have not previously been associated with 
weapons of any type is the following: Get a large leather 
paddle, such as is popular in a college fraternity house, and 
hang it where every one can see it. Make it a rule that any 
man who carelessly or thoughtlessly points his gun at another 
without being told to do so by the instructor, will have it 
used on him in the traditional manner by the man at whom 
he pointed the gun. Such a method is direct and is much 
better than a mere reprimand by the instructor. It will serve 
to make the shooter safety-conscious in a short time. 

Combat Shooting. A very successful means of introducing 
combat shooting is to line the students up against the butts 
and have the instructor, from a distance of not more than 
10 feet in front of the group, fire a foot or two to either 


side, or above their heads. This will demonstrate the effect 
of muzzle blast and will give a picture of what a gun looks 
like from the receiving end. Naturally, this must be care- 
fully executed by reliable shooters; but it will serve better 
than anything to put the student in the proper frame of mind 
for an introduction to combat shooting. Then it is only 
necessary to ask any dyed-in-the-wool target enthusiast in the 
group if he would have deliberately raised his gun and used 
the sights against an enemy who was shooting at him from 
close ranges in such a manner. 

The question of how he would react in the face of firing 
directed toward him, and of whether his reactions would be 
the same as in practice, has often arisen in the shooter's mind. 
The answer is Yes; the reaction will be the same, because 
practice will make firing instinctive and he will not realize 
that he is actually being fired upon. This is best shown by 
the following example: A spectator watching one of the 
famous Army infantry assault courses— in which live charges, 
live grenades, and live rounds of ammunition are fired around 
the men participating in the course— asks himself if he would 
actually be able to take such a course. From his viewpoint, 
it looks very spectacular; and the element of danger thrown 
in by live ammunition striking close to his feet, charges 
bursting around him, and all the other battle effects, is very 
real. The same spectator, once he enters upon such a course, 
is so intent on firing his own weapon, throwing his own 
grenades and reaching his objective, that he does not notice 
the various charges bursting around him. In general, this ex- 
plains a man's reaction in combat. He is so intent on his own 
job that, after the initial effect, he is not bothered. He does 
not think about what is going on around him but concentrates 
on his mission. 

During a demonstration of the right and wrong way to 
shoot without the aid of sights, a small toy gun, which can 
be purchased at most toy counters and which fires a wooden 
dart with a rubber suction cup on the end, can be used to 
illustrate the effects of various body, arm and wrist positions 
upon accuracy. It will give the student visual proof at the 
outset. Such toy guns, or small BB pistols, can be issued to 
students during the dry-run phase and will help speed up 
individual proficiency. Using the suction tipped darts against 
a full length mirror, where the student can see his own mis- 
takes and can aim at the reflection of his own body, will 
help a great deal. The darts will stick on the mirror at the 

U S i; O 1- T II I'. HAND GUN 


These are valuable and readily procurable training aids. The toy gun 
with the rubber-tipped dart is available at most toy stores. The rubber 
knife and the military-type tent peg also are easily obtained and are 
useful in teaching knife defense. 

point of impact, showing where the buhet would have hit 
if a gun had been used. Basic errors are much mofe easily 
corrected with training of this type. Even after actual 
proficiency has been achieved, the toys can be used for prac- 
tice with or without the mirror. Shooters can also use them 
when ranges are unavailable. Practically all basic firing prin- 
ciples cnn he proved with these toys. 

Actual practice for the student should proceed in some- 
what the following manner. He should be placed initially at a 
distance of not more than 6 feet from a full length inirror, or 
facing a fellow student who will act as a coach. He should 
then be told to assume a crouching position. He must be 
checked to see that he has a natural foot position for a for- 
ward crouch (either right or left foot may be forward). To 
ascertain whether the position is natural, have him advance 
four or five steps remaining in the crouch. He should walk 




This is the normal grip used by the target shooter. The thumb is 
extended along the side of the frame, so that the weapon can be held 

This is the best grip to use in combat shooting, when double action is 
the only method of firing used. The thumb, in this case, touches the 
second finger. This is a better grip to use when the gun is grasped 

evenly, without any bouncing effect caused by bending tiie 
knee joint and raising the body up and down. 

Once the instructor is certain that the shooter has assumed 
a natural crouching position, he should check to see that the 
body is bent forward from the hips in an aggressive manner. 
The student's right hand and arm should be forward in the 
45-degree-angle ready position. The right shoulder must not 
be shoved too far forward; it is as nearly parallel to the 
left as is natural. It should be explained that this is the basic 
ready position and that the student need only raise his arm 
and point in order to fire at the target. 

The student should practice about 15 minutes raising his 
arm (to eye level) and pointing his finger from the ready 

U S F, or T It F, HAND GUN 


These downward views of the gun hand show the proper position of 
the weapon with respect to the thumb and forefinger. In both cases the 
hand gun points straight and the gun bisects the angle between thumb 
and trigger finger. 

position. When the instructor is satisfied that he has mastered 
the fundamentals, he may be given a weapon and the same 
type of practice should be continued, with the trigger being 
snapped when the gun is raised to a point where it is in line 
with the target. The locked wrist and elbow must be checked 
continually during this period. If the toy dart gun is used, 
let the shooter try dropping or cocking his wrist or elbow, 
so that he may see the effect of this action upon the impact 
points of the darts. 



.38 CAL. 


When light, fairly heavy caliber guns of the types above are used on 
double action, they often are hard to control after the first shot. The 
grip of the weapon is usually best taken by placing the little finger under 
the butt, so as help prevent the gun from bucking too much. Guns of 
these types usually have smaller grips than larger models, making possible 
the style of grip described here. 

130 K I L L O R G ET K I L L E D 

After he has mastered these first steps, the student should be 
made to advance toward the mirror, raising his weapon and 
firing as he walks, because, in reality, the stationary position 
is only the pause for firing which he makes if he is walking 
forward with his weapon ready for any enemy who may 
appear. Care must again be taken to check for the bouncing 
habit as the student walks forward in his crouching position. 
After the instructor is satisfied that the student is qualified 
and is doing the dry-run properly, he should have him face 
away from the mirror at right angles and allow him to wheel 
and snap the weapon at his mirror image. 

Movement of the Feet Any tendency to swing the arm and 
not point the weapon by the body, when turning to look at 
the target, should be stopped immediately. The question of 
how the shooter should move his feet, when using his body 
to point the weapon, will arise. Because of the different posi- 
tions in which the feet will be when firing in combat, the 
shooter should change his body direction by moving his 
feet in any natural manner. To wheel to the right, some men 
will start off by shoving the left foot forward; others will 
bring the right foot around to the rear, using the left as pivot. 
Either is correct as long as the desired change in body di- 
rection is accomplished. Stay away from any set method of 

This Colt Banker's Special is equipped with a special 
Roper Stock. This type of stock affords a better grip on 
the weapon, because of its design and larger size. A grip 
of this type on the small hand gun gives better control in 
double action combat shooting. 


changing body direction. Terrain is uncertain, and tiie actual 
position of the feet in combat may not always be the same. 
There may be times when the feet cannot move at all, but the 
body can still be twisted to get necessary accuracy. 

The method used by some instructors, which involves 
jumping instead of a natural foot movement to change the 
body direction, is not advisable because of uneven ground and 
the possibility of losing balance and a sense of direction. 
You can't jump and always land in the same place. 

During practice in wheeling or changing direction of fire, 
it is well to let the student demonstrate to himself how much 
better this body pointing method really is by allowing him 
to face at a right or left angle from the target. Then, in- 
stead of wheeling his body, have him swing his arm from the 
right or left toward the target. The difHcuky of stopping the 
swing of the gun arm, so that accurate windage will be main- 
tained, will then become apparent. 

Next the student can be placed with his back to the mirror 
and made to wheel completely around to fire at his reflection. 

After this last exercise the desirability of firing always with 
the arm extended, the gun raised to a point in line with the 
eyes and target, and letting the body do the actual pointing of 
the weapon, should be apparent. The question of what is the 
proper position for the free hand (left for a right-handed 
shooter) will be asked. It is best that it be used for maintain- 
ing balance or carrying otlier equipment, such as a grenade or 
flashlight. Set positions for this hand should not be empha- 
sized, although some coaches do make the student place his 
left hand on the inside of the left thigh so as to square the 
body. This will work all right in practice, but it is not natural 
and will not be used instinctively in combat. 

Silhouette Firing. After not less than three hours of "dry" 
work, in which the fundamentals have been mastered, the 
shooter may be allowed to fire live rounds at a J^ silhouette. 

In the introduction, or prior to actual firing, the student 
should be told that the most vulnerable part of an enemy's 
anatomy is his mid-section. When firing at silhouettes, all 
shots should be concentrated in this area. If the impact point 
of the bullet is a little high or low, to the left or right of 
the navel, it will still be a man-stopping shot. When a hit is 
scored in the mid-section, no matter how slight, the psyco- 
logical, as well as the physical, effect is very great. 

In combat firing, it is usually advisable to fire either the 



These types of hand guns are easily carried in con- 
cealed positions, such as coat pockets. The police officer 
who approaches suspicious automobiles or persons will 
do well to have his hand on a weapon of this type. 
These guns are relatively inexpensive and often pro- 
vide "cheap" life insurance, when shooting starts from 
an unexpected quarter. 

pistol or the revolver in bursts of two, and during the dry 
run and actual practice the trigger should always be pulled 
twice. A study of the spacing of the two-shot burst on a 
silhouette will show that, even when a weapon is fired from 
a convulsive grip, the shots will be spaced from 6 to 8 inches 
apart, and on approximately the same horizontal level. This 
spacing, which is caused by the recoil of the weapon when 
two quick shots are fired successively, provides an additional 
hitting probability. This is a good reason why it should be 
used in combat firing. 

It is a good idea to have the silhouette target hanging, or 
suspended above the ground, so that its center is at approxi- 
mately the same level as an enemy's stomach area. Place the 
student, initially, not over 8 feet from the silhouette. Have 
him assume the crouch position, with his weapon at ready, 


and let him raise his arm to fire in bursts of two. He should 
then lower the arm again to the ready position, then raise it to 
fire another burst. Never allow the gun arm to remain point- 
ing at the silhouette between bursts, because the student can 
easily observe where the first bursts hit and move his arm 
accordingly. In combat, it is the first shots that count. There 
will often be no opportunity to observe a miss and to cor- 
rect it. This point should be emphasized; the student should 
consider each time lie raises his arm, fires, and lowers it again 
as a separate shooting incident. In tliis way he will achieve 
proficiency with first bursts. 

Common Errors. The following are conuiion errors which 
must be corrected at the outset: 

( 1 ) If the groups of shots are consistently hitting the lower 
portion of the silhouette, it indicates that the shooter is not 
raising the weapon high enough, so that the barrel is parallel 
with the ground surface; or that he is shoving the weapon 
at the target, causing the barrel to point down. 

(2) If the shots are scattered over the silhouette, a loose 
wrist is usually to blame. 

(3) If the group is consistently to the left, the shooter's 
grip on the weapon is wrong, or he is shoving his right 
shoulder too far forward when he raises his arm to shoot. 
If he is using a double-action revolver, he may be slapping 
the trigger on the right side, causing the gun to point left 
when it fires. 

(4) A loose grip on the weapon, as well as a failure to 
lock the wrist or elbow, will also result in the shots being 
widely scattered. 

(5) Some shooters may bounce up and down by springing 
at the knees every time they fire. This is not a natural move- 
ment and must be corrected. 

(6) When bringing the weapon back down to the ready 
position after firing, many shooters let the weapon swing 
down until it is pointing directly at the feet. This is dangerous. 
The coach must check to see that the gun arm stops at no 
less than a 45° angle in practicing the ready position. 

Advanced Training. When the shooter has mastered his first 
firing lesson and is consistently placing his shots in the center 
of the silhouette, so that the group is no larger than ten 
inches, he can be gradually moved backward until he has 
reached a distance of not over 50 feet. This increase in the 
range must be gradual and done in not less than three steps. 


K M . 1 . OR GET K I L L K U 

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U S E () I' T H !■: HAND GUN 


Whenever possible, the liand 
sliould fit die gun. The sliootcr 
witli a small grip, who carries a 
hand gun with too large a grip, 
often overshoots to the right. This 
is because he cannot so grasp the 
weapon that the tang is in the V 
of the thumb and forefinger. 

Point 1 above applies here. Th. 
man with a small hand who shoots 
a weapon, the grip of which is too 
large, is often unable to get his 
trigger finger far enough around 
the trigger to pull straight back 
on double action. He then "slaps" 
the trigger with the tip of his 
trigger finger. This results in a 
shot group to the left. 

Consistent hits in the center of the silhouette must be made 
each time before he moves further away from the target. 
From the maximum 50-foot distance, a group which can be 
covered by the spread of two hands is very satisfactory. 
After the strictly frontal firing stage has been mastered by 
the shooter, move him back to the eight-foot station and have 
him practice firing at the silhouette from right and left angles, 
each time making a complete body turn, to get his windage. 
The wheeliag action should be begun from the ready posi- 
tion. The weapon should be brought up naturally, so that 
it is at eye level, and the trigger should be pulled at the 
time when the body faces its target. After the shooter can 

136 K I L L O K G li r IC 1 L L K U 

consistently place the bursts in the body center from both 
right and left angles, repeat the process of increasing the 

In actual firing, the speed with which the arm is raised 
and the weapon is fired from the ready position must be slow 
in the beginning. It can be increased as proficiency grows. 
However, after considerable practice, each individual shooter 
will find out for himself the speed with which he most ac- 
curately brings his weapon into play. Naturally, this will in- 
crease with practice, but the average shooter will do well not 
to try to force himself to gee his weapon into play so fast 
that he loses control. 

To repeat, combat firing and target firing are different 
types of shooting. This difference must be strongly em- 
phasized. The objective of target shooting is to be able to 
achieve a good score on a bull's eye target and to be able to 
use an aimed shot in combat. Its training methods and prac- 
tices are principally directed toward this goal. On the other 
hand, the objective of combat firing is to shoot the enemy 
before he shoots you. It is difficult to draw a clear-cut line 
between the two types of firing, but the well-rounded 
shooter should be trained in both phases. Each complements 
the other. 

Training Suggestions. After basic combat-firing training has 
been completed, variations and more advanced shooting prob- 
lems can be given to the shooter. Additional training sugges- 
tions and techniques, which will be of practical use in combat, 
and the completion of which will increase the combat pro- 
ficiency of the shooter, are as follows: 

(i) Place two or more silhouettes 8 or 10 feet apart and 
let the shooter fire first at one and then at the other, using 
his body to do the actual pointing. 

(2) He should be able to shoot and hit any man-sized ob- 
ject as long as he can see its outline, regardless of the light. 
Make him shoot in all degrees of light. Targets which should 
be used include: silhouette targets— which come up from the 
ground, out from behind corners, over the tops of walls, out 
of windows, from behind trees, from places higher and lower 
than the shooter; and running-man targets. 

(3) Through repeated experiences in night shooting with 
the hand gun, it has been found that the shooter instinctively 
fires at gun flashes of his enemy. This provides a real reason 
for moving, rolling, or otherwise getting out of the area 
of your gun flash the moment you fire. If, in darkness, a gun 



flash looks oval (the shape of a football) you will know that 
the enemy is firing directly at you from your front. If on the 
other hand, the gun flash is a streak, you will know that the 
shooter is firing from an angle and that you are not directly 
facing each other. 

(4) Teaching a man to reload his weapon quickly is often 
neglected. Skill in reloading can be attained only by practice 
and by establishing competition among students, to see which 
one reloads the fastest. This should be practiced slowly at 
first, with the tempo speeded up after proficiency has been 
reached. This practice should also he done in pitch darkness. 

(5) Students should be instructed in two-handed firing for 

The type of t%vo-handed grip used by the shooter sliould be the one 
that fits and feels best. Each shooter should experiment to find the one 
best suited to his weapon and his hands. 

In this position, the arm resting on the knee is far forward, so that 
the elbow is not the point of support. Some shooters find this position 
more satisfactory. 


K 1 I, [. OR G K T KILLED 

Prone shooting at long range should be praccicctl by all law enforce- 
ment oflicers. Each odicer should do enough shooting to know his limita- 
tions and capabilities, in accuracy and range. 

long, deliberate, sighting shots. They should be shown how 
to take advantage of such cover as telephone poles, posts and 
windows. They should be shown the proper method of prone 
firing in a two-handed rest position. The student also should 
be instructed in, and allowed to practice, firing with his left 
hand (that is, the hand not naturally used). Sometimes the 
right hand is put out of action and it should then be possible 
for the man to use his gun at close quarters in his other hand. 

(6) Give the student all sorts of practical problems, in 
which he is walking in one direction and is forced to fire at 
a right or left angle from his line of march. Change the size 
of the silhouettes from % to head and shoulder size as his 
proficiency increases. 

(7) Place rubble and all types of debris in his path, such 
as he would find in a dirty back yard or alley. Over this un- 
certain footing, let him advance toward the target, firing. 
This provides good simulation of combat conditions. Even 
here his eyes should be constantly on a possible target and 
not on his feet. 

(8) Give him firing problems where he will not be able to 
turn his feet, but must twist his body to change the angle of 

II !•: II A \ I) (J U N 



Range practice like this, 
which simulates firing from 
the seat of a car at an angle 
target, is a good addition to 
any practical combat training 


Range practice such as this 
is valuable, to simulate shoot- 
ing around the door or edge 
of a building. The thumb of 
the hand against the wall 
forms support for the gun 

(9) Give shooting exercises where he will fire at sound in 
complete darkness. Teach him to fire and roll, arm extended, 
when shooting from the prone position under these condi- 

(10) In the initial phases of instruction, when live rounds 
of ammunition are used, a large dirt bank against which sil- 
houettes can be placed is useful, because misses can be spotted 

14<-> KILL () K U !■; I K I r. L K I) 

on the bank. If silhouettes are unavailable, boards, boxes, or 
other objects can be laid against the bank. 

(ii) Night training can be accomplished against a dirt 
bank by using a flashlight. Have the lens of the flashlight 
specially covered, or adjusted, so that it throws a clear-cut 
spot about 1 8 inches in diameter. The coach should stand 
directly behind the shooter and flash the spot on the bank at 
various places. The shooter will fire at the center of the light 
circle on the bank. The bullet impact can be observed without 
too much trouble. This is a simple but valuable form of 
practice which does not involve too much in the way of 
training aids. 

(12) Don't ever try to teach a man the combat use of a 
hand gun, when only a few practice rounds and limited time 
are available, by allowing him to shoot at a standard bull's- 
eye target. JMissing the bull's-eye makes him feel that he is 
not handling the weapon accurately. He will have no con- 
fidence in it. 

If you have a group which has never previously fired 
weapons and you have available only a few hours for trainintr 
in shooting before they are e.xpected to carry and use the 
gun, the following method is successful. Show them the rudi- 
ments of the proper stance for firing from a standing position. 
Let them grasp the pistol for firing as they would in the in- 
stinctive pointing type of shooting, using a stiff arm and a 
tight, almost convulsive, grip— which will be the instinctive 
grip in combat. Instead of using a target, let them practice 
firing using the sights and pointing the gun at silhouettes at 
a distance of not more than 5 yards. Even the poorest student 
will score a fair percentage of hits on the silhouette. He will 
then feel he can hit a man if forced to. His confidence, in 
himself as well as his weapon, will be greatly increased. 

(13) In combat shooting, the shooter should always fire 
his weapon from a stationary positioji. To attempt to hit a 
running target while the shooter himself is in motion is fool- 
hardy. It generally would be just as well to throw a handful 
of rocks. Aimed shots fired at moving targets (such as a 
man running down a dimly lighted alley) can best be done 
using any of the various two-handed positions described 
in this chapter. The free hand and arm can be raised simul- 
taneously to support the gun hand and make for a steadier, 
more accurate aim. This is particularly true when the shooter 
is out of breath from running or under the stress and strain 
of the combat situation. 


In training have your men run for a distance of 50 yards 
and then have them stop and fire immediately an aimed shot 
at a distant silhouette target tvitb one hand. Have them re- 
peat, using the two-handed system. The advantage of using 
both hands will then be very obvious. 

(14) Make a dummy target by stuffing an old pair of 
coveralls with rags or excelsior. This dummy can be dropped 
from a concealed position such as a tree or slid down an 
overhead wire on a pulley to give realism in shooting at mov- 
ing targets. An old automobile tire, with center filled with a 
cardboard target, rolled down an incline will also provide a 
very difficult but practical target. The difficulty in hitting a 
moving target in contrast to the stationary one will then be 
more vividly emphasized in training. There are many other 
variations of moving-type targets, such as the running deer 
target used on sporting rifle ranges, which can be improvised 
using inexpensive or scrap materials; these will greatly aid in 
achieving combat realism. Again don't neglect the use of two- 
handed sliooting techniques in this type of firing. 

(15) Wax bullets can be used to good advantage in combat 
training. The empty, prhned pistol cartridge case can be 
filled witii wax or paraffin and used to simulate duels— or 
fired against mirrors, etc. The power of the primer is sufficient 
to propel the wax, as a bullet, up to 15 feet. There is nu 
damage to the weapon or the target. The .38 Special revolver 
cartridge is ideal for this purpose. It is best to take a small 
drill and enlarge the primer hole in the case so as to get 
maximum propulsion. If a duel, quick-draw type of training 
between individuals is used, plastic goggles, such as worn by 
industrial workers, can be worn for safety. A little experi- 
menting can develop some very realistic types of traming 
techniques with this method. The method is a new one as far 
as mociern combat training is concerned but it was practiced 
by French duelling instructors over 150 years ago. 

Any practice training method that can be devised by in- 
structors which will fit the student for his particular mission 
should be included. Such training methods are just common 
sense. Unfortunately, they are not used to any great extent 
in many training programs involving the hand gun and its 
combat employment. 


Most important, in training with the hand gun, is the atti- 
tude toward the weapon and its use. The student must never 


K 1 L r. f) K G F, T KILLED 

forget that combat shooting is different from shooting at a 
fixed target. In combat, he is shooting at a target that shoots 
back. No time is permitted for the precision of the target 
range. The stance, grip and actual firing taught must be 
that which come naturally to the man who may himself 
be under fire. 

The individual siiooter should be cautioned repeatedly dur- 
ing the training period that he should have a previously fixed 

When you hav« time, use cover an.i 
a rest for your aimed ihofi. jf ■ i 


U S F, O F T H E II A N D G U N I43 

idea in his mind of what he will do in combat. While he is 
engaged in practice firing his mind as well as his reflexes 
should be in unison in order to avoid panic. He should in 
practice, every time he pulls tine trigger, visualize in his mind 
that he is firing at a target that shoots back. In this manner 
the reflexes of drawing, aiming, or firing a gun at a human 
target become an instinctive, automatic reaction. 


Usa covtr when you 
can (or an oimed shot. 






'-'> r 

If your cover is subject to 
penetrotion by enemy fire, use 
the prone position. 




Taking odvontogaof ovallable cover — 
using o hond rast for tht oimtd shot 

Oulddt tdg*. 
of hond i'5^ 

Ou<»id« «djt 
of hond 

Thumb r«i 




A ttanding olmed shot using two handed grip. 

hond grip peiitiont 

The average shooter can shoot much more accurately with aimed fire 
wlien under combat conditions, by using a two-handed grip to steady 
tlie weapon. ' 


K I I. I. ou (; |.;i KILL K D 

When empty 
your 45 can 
still be used. 


An empty gun can be used as a club against the face and temple area. 
Heavy automatics and long-barreled revolvers have been used success- 
fully in this manner. 

U S K O 1'" T II r. HAND GUN 


When you hove time 
for an aimed shot,us« a 
pole or a tree trunk if 
you can . 



Much has been written on the merits of the revolver versus 
the automatic as a weapon of personal defense or offense. 
In American law enforcement circles, over 90 percent of plain- 
clothes men and uniformed police carry and use the revolver 
type. The reasons for their choice are varied, man^ being at- 
tributable to the fact that the revolver is the historic-type 


hand gun used tliroughout tlie winning of the West. Primarily 
they chose the revolver because it has better frame construc- 
tion for a swift and comfortable grip and draw. It is faster 
on the first shot (double action) than most automatics, when 
complete draw and firing are necessary. It has better all- 
around balance and pointing qualities than most automatics 
and, by using various grip adapters, can be fitted to any type 
of hand. European arms manufacturers have never put out a 
revolver comparable, in shape or feel or shooting qualities, 
with those of our country. Their principal manufacture has 
been the automatic hand gun. Just prior to, and during 
World War II, the Germans began to manufacture double 
actio?! automatics, the Walther and Mauser. Manufacture of 
these guns was discontinued at the end of hostilities. This 
year, for the first time, an excellent, commercial model of a 
double action automatic suitable for both police and military 
use has been introduced by Smith & Wesson. 

Another reason for the use of the revolver in law enforce- 
ment has been the fact that more powerful calibers could be 
used than in an automatic without entailing excess bulk, 
weight and size. 

The widespread belief that the automatic is not a reliable 
weapon and is subject to jams and malfunctions is erroneous. 
Well-made automatic weapons, given proper care, will func- 
tion dependably and efficiently. Where the weapon car- 
rier has no particular liking for the weapon and considers it 
in the same light as any other piece of equipment, it is neces- 
sary to have periodical inspections and checks to keep the gun 
at its top mechanical efficiency. Some of real advantages 
of the automatic type weapon are that it is easier and quicker 
to reload, and, after the first shot, it can usually be fired with 
greater accuracy and rapidity. In the instinctive pointing type 
of shooting, groups or bursts may be initially more accurate 
for the beginner because the trigger pull is lighter and shorter 
than on the double action revolver. 

The majority of jams in the automatic type of weapon can 
be directly traced to the magazine. On close examination, you 
may find that the lips which hold the shell in place under 
the spring tension have been dented, bent outward, or forced 
from their original position by dropping the magazine, or by 
improper loading. Magazine springs should be treated prop- 
erly. It is inadvisable to leave a magazine fully loaded over a 
period of years, causing the spring to lose its tension. When- 




The Smith & Wesson Military and Police model caliber .38 Special 
is probably the most popular revolver in its field. Since World War II 
its makers have concentrated on making many improvements and addi- 
tions to their extensive line of hand guns. Tlic factory now offers the 
world's most complete line of hand guns that have been especially 
designed to meet all conceivable police and military needs. 

Good basic design has long made the Smith & Wesson revolver the 
choice of most experts for double action combat shooting. The trigger 
action is smooth, short, and positive. The trigger guard is large enough 
to allow fast and positive entry of the trigger finger in the quick draw. 
Due to the frame and grip design in relation to the angle of the barrel, 
the gun does not climb during fast, double action shooting. Recoil is 
straight to the rear. 

A strong frame, with locking lug on the barrel, maintains cylinder 
alignment under the most adverse conditions. Although it is not gen- 
erally realized, a handgun is frequently used as a striking instrument, 
blows being delivered by the use of the barrel or the butt. This is an 
additional reason why strength in the frame and locking mechanism of 
the cylinder is so important in a revolver. 

ever possible, have more than one magazine for your weapon 
and change magazines frequently. Carry the spare magazine 
with one or two shells less than its capacity. Magazines should 
be kept dry and should not be carried loose in the pocket 
where they will be subject to body perspiration, lint, dust 
and denting from other objects in the pocket. 


Any revolver so small that it can almost be covered by an 
ordinary man's hand, weighing 21 oz. or less and shooting 
the .38 Special cartridge, can hardly be considered as the 
ideal target weapon. Even though creditable scores can be 

150 K r I. I. OK GET K I I, L K 1) 

achieved by using their fixed iron sights ngainst conventional 
targets, such guns are designed, manufactured and intended 
for use against targets that can shoot back. 

Recently there has been developed for special police, mili- 
tary, and self-defensive purposes some interesting new hand 
guns. They are important advancements in the firearms field 
and are of special interest to anyone who carries a hand gun 
for defensive or professional purposes. Because of an entirely 
new design, use of a coil mainspring, and special steels 
and alloys, the shooter now has available a small revolver 
that combines the shocking power of the .38 Special car- 
tridge with most of the desirable features of the small auto- 
matic pistol. 

These new, potent, lightweight revolvers are easy to con- 
ceal, comfortable to shoot and to carry, practical and safe 
in design and also retain the double action feature which 
enables greater and more dependable speed on the first 
shot. (More shocking power in relation to size and weigiit 
places them ahead of present automatic pistol design. Two 
of these new revolvers, the Smith & Wesson Chief Special 
and the Smith & Wesson Centennial are about as close to 

The .38 Special cartridge is generally considered to be the best all- 
around revolver cartridge for police and military purposes. 

Modern metallurgy has made it possible to greatly reduce the size 
and weight of undercover revolvers, such as the Chief Special, without 
any sacrifice of caliber or shocking power. 

The Smith & Wesson 2-in.-barrel. Military and Police Model shown 
above was a general favorite before World War IL It is still preferred 
by some users. 

u s F, o r T n V. hand gun 


the ideal undercover hand gun as an arms manufacturer can 
design and mass-produce. 

Members of plainclothes divisions of military and civilian 
law enforcement agencies have a definite need for such 
weapons. Also, uniformed officers of these organizations 
often have occasion to use a "second gun" in the performance 
of their duties. One of these new lightweights in the trousers 
or overcoat pocket is on many occasions good "life insur- 
ance" against surprise attack when the conventional holster 
weapon is not immediately or conveniently available for 
action. Unfortunately, most law enforcement officers often 
have to let the other party make the first hostile move. 

Although it is possible to fire a creditable target score 
with almost any of the new lightweight guns, it does not 
necessarily follow that they will perform equally well when 
a rapid sequence of double action shots is fired. Under com- 
bat conditions there is usually no time to use the sights or 
readjust point of aim or impact. Therefore, these recently 
introduced lightweights must be judged primarily on their 
merits as combat weapons. They will be used principally, 
and therefore should be e.xpected to perform best, on double 

The combination of small size, light weight, recoil, and 
fast double action create.s a condition requiring that special 
consideration be given to frame construction and design, 


On light-weight revolvers, like the one shown here, or like the Colt 
Detective Special, a man with a large hand should grip die weapon 
with the little finger under the butt. This prevents the weapon from 
climbing, and prevents loss of control in fast double-action shooting. 

152 K I L L () K CJ E T KILL K 1) 

particularly of the grip. This is not so evident or seemingly 
important when the weapon is fired single action, permitting 
the grip of the hand to be readjusted between shots, or 
where the size and purpose of the gun permits the use of 
specially made grips or adapters. 

The recent introduction and use of new lightweight metals 
and alloys has further made it possible to reduce the weight 
of these guns to a point where it is hard to conceive how 
the .38 Special cartridge could be contained and fired with 
effectiveness if the manufacturer made them any lighter in 
weight. The new lightweight guns were originally manu- 
factured and still are produced using conventional weight 
metals. Recently, however, in response to .special military 
and civilian needs, and by use of new, light alloys, their 
weight has been reduced almost 50 percent. Currently some 
models are being produced which have an overall weight 
of approximately 1 1 ounces. The law of "diminishing re- 
turns" has just about set in. It is at this point, particularly, 
that the basic shape of the frame and design of the grip 

An excellent po-sition to use to acliicve gre.ntcr nccurncy when 
shooting the sliort b.nrrcl, sniib-noscil type revolver. 

U S li O !■ I II V. II A N 1) i; U N 


become so inipoitanc in relation to the recoil effect on 
the shooter's hand and his fire control. 

Smith & Wesson can be given due credit for the traditional 
fine finish of their guns, tlic smooth double action, and 
eye-pleasing, streamlined appearance, but the design of the 
revolver grip and the recoil reaction against the siiooter's 
iiand of their new lightweights are perhaps the most impor- 
tant features of their new models. 

Recoil of any hand gun and its effect can be explained 
simply by the following illustration: take a book and in- 
cline it on a table top at approximately a 45-dcgrcc angle, 
move a iicncil forcefully and parallel to the table top in 
such a manner that one ct\d strikes tiie under siilc of the 
inclined book. The striking end of the pencil deflects down; 
the other end goes up. This is essentially what happens 

Training in tliis type of support shoocing to give stcndicr aiming 
position is excellent for women members of police organizations as 
well as for men. 

154 !<. I L I. () R c; I'. T K I L L F. D 

when you sliooc a revolver with a powerful cartridge, espe- 
cially a lightweight. Because of frame curvature of the 
upper part of the grip, the butt tends to slip down in the 
hand and consequently the muzzle goes up. The lighter the 
gun, the more recoil shock against the web of the shooter's 
hand. This tends to loosen the grip. When the firing is 
done on fast double action, the gun butt moves down and 
the barrel up, in direct relation to design of the revolver 
grip. For this reason, the shooter who buys a lightweight 
hand gun should never take it out and test it solely by 
using single action and aimed fire against the conventional 
bull's-eye or silhouette target. Primarily he should find out 
how the gun reacts when he fires it fast double action and 
if he can control it. There are too many people who buy 
small hand guns without regard for anything but weight, 
appearance, carrying ease, and concealment advantages. 

Anyone who has fired one of the new .38 Special light- 
weights will not argue as to the necessity for a strong, hard 
grip. Instinctively under combat tension, the normal shooter 
will exert a great deal of grip pressure. In addition to this, 
because of the cartridge, weight, and size factors, he must 
grip the new .38 Special lightweights very hard. He can- 
not expect to control them on double action unless he does 
so. If the shooter exerts the correct, strong grip on these 
guns and fires them using a locked wrist, lie has done about 
all he can to control the weapon. From this point on the 
particular revolver's recoil reaction will be dictated by the 
shape of the grip and general frame design. It will be evident 
that revolvers differ from one another and that some models 
perform better on double action than others. 

It should also be recognized that hand gun manufacturers 
design their guns, grips, etc. to fit the hand of the "average" 
shooter. Generally speaking, we are writing about tliis 
average shooter and must remember that in this, as in all 
types of mass-produced weapons, the gun must be designed 
by the manufacturer to fit the "average" hand. Guns obviously 
cannot be designed for quantity production to fit all varie- 
ties, shapes, and sizes of hand. 

Ideally, the recoil of any hand gun should be straight back 
in line with the horizontal center line of the gun. Any 
climbing tendency after the first shot on double action 
should be eliminated as much as possible. If a hand gun 



The length and size of the shooter's arm and general body con- 
struction will determine the most comfortable position in the arm 
support type of shooting. There is no one best position which will 
adapt itself to all type of physiques. For a person with long arms 
the right position is many times the most steady and comfortable. In 
the left illustration note tiiat tlie gim butt is resting on top of the 
left nrni ami the left hand is grasping tlic shirt scam on the right 
shoulder. Generally arm support type aimed shooting should be done 
with the arms elevated to a high enough position so tliat it is not 
necessary to lower the head too much for the eyes to be in line 
with the sielits. 



An excellent, steady position with the back supported against a 
solid object for long range accurate revolver shooting. 

were designed only with this purpose in mind, it probably 
would be better to have the barrel protruding between 
the middle fingers and to have the body of the gun com- 
pletely round. Some years ago a freak gun of this type was 
actually designed. It was called the Chicago Palm Pistol. This 

■ 5rt 

k I I, I. () It c; !■: I K I I, I. 1'. I) 

This position, although not as steady as those when fully standing 
or when the back is supported, has certain advantages if the body 
physique permits it to be assumed comfortably. Note that the heels 
are in contact with the ground to give as much stability as possible. 
This position has sonic merit when it is desired to present as little 
a target as possible to return fire while at the same time taking ad- 
vantage of both arms to achieve greater steadiness and accuracy. 

type gun was designed principally for purposes of conceal- 
ment by a manufacturer who was not concerned with re- 
coil features as the caliber used was small. 

The more the grip on any revolver, particularly light- 
weights, resembles a saw handle, the better for double ac- 
tion shooting. Any design of grip and frame which permits 
recoil straight to the rear is desirable. It is in this respect 
that the Smith & Wesson revolvers generally, and their 
lightweights especially, are effective on double action as 
combat weapons. 

The Cliicfs Special is now well-known, having been in 
production several years. Currently, the gun is also being 
manufactured with a light, alloy frame giving an approximate 
overall weight of 13 ounces. Many shooters, by reason of 
past experience and personal choice, desire a double action, 




The Chiefs Special, caliber .38, is designed to meet the needs of the 
shooter who wants a siiiiill jjoweifiil undercover gun with an exposed 
hammer. The gun can .he used double action or deliberate aimed fire is 
possible by cocking the piece. 

The Chiefs can be fired and controlled in rapid double action shooting 
by maintaining a hard grip- For those with large hands the little finger 
uniler the end of the butt will enable better fire control and help main- 
tain straight-to-thc-rcnr recoil. 

The Chiefs and its combat twin the Centcmiial weigh about 19 ounces 
ill the stiindard-vveight, all-steel model. The air-weight models, a com- 
bination of steel barrel and cylinder with light alloy frame, weigh ap- 
proximately 13 ounces. Ik th airweiglu models control excellently when 
fired fast double action if a tight grip is maintained. 

undercover gun with the hnmmer exposed that can also 
be fired single action. The Chiefs Special fills the bill. 

Tlie combination of the shape of the frame, giving a saw 
handle effect, plus the Magna type grip, makes a Smith Nt 
Wesson pleasant to shoot. When their new lightweights are 
gripped hard for double action shooting, the violent hand- 
jarring recoil is changed to a pushing effect against the 
whole hand. This results in a recoil straight to the rear and 
is one of the most important features of these new guns, 
because the control and hitting factors are increased accord- 
ingly. The control-destroying, climbing tendency is prac- 
tically eliminated. By the use ol" the Magna type grip, which 
was originally developed for the target shooter, the shock 
against the web of the hand is correspondingly lessened. 
Tlie Magna grip also fills the web of the hand so that no 

158 K I L I, O U G E r K 1 L L E D 

looseness is present. This prevents any side movement which 
may result from recoil of successive shots. 

Over 60 years ago Daniel Wesson produced a new model 
Hinge Frame Revolver. He called it his New Departure 
model. It became better known to the sliooting fraternity 
as the Safety Hammerlcss. It was manufactured in caliber 
.38 Smith & Wesson and caliber .32 Smith & Wesson Short 
and immediately became a great favorite among law enforce- 
ment officers who valued it as a hide-away gun. Along the 
frontier the gun was popularly called the "Lemon Squeezer." 
Smith & Wesson made many thousands of this model and 
many are still being carried today by law enforcement offi- 
cers and civilians wlio want a small, high-grade pocket re- 
volver for defensive purposes. 

The old Safety Hammerless model has long been con- 
sidered the safest and most dependable kind of a pocket gun 
to carry or have at home in the bureau drawer. It could 
not be left in a cocked position and could only be fired bv 
holding it in a shooting position so that the grip safety on 
the rear was pressed in, permitting tlic trigger to he pulled. 
Lacking a hammer, the trigger pull on the Safety Hammer- 
less was intentionally hard and long so it could only be fired 
double action. There was no possibility of accidental dis- 
charge, as the firing pin could only strike the primer when 
the internal hammer was cocked and released by the long 
trigger movement. 

The Safety Hammerless, being without an outside hammer, 
could be fired safely and rapidly from the pocket, if neces- 
sary, or drawn easily from wherever it was carried without 
danger of the hammer spur catching on the clothing or 
pocket lining. 

The trigger pull on the original hammerless was in two 
stages. It came to a definite stop just before releasing the 
hammer. This permitted accurate firing, using deliberate 
aim, or, if the shooter desired, he could pull right on through 
the first stage and fire the gun double action, increasing the 
volume of fire. 

Over the years the demand for the Safety Hammerless 
has been one which has continually increased. Consequently, 
the factory has produced the Centennial model, a modern 
version of this dependable old timer. 

The current production model Centennial is just about 
as fine a short range defensive or comiiat gun as can be 



Smith & Wesson produced the Safety Hamnicrlcss until about 1900, 
when manufacture was discontinued for unknown reasons. Irrespective 
of this, their Safety Hammerlcss model is still one of the most 
popular and practical revolvers. Many thousands are still in use and 
carried by men who want a dependable pocket hand gun. 

secured. Ic incorporates more improvements tiian its famous 
prcJcccssor aial, in atkiition, ic also slioots the .38 Special car- 

The new Centennial model fills a long-neglected gap in 
the hand gun field. It is manufactured using both normal 
steels and the new lightweight alloys. The two-stage trigger 
pull present in the early models has been eliminated. How- 
ever, with a little practice it is very easy for a shooter, if 
he desires to make a deliberate aimed siiot, to use his trigger 
finger against the trigger guard to make a definite stop 
just prior to firing. 

Unlike the earlier top-break or Hinge Frame model, the 
stronger swing-out-type cylinder design is used. As a result, 
the gun is very rugged, as well as pleasing to the eye. From 
the muzzle to the rear of the cylinder, the frame is similar 
to that of the Chiefs Special, but because the hammer 
mechanism is concealed in the frame, the overall grip is 
longer than on the Chiefs Special, providing a better grip 
for the hand and emphasizing the saw handle effect. When 
fired rapid double action under combat conditions, the re- 
coil is straigiit back. Climbing tendency resulting in suc- 
cessively higher shots is practically eliminated. 

The Centennial will probably prove to be the most satis- 
factory to shoot and practical to carry for the man who 
carries a gun for business or defensive purposes. 

K I I. I. <) H r. E r K r L I. f. d 


The Smith & Wesson Centennial model shoots tlie powerful .38 
Special cartridge. It is the modern counterpart of the Caliber .38 
Smith & Wesson New Departure nieulcl (Safety Hammerless) which 
for many vcars has liccn considered the ideal undercover gun. 

The grip safety, which must be depressed to fire the gun, is a 
valuable safety feature; possibility of accidental disciiarge is almost 
nil. A deliberate grip on the gun plus the need to pull the trigger 
completely through the double action cycle is necessary to fire. The 
manufacturer has also provided for the professional who wants the 
advantage of the iiainnierless feature but does not need the grip safety. 
By removing tlic grips a locking pin may be inserted in a hole through 
the safety and frame so that the gri]> safety can be permanently 
held do%vn in the "OFF" position. 

The Smith and Wesson Bodyguard, also a .38 Special snub- 
nose revolver built on a .32 fi-ame and holding five rounds,' 
fills the gap between the Chiefs Special and the Centennial. 
The frame of the Bodyguard has been built up on both sides 
of tiie hammer, so that it is not exposed as is the case witli the 
conventional revolver. A slight hammer spur protrudes (see 
bottom illustration) permitting the gun to be cocked for 
single action firing. 

Although the lines of the Bodyguard are not as pleasing to 
the eye as in other models, the result is a practical sidearm 
combining the advantages of the Chiefs with those of the 
Centennial. The built-up side walls on either side of the ham- 
mer provide a longer grip and enable more speed on the draw 
and better control on fast double action. The Bodyguard can 
be drawn rapidly witliout danger of the hammer spur catcli- 
ing on the lining of the pocket, clothing, etc. It also can be 

T II y. HANI) C U N 


fired from a pocket or otlicr concealed location without fear 
of the hammer being blocked during its fall. 

Smith & Wesson have a new 9mm automatic pistol which 
has about all the desirable features possible. The man who 
carries it has all of the quick draw and speed on the first shot 
advantages that were formerly available only to the revolver 
user. The gun is simple to strip, the safety is positive, and it 
performs well under all combat conditions. The design and 
angle of the grip in relation to the frame and barrel are such 
that it does not climb in rapid fire as is the case with many 
other automatics. In the instinctive pointing type combat 
shooting it performs in a superior manner. Recoil is straight 
back and control is easy to maintain. 

The revolver type of hand gun is basically popular in the 
United States and Great Britain. Throughout the rest of the 
world the automatic has been most used by police and mili- 
tary units. This new double action automatic should find 
ready acceptance in all of those areas where the automatic 
type of hand gun is most popular. 


1, I. I) K (; !■; I' K I r. i, f, » 


Tliis cnlilicr liand gun is manufactured in various nioiicls and barrel 
lengths by Colt, by Ruger, and by Smith and Wesson. 

Ic has long been a fa\<)ritc among law enforcement olficcrs wlio 
have desired a more potent cartridge than the standard .38 Special 
which can also be fired in the same gnu. 

Until the recent advent of the .44 magnum, the .357 caliber was 
considered the ultimate in long range, pencration, and shocking 


sAirni sl w'l'issoN noLT.i.i", .xcrioN 


During 1955 Smith & Wesson ajuiounced deliveries on a new line 
of 9nim automatic pistols designed for military and police use. 

The ynini Luger or Paiabclluni (European name) is used by iiiiiitary 
and police units throughout the world. Ballistically it is considered to 
be one of the best all-around pistol and submachinegun calibers. Although 
there were double action automatics, such as the Walther, nianu- 

II S K () !•• r H F. H A N' C IJ N 1 63 

factureil and used by the Germans during World War II, tliere lias 
not previously been available a good commercial automatic. 

This fine combat-designed automatic has a magazine capacity of 
eight rounds. With one round carried in the chamber half again more 
firepower is available than in the standard revolver. Most sales of this 
arm have so far been in export but recently some U. S. police agencies 
iiiivc bcijuji to use it. 



Many police officers prefer to carry a second small "hideout" 
gun is addition to their regular service arm. These guns arc carried 
in wrist, ankle, groin, leg and armholc holsters and other places 
where they are easily concealed but accessible. They arc many 
times also carried as "olT duty" guns. (Reading from top to bottom) 
No. I is the original Remington .41 caliber two-shot Derringer 
favored by gamblers during the American frontier period. No. 1 
is the American manufactured copy of its famous predecessor, the 
Great Western caliber .38 S. & W. Derringer. No. 3 is the German 
manufactured caliber .22 long rifle Derringer type currently being 
marketed in the United States. No. 4 is the Colt Astra Cub Auto- 
matic. This and others of similar ty])e are also favored as "hideout" 
guns. The small automatic type weapon provides more fire power 
and is available in caliber .25 and caliber .22 short and .22 long. 
Although the shocking power is limited, the .22 caliber cartridge is, 
contrary to popular belief, considered to be more effective than 
the .25 caliber auto cartridge. 




This niodci revolver has hccn a favored sidearni of the uniformed 
police for man}' years throughout the world. It has a smooth action 
and trigger pull and is a rugged heavy-duty hand gun. 


This is a lightweight version of the well known Colt Detective 
Special that has been manufactured and used for many years. It weighs 
less than a |>ound and retains the si.x shot capacity of its heavier counter- 
part. It is an excellent undercover weapon for those who prefer a light- 
weight handgun. 





This is a six sliot liglitweiglit revolver for plain-clothes and concealed 
carrying. It is lil^e the Cobra model except it has a shorter grip, which 
is suitable to those shooters with smaller hands. 


Colt produces this fine revolver with either four or" six-inch barrel. 
It will also shoot all standard .38 Special cartridges. It is recommended 
either as a target or service weapon. The .357 magnum is still favored 
by many officers over the more powerful .44 magnum. 

I 66 IC I L L O 11 G E T K I L I. E D 


Many modern police officers, where personal choice of their sideami 
is possible, prefer calibers greater than the standard .38 Special. 

Double action revolvers that will handle the .357 magnum, the 44 
special, or the new .44 magnum are deservedly popular. Their greater 
initial shocking power and "man stopping" ability is well known. 

Under combat conditions, a criminal who is under stress of ex- 
treme rage or excitement has so much extra adrenalin pumping into and 
through his system that many times he is tcm]>orarily inununc to 
normal shock. It is for this reason that many combat experienced of- 
ficers prefer the more powerful caliber hand gun. A heavy lead bullet, 
moving at high velocity, has great shocking power and will usually 
knock down the criminal and put him out of the fight if it hits 
him almost anywhere in the head, body, arms or legs. 

Many officers feel that the extra barrel lengtli, weight and bulk of the 
larger caliber hand gun is more than compensated for by the in- 
creased "knockdown" potential. 

The new 44 magnum cartridge has far greater shock power than 
any other hand gun cartridge commercially produced. It is replacing 
the less powerful .357 magnum thai has been a favorite for the past 
two decades, when it was known as the most powerful revolver cart- 
ridge in existence. 

S & VV manufactures the .44 magnum revolver in barrel lengths from 

4 to 10 inches. The same gun will also shoot the less powerful 44 

5 & VV Special and .44 S & VV Russian cartridges. 


The ability to get his hand gun out of his holster and into 
action quickly and accurately is a desirable asset for any 
soldier or law enforcement officer. However, quick-draw 
training should not be undertaken until the more important 
types of shooting— aimed fire and combat firing— have been 
mastered. Incidents calling for the quick-draw are relatively 
infrequent, but they have occurred often enough to justify 
the training of selected individuals— those who are likely, by 
the nature of their assignments, to have to start hand gun 
shooting by drawing the weapon from its carrying position. 

V s i: () I r II I-: ii a \ n c u x 167 

The niiumiic of eiiiplinsis placed nn tlic c]uiclc-tU':i\v vaiie;. 
greatly in the thousands of police and military organizations. 
In some instances, it is neglected entirely; in others it is given 
too much rime and emphasis in a limited training program, 
k is difficult to determine just where and when this special- 
ized type of training should be initiated, and exactly what 
type (jf officer shoukl receive ir. Clcncrnlh', plainclotlics law 
enforcement oflicers arc rhc ones who arc most likely to 
need skill and training in (luick-draw. Situations in which 
they become in\'olvcd more frcijucntlv require speed. The 
uniformed officer also will occasionally encounter some 
situations in which he should make a quick draw. 

Holsters. Uniformed police normally cany their sidearms in 
holsters that arc not designed to facilitate quick-draw. Safety 
straps arc used to prevent accidental loss of the weapon, or a 


Ihis niixlLrn single ;ictii)n type revo'vcr is one (if tlie finest proiliiceil. 

It is nv.nilnblc in 6'/i barrel Iciigtlis and longer. Many Western 
peace officers still prefer to carry single action lianj guns of this and 
tlic Colt Frontier cal. .45 typo. Tlicir longer range and greater poten- 
tial accuracy, combined u'ith great slioclung power, make tlieni pre- 


r. I. OR O El' KILL K D 


After the weapon is grasped it must be lifted enough to clear the 
barrel from the holster. At tlie left is shown the wrong way to do 
this. Note the hunched shoulder and the elbow way out from the body. 
As shown at the right, the draw is much easier because the elbow is 
well in toward the body. The lifting of the gun is accomplished by 
bending the elbow instead of lifting the shoulder. More speed and 
greater ease in drawing and firing will result by observing this funda- 
mental principle. 

flap holster completely covers the butt. An increasing number 
of police departments now issue holsters which are designed 
to fulfill the two most important requirements: first, a holster 
that will protect and safely carry the weapon; and, second, a 
holster so designed that the officer can get his gun into action 
quickly and easily. The needs of each police department, and 
the viewpoint of officials in charge of equipment and training, 
will usually determine what type of holster is carried and 
how much emphasis is given to quick-draw training. 

By practice, it is possible to become proficient in the quick- 
draw, even with a hand gun scabbard not basically designed 
for that purpose— but it is more difficult. 

u s !■: () r T li r, ii a n d (; v n 


The quick-draw should be 
finished by raising the weapon to 
the eye level, then firing. Greater 
accuracy will result than when 
firing from the hip level. Tlie 
shore time lost in raising the 
weapon high will be more clian 
conipcii.s.iteil for by greater ac- 
curacy. To the man who has been 
trained in the instinctive pointing 
technique this will come naturally. 

Safety Speed or Clam Shell Type Outside Holster. This holstcr 
is now available for the Standard .45 Colt automatic, the 
Super .38 Colt automatic, and standard police models of 
Smith & Wesson and Colt revolvers. 

It is built on a base of light steel and is covered with high 
quality leather. It weighs only slightly more than the con- 
ventional all-leatlier type. The difference in weight is not 
noticeable when it is attached to the belt. At the present time 
it is replacing the older type holsters in many uniformed state 
and city police organizations. It is also being tested and 
studied for possible adoption by the United States Armed 
Forces and by the military departments of many Latin- 
American countries. 

This holster is spring activated; it "splits open from the 
front." Many additional advantages make it superior to the 
conventional types of holsters. It must be seen and tested to be 
fully appreciated. 

Quick-Draw — with the clam shell holsters. After a few min- 
utes practice, the average shooter is able to draw his weapon 
from his holster and get off his first shot— with revolver or 





At the top is shown the Colt automatic, cocked but not on safety. 
Below, the open holster is shown, after the release in front of the 
trigger has been pressed. 

automatic— in about lialf the time it would take from a holster 
of the conventional type. In the old standard type holster, 
now generally in use, two motions are necessary to draw and 
fire. The first motion draws the gun up and out of the 
holster; and the second points and extends the gun to the 
firing position. With the new type holster it is not necessary 
to draw the gun up and out. The holster permits the gun 
to be raised and fired from the original holster position, in 
the same way a person would raise and point his finger at 
an object. 

By its design and construction, the holster aids in the 
technique of combat hand-gun shooting that was used by 
the United States and Allied forces during World War II. 
This method of firing was based on the gun being carried in 
the hand of the shooter in a barrel downward position. Firing 
was done by raising tiie gun and arm to eye level and firing. 
The same type of combat shooting from the holster position 
is now possible. 



At left is the Smith & Wesson target revolver, in tlic holster. It is 
locked in position but is available for instant drawing and liring. 

At right is shown the open holster after the release has been pressed. 
Notice how the high, square-type, target front sight is kept from con- 
tact with the leather lining. 

With the new holster, the Super .38 nnd .45 Colt auto- 
matics are immediately in firing position. They can be carried 
cocked and not on safety with perfect protection and security. 
A metal prong on each side of the cocked hammer prevents 
accidental discharge while in the holster. When the weapon 
is drawn it can be fired instantly without having to release the 
safety or cock it, or without having to pull back the slide, 
as is the case when the gun is carried in the standard holster. 
This feature alone makes it superior to any other type of 
automatic holster. The shooter wjio carries a Colt automatic, 
can now do so safely and will be able to get his gun into 
action immediately, with no extra movements. In speed of 
drawing and firing, this puts him on an equal basis with the 
shooter who carries a double action revolver. It eliminates 
one of the biggest objections to the police use of the Colt, or 


K 1 I, I. () u <; V. r K [ I. (. K n 


At the upper left is shown a good basic-type, quick-draw holster. It is 
made of heavy, stiff leather tliat will not bind at the time of draw. 
Notice how it tilts forward to facilitate the draw. The trigger guard 
is exposed, to permit easy entry of the trigger finger. This style holster 
is favored by many plainclothes men. 

The Myers Detective Special holster, shown upper right, is a good 
one. The gun hangs, butt down, and no encumbering shoulder straps 
are used. 

Spring shoulder holsters, as shown below, and the Aiyers type, are 
much superior to the conventional under-arm type, where the gun is 
carried in the barrel-down, butt-up position. A quicker draw can be 
made, with the hands starting from a more natural and less suspicious 
position. In the conventional under-arm type, where the gun bangs 
barrel down, it is always necessary to start the draw by raising the 
hands high, so as to get them near the gun butt. This motion is a 
give-away to an alert enemy; it telegraphs the draw before it actually 

These holsters arc very practical for use with a sport shirt of 
the type that is open at the bottom. Their design makes them ideal 
for use with the new small lightweight undercover revolvers such 
as the Centennial and the Chiefs Special. 

USE 01" T 11 i: HAND GUN 

most other makes of automatic pistols which lack the double 
action feature. 

Safety. The holster securely locks the revolver, or automatic, 
in place. The gun cannot fall out of tiie holster or be 
snatched out by another person. It cannot be accidentally 
discharged. The weapon is released from the holster by press- 
ing a concealed trigger on the inside of the trigger guard. 
The release mechanism is so placed that when the gun is 
grasped naturally for the draw, the holster trigger can be 
pressed by the trigger finger without any fumbling or addi- 
tional motion. On the revolver-type holster, between the gun 
trigger and trigger guard, is a raised metal projection which 
prevents the revolver trigger being pulled or the weapon being 
fired while in the holster. 

The objection raised against this holster— that anyone know- 
ing the location of the special release that opens the holster 
could approach and easily steal the weapon— is without 
foundation. This same thing could be done just as easily when 
the person is wearing any other standard type of open holster. 
In fact, a person wearing this new holster will always know 
if his gun is being stolen. The noise and movement of the 
holster when it opens will tell him. With the old standard 
types, tlie gun could be stolen witliout the wearer knowing it. 

Protection. The light steel metal base, with the leather 
lining inside and out, provides a protection for the hand gun 
that is superior to leather alone. In addition, an automatic or 
revolver equipped with target sights can be carried in and 
drawn from the holster without any damage to the sight, or 
to the leather of the holster. The holsters also are made to 
fit exactly the various models and sizes of Colt or Smith & 
Wesson revolvers, and the gun is so securely locked that no 
movement takes place in the holster. This also prevents the 
gun blue wearing off. 

The uniformed law enforcement officer wearing this holster 
can draw his gun easily and fire while seated in a car. He 
cannot do this with most conventional types of holsters, be- 
cause his elbow is against the back of the car seat and he is 
thus prevented from drawing his gun up and out until he 
changes his body position. 

Faster speed of draw, and prevention of loss of the gun by 
its falling out, or by someone snatching it from the holster, 
has made the new type holster a favorite among uniformed 
state and municipal law officers in the United States. 


K I I. I. () 15 (,- i: r K I I. r, i: n 


When carrying the holster on the left side (gun butt foremost), as 
advocated in some law enforcement departments, tiic cross draw should 
be made by grasping the gun and bringing it straight out and «p— in a 
swing to eye level— as shown at the right. In the illustration at the left, 
the gun is drawn and the swing is made too far out to the side or too 
wide. This results in the gun being swung into action by a horizontal 
swing instead of a vertical one. Inaccuracy results, because it is difficult 
to stop the horizontal swing when the gun comes into line with the 


Quick-draw training is highly personalized and depends 
largely on the individual. He must have sufficient interest to 
practice on his own time. A departmental desire to improve 
this phase of pistol or revolver employment can be realized 
only by organizing quick-draw practice and competition, as 
is done on the target range. 

To get men to practice the quick-draw— in the complete 
movement of pointing, drawing, and snapping the trigger— 
the following method has been used with success. Pair off 




In the quick-draw from the hip holster, the method now practiced 
by most is to bend forward, then sl;ip buck the coat tail with tlic 
backward swing of the hand to the gun. Tlie draw is then made and 
the sliooting is done from the aggressive, forward crouch. This is 
the best and most instinctive sliooting position for combat. The holster 
shown is the Clark, a spring type favored by many police officers and 

trainees who will be working together for several hours. 
Have their weapons double-checked for safety. (It is best to 
fill the cylinders with wax and cut off the firing pin, or by 
some other means make it impossible for a live round to be 
fired in the weapon.) Let the trainees carry their guns in 
their holsters and proceed about other training in which they 
may be engaged. While they are proceeding with their duties, 
have one of them, when m contact with the other, give a 
previously arranged signal (such as "reach" or "draw") at an 
unexpected time. The student receiving the command will 
execute a quick draw, point his gun at the one who issues 
the command and pull the trigger. This gives the student the 
closest thing to actual combat drawing and firing that can 
be devised. The element of surprise— having to draw from any 
position and follow through with pointing the weapon; pulling 
the trigger as if an actual shot were fired— closely simulates 
the real thing. A similar quick-draw situation can be injected 
into the practical combat range training that is described in 
the chapter on ranges. 


The actual quick-draw and firing of live ammunition should 
always be preceded by plenty of dry practice, which must be 
closely supervised. The speed of the draw should be slow at 
first, so that the initial grip on tiie weapon is correct and so 
tliat pull on the double action makes the hammer fall at tlic 
instant the gun is pointing properly. Quick draw can be 
learned properly only by starting at a slow tempo. Through 
practice, speed will increase; but, once the peak of speed for 
the individual is reached, it can only be sustained by frequent 
periods of practice. 

Each shooter will learn the speed at which he can draw and 
fire his weapon most rapidly without losing control and ac- 
curacy. Thus, actual drawing and firing speed will vary with 
individuals; but the average, well-coordinated officer can make 
the complete movement of drawing and firing in a half second 
or less without having to devote excessive time to practice. 
Quicker draws can be made if the gun is fired from hip level 
after it leaves the holster. However, although it may take a 
fraction of a second longer, the ordinary shooter will be more 
accurate or will gain accuracy sooner if he raises the gun to 
eye level before firing. If he has been trained in instinctive 
pointing, as previously described, this will be a natural 
sequence to the draw. 

Since the advent of tclevison with the very popular and 
numerous Western programs, the quick draw hobby has swept 
America. Special timing devices, special liolstcis, and special 
model weapons iiavc been devclo[)cd. Alost of tiie quick draw 
techniques advocated are for use with the Western style (Colt 
Frontier) single action revolver. Quick draw clubs abound 
and quick draw competitions are being held throughout the 

However, the weapon used and the style of holster and 
quick draw are more historic than practical for law enforce- 
ment officers. The principal benefit of this particular style of 
shooting to the man who carries his more modern type hand 
gun for professional purposes, is to emphasize the potential 
speed and possibilities of the quick draw which he may 
achieve after extensive practice. By the use of special timing 
devices incredible quick draw times have been recorded. 

Position of Wearing Holster. As to the position in which the 
holster should be worn, that is entirely a matter of individual 
taste or departmental regulations. If you are working with 
the holster in the open, have it in a place which permits you 


to move freely, where the butt is easily grasped, and where it 
can be drawn with speed and iired without unnecessary delay. 
If it is a concealed holster, always bear in mind that it should 
be in such a place that, regardless of the type or state of 
your clothes, you can get at it with little delay and un- 
necessary movement. Once having chosen the spot for carry- 
ing a weapon, do not change. Practice drawing the gun a 
few minutes daily. 

Reading References. Various techniques, types of draws, and 
holsters are well documented in books, such as those written 
some years ago by Ed McGivern (Fast and Fancy Revolver 
Shoothig), and by Fitzgerald (Shooting). A veiy fine cover- 
age of the subject has also just been written by Chic Gaylord 
(HandgU7iner's Guide). Tliis new book gives a complete and 
current treatment of guns, holsters, and quick draw methods. 
Any serious student or instructor, in this phase of shooting, 
will do well to use these boolcs for reference. The above 
texts also will furnish ntlcijuatc authentic information on 
holsters. Individuals and firms such as Hciscr, George 
Lawrence, JVIyers, and Gaylord can make and furnish abnost 
any type holster to fit any gun, individual, or situation. Their 
products are well known. Information concerning them can 
be obtained from any large sporting goods dealer. A holster 
should be made of the best leather. A cheap holster of flimsy, 
lightweight construction, may cause the gun to stick when a 
draw is attempted. 


k I I. J- O K (■• E 



The pictures on this and the preceding page show features in an 
object lesson training course in combat shooung during World War IL 

Chapter 6 


THE actual combat life of the soldier or police officer 
who may carry a shoulder weapon is often measured in 
seconds— split seconds. In close-quarter combat, or in-fighting, 
he must be able to use this weapon quickly, accurately and 
instinctively. Close-quarter firing, in the case of shoulder 
weapons, is presumed to be any combat situation where the 
enemy is not over 30 yards distant and the elements of time, 
surprise, poor light and individual nervous and physical ten- 
sion are present. 

In street and jungle fighting and in police work, the oppor- 
tunities for skilled, close-quarter work with the rifle, riot gun, 
carbine and submacliincgun arc becoming increasingly fre- 
quent. It follows, then, that a method of shooting these 
weapons so that thc)^ can be brought into action with the least 
possible delay should be emphasized in training. 

The aimed shot always should be made when the tbiie 
and light permit. However, in close-quarter fighting there 
is not always sufficient time to raise the weapon to the 
shoulder, line up the sights and squeeze off tlie shot. Con- 
sequently, training only in tlie aimed type of rifle fire does 
not completely equip the man who carries a shoulder weapon 
for all the exigencies of combat. As in combat shooting with 
the hand gun, he should be trained in a method in which 
he can use a shoulder weapon quickly and instinctively and 
without sights. 

Some authorities attribute the failure of certain known 
target-shooting experts to hit an enemy who is shooting at 
them at close quarters entirely to a lack of the fighting in- 
stinct. The real reason usually is that the target expert has 
not received the most effective type of training. A lack of 
moral qualifications, guts, and courage will always contribute 
to poor close-quarter rifle or hand gun shooting, but lack of 


i8o k I I. I, () u <; |-, I K I I, I. i-. n 

combat training is the principal cause. It should be evident 
enough to most shooters that the formalized techniques 
learned on the rifle range cannot always be applied loo per- 
cent in battle. 

Rifle niarksmansliip training teaches tiic correct use of die 
sights and the aimed shot. These principles are correct wiien 
time and light are present, so that the rifle, carbine, riot gun 
and subniacliineijun can be used in combat as on tiie ranse. 
However, dark alleys and streets, night raids, poor visibilit}', 
and street and house fighting— all create combat situations 
where the opportunity for the aimed shot will not always be 
present. The soldier or law enforcement officer must be able 
to shoot a shoulder weapon in these situations iv'ithoTct taking 
time to sight. First hits are the ones that count. 


There are two methods of close-combat firing with shoulder 
weapons by which satisfactory man-hitting accuracy can be 
achieved. The first is called snap shooting, the other instinctive 
pointing. Snap shooting is a technique of weapon pointing 
in which a great amount of practice is needed to achieve 
individual proficiency. As in skeet shooting, the butt of the 
weapon must be snapped to the shoulder prior to firing, and 
the firing must occur at almost the exact instant that the butt 
of the piece comes to rest. The construction, balance, weight, 
mechanical characteristics and general design of various 
shoulder weapons differ greatly, and these variations affect 
their "snapping" qualities. A carbine is more adaptable to 
this type of shooting than a larger rifle. Submachine guns, 
such as the Thompson, are much less adaptable, because of 
their design, balance and weight. The snapping technique 
takes a great deal of practice and must be largely self- 
taught. It follows, therefore, that it is not adaptable to the 
training of large groups. Comparatively few men have been 
adequately trained in it. 

For those individuals with tlie time and interest to devote 
to the instinctive type of shoulder or snap shooting, a vciy 
interesting and effective new training system has been de- 
veloped by R. L. McDanicI, which is clearly dcscrii)cd in his 
book Instinctive Shooting (Dodd, Mead & Company, New 

A special jiracticc kit, built around tiie use of a Daisy air 
rifle, under the trade name "Lucky AlcIDanicI Instinct Shoot- 

C O M It A 1' !■■ I K I N U Willi S 11 (I U I, I) K. K \V li A I' () N S I 8 I 

iiig Trainer Outfit," is now coninicrcially available. Tlic basic 
idea of the system and kit is to develop with a riilc tlie pro- 
ficiency and ability instinctively to hit small, moving, aerial 
targets without the use of conventional sights, [t follows that 
this system once mastered woukl naturally be ilircctly related 
to the use of more deadly shoukler weapons in combat. 


Instinctive pointing, sometimes called hip-shooting or 
body-pointing, is the best method of shooting shoulder 
weapons in close-quarter combat, when the time or light 
element is not great enough to permit the conventional use 
of the weapon from the shoulder position. Reports from 
recent combat theaters continually refer to hip-shooting in 
close-quarter fighting. In World War II, the Allies trained 
their men intensively to use instinctive pointing when they 
reached the combat theaters. It is an effective method of 
combat shooting and its principles should be understood by 
all shooters, civilian and military, who arc likely to engage 
in close-quarter combat. 

This style of shooting, which can be mastered in a rela- 
tively short training period, is adaptable to all military and 
sporting rifles, and to shotguns and light automatic weapons, 
such as the 1M3, Thompson and Reising submachineguns. 
With these or comparable weapons, a man-killing single shot 
or burst can be fired. Instinctive pointing is not an indis- 
criminate spraying of lead in the general direction of the 
enemy, as some of its critics have declared. 

Instinctive Pointing Technique. To fire a rifle, or any of the 
shoulder weapons mentioned above, by instinctive pointing is 
simple. The body is used to do the actual pointing of the 
weapon. The barrel is so placed and held that the muzzle and 
the eyes are in the .same perpendicular plane. As long as the 
relationship of barrel and eyes is kept the same, the shooter 
will hit where he looks and his body points. He may not be 
able to hit a 4-inch bull's-eye at 20 yards, but he will be able 
to hit the center area of a man-sized silhouette. Changes in 
direction of fire are made by shifting the feet so that the body 
points at the target. 

The position and technique which the shooter (right- 
handed) should practice are the same as those under which 
he would use the hand gun. The body should be in a forward 
aggressive crouch, the feet in a natural position, and the 

KILL () It (; !■; 1 KILLED 

This is how the gun looks from the front when the instinctive point- 
ing technique is used. Note that the muzzle is in line with the eyes. The 
shooter will hit where he looks so long as the gun is kept in this rela- 
tionship to the eyes and the body center. 

(; () .M II A 1 r I 15 I N (; w i r ii s ii o u i, n r. k weapons i8^ 


At the left is sliown the correct position for close combat firing of the 
shoulder wenpon. The butt rests on the hip, elbow tight against the 
stock. The grip of both hands is convulsive. The barrel is horizontal and 
parallel to the ground. The body docs all the pointing of the weapon, 
which is never swung independently by the arms. Changes in body posi- 
tion, using the feet, will enable tlic shooter to hit where he looks and 
in the direction in which his body is pointing. At the rlglit is shown an 
•ilternnte position favtu'cd by sonic shooters. The stock of tlic weapon 
is in the armpit instead of on the hip. Other shooting principles are the 

weapon gripped very tightly. The butt of the piece should be 
pressed firmly against the right side of the body just above 
the hip bone and sliould be held there by the elbow and right 
forearm, whicli should be pressing in toward the side. The 
grips of both hands on the stock and forearm of the weapon 
should be tight. In tjie case of the shotgun, subniachinegun, 
or rifle, the forearm of the piece should be lying flat in the 
palm of the left hand, the elbow of the left arm swung in as 
far toward body center as is comfortable. In this position, 
the eyes, the muzzle, and tJie belt buckle arc about in the same 
vertical plane. From this position, the gun is automatically 
in line, so far as windage is concerned. As long as the barrel 
of the piece is maintained in the same eye-body-center re- 
lationship, the shooter will hit where he looks. 
There will be no need to look at the gun while firing, 

1 84 

K 1 r, I. () K (; !•■. r k i i, i. i-. » 


Canting to the side causes the Siil)ninchincgiiu is not held in 

gun to slioot liigh and to the side. line with body center or eyes. 

and the direction in which ciie body is pointing and the eyes 
are looking should be the same. Generally, the barrel of the 
weapon should be parallel with the ground. With a little 
practice, elevation can be controlled for targets up to 30 
yards. This position can be' taken with any shoulder-fired 
weapon, slight modifications being necessary in the case of 
some subniachineguns, for example, where the left hand 
grasps the magazine housing instead of the forearm. The M-3, 
Thomp-son and the Reising submacliineguns can be fired by 
instinctive pointing with the stock collapsed or detached, by 
placing the end of the bolt housing in the middle of the body 
and resting both elbows firmly against the sides of the body. 

Alternate Position. There is one alternative butt position 
which should be mentioned. All principles are the same except 
that the shooter crouches even more over his weapon. His 
head is lowered until his line of vision is on a plane about 
10 or 12 inches above the barrel. The butt of the weapon is 
placed under the pit of the arm instead of resting above the 
hip bone, as in the first method. This position has the ad- 
vantage of bringing the eyes closer to the line of fire of the 
weapon. Conse(]uently some shooters, whose physiques are 
best adapted to this style, can fire with more initial accuracy. 

COM It A ) I- 1 II I \ r; w 1111 sill) i^ i. n i: r w e a p o n s 185 

Some instructors liave advocated placing die butt of the 
piece in tiie center of the stomach instead of on the hip. This 
position will give accuracy but it is not a natural one. It is 
difficult to assume correctly when in combat and carrying 
full equipment. It is particularly difficult to place the butt 
of the weapon in exactly the same place in the body center 
every time, since it must be placed there quickly. 

Foot and Body Positions. The stance should be a natural one. 
The feet siiould be placed so that a forward step can be easily 
taken, since the weapon may be fired either from a stationary 
position or while moving. Unnatural foot positions and set 
stances, such as a straddle-trench position, should be avoided 
in practice, because they will be hard to assume in combat. 
Cliangcs in body direction, in order to shoot at angle targets, 
should be made by changing the position of the feet. Pivoting 
should be done in any manner which comes instinctively. 
No rigid set foot position should be forced upon the shooter 
in practice, and when firing at angle targets he should be 
allowed to change the position of his feet naturally. If he is 
unable to move iiis feet, he still can get accuracy by twisting 
his body for gun pointing. As with the hand gun, jumping 
to change body direction is not advisable. 

The normal "ready," or carrying position, of a rifleman 
who expects to use his weapon at any time, lends itself to 
quick adoption of the instinctive pointing type of firing. 
Most shooters carry their weapons in some degree of a port 
position or with the butt of the piece near the hip; con- 
sequently the assumption of the proper position for hip 
shooting is simple and fast. 


After the instructor presents the need for instinctive point- 
ing and outlines situations in which it will be used, the 
shooter should be given a weapon and taught to assume 
the correct basic firing position. This can be done by either 
the coach-pupil method or the use of a full-length mirror in 
which the student can check himself. 

After he has learned to assume the correct firing position, 
the student should be made tp advance toward the mirror, or 
toward the coach, with his gun in the correct firing position. 
This is important, because shooting of this type is strictly 
offensive. The aggressive spirit must be further developed 

l86 KM, I, (I U (; I'. I K I I. I. |- 1) 

by having the shooter go in toward his target as he fires. He 
should be told tliat he can be hit jiist as easily going back from 
a bullet as he can if lie were standing still or advancing. 
While advancing witli tlic weapon in the firing position, the 
shooter should be checked to sec that he moves forward in 
his crouch, without bobbing as lie takes his steps. Most 
shooters will advance naturally, witii the barrel of the weapon 
held steadily on the same plane, but a few have a habit of 
bouncing up and down by bending at the knees as they walk. 
This must be corrected at the outset. 

The next step in training should be dry firing at angle 
targets. The shooter must be watched to see that there is no 
independent swinging of the arms when changing direction of 
fire. For this type of training, silhouette targets can be placed 
to the right and left flanks of the shooter, and lie can be 
directed to wheel and fire at these flank targets, on verbal 
commands of the instructor. Jumping, to change body 
direction, should not be permitted. 

After the dry work has been completed, the initial firing 
should be done at a range not exceeding 20 feet against a 
silhouette target on a paper background, or against a stake 
target placed in a dirt bank so that the shots can be observed. 

To be able to observe the impact points of bullets is par- 
ticularly important in the early piiases of actual firing, so 
that correct elevation and windage can be learned faster. 
After the shooter is able to place his shots in the center area 
of a 3/4 silhouette, he can be permitted to shoot at frontal 
targets from greater ranges. Ordinarily these ranges should 
not exceed 30 yards, although accuracy at greater distances 
can be achieved through practice. After proficiency has been 
achieved, the shooter should then be made to face at a right 
or left angle from silhouette targets, wheeling and firing at 
the targets on verbal commands from the coach. Here again 
the range can be increased as accuracy and proficiency grow. 

The shooter is now ready for advanced work, and all types 
of practical shooting conditions can be devised. He can be 
made to advance toward a stationary silhouette over all types 
of rubble and debris, firing as he goes in. In all cases, his eyes 
should be on the target. Bobbing targets and other surprise 
targets should be used in this training period. Courses can 
be laid out over various types of terrain, with silhouettes 
hidden at various angles to the path of the shooter, so that 


Assuming the firing position from the combat sling carry. 

1 88 K I I, L O U G E T IC I L L K D 

he is forced to fire at angles and at targets above and below 
the horizontal. 

The ability to do this type of shooting is a prerecjuisite for 
the infantry soldier on the battlefield and for the pohce officer 
in the performance of many of his combat missions. It is not 
intended to be a complete substitute for the conventional 
type of aimed fire, but rather a method of shooting wherein 
the kill can be made when time and other conditions are 
lacking for the more deliberate type of aimed shooting. 

Combat Sling Carry. At times, a shooter has been unable to 
get a shot at a target of opportunity because he could not 
get his riot gun, or rifle, into action in time from the cus- 
tomary carrying position on the shoulder. 

When rifle, carbine, submachinegun, or riot gun is carried 
in the conventionally slung manner, barrel up behind the right 
shoulder, it is difficult to bring the weapon into action 
smoothly. It can be done, but it takes an excessive amount of 
practice. The method portrayed here is a simple, easily-learned 
sling carry for use in combat and hunting. It is a good ad- 
dition to the bag of tricks of any shooter. 

It has the following advantages: 

(i) The muzzle of the piece is down; therefore rain, snow 


This new semi-automatic carbine is gas operated and weighs less than 
six pounds. It has a capacity of five rounds when one is carried in the 
chamber. The gun was originally designed as a short-range powerful 
brush gun for deer hunters. Police agencies often need a good powerful 
short-range rifle for special action and emergencies. One of the big 
objections to the higher powered rifles such as the 30/ort has been that 
the muzzle velocity and the range were too great, especially when used 
in crowded urban areas where danger exists of jiitting an innocent 
bystander well removed from the scene of action. Many officers carry 
from choice the powerful .44 magnum revolver and the new Ruger 
carbine in the same caliber should be a welcome addition to police 


Tliis is 1 well-known police and military arm. It has been in pro- 
duction since World War II and is still conimcrcially available. It 
has a cyclic rate of 500-550 rounds per minute. It can be fired either 
on semi- or full automatic. Magazine capacity is 12. This gun can be used 
with the sights with accuracy due to its stock design. 

and other typ«s of foreign matter are prevented from entering 
the bore. 

(2) The muzzle of the piece does not extend above the 
shoulder. It is easier for the carrier to make his way through 
dense undergrowth without having the weapon catch in 

(3) Tiie shoulder weapon carried in this manner conforms 
to the shape of the body and, by placing the hand on the 
forearm, the weapon can be carried with more comfort and 
is in a faster ready position than when carried by the con- 
ventional method. 

(4) After a short period of practice, the average person 
can take a slung weapon from this position and bring it into 
action for a shot faster and more accurately than the ordinary 
man can draw a pistol or revolver from his holster and fire it. 

(5) It provides an alternative to the customary sling-carry- 
ing position when the shoulder tires. 

Chapter 7 


A STUDY of this chapter will enable the soldier and law 
enforcement officer to handle most of those situations 
in which he finds himself held at the point of a gun. By 
proper training and practice in disarming, skill and self- 
confidence can be developed to a point where the student will 
become master of any situation in which he is confronted 
by a gun pointed at him by an enemy who is within arm's 

Disarming has already been taught, in one form or another, 
to many men in the military, police, and civil defense services. 
If disarming and its possibilities are understood more thor- 
oughly it will be given greater emphasis in future training 

There are many cases on record in which prisoners of war 
and criminals have escaped, killed, or seriously injured men 
who were holding them at gun-point. On the other hand, 
many military and police organizations have cases on record 
in which their own men have successfully disarmed armed 

Disarming is a technique that can be successfully used by 
trained men. Recent military history contains numerous ex- 
amples of successful disarming. It is a subject which cannot 
be presented cold to trainees, but requires proper indoctrina- 
tion and training. If a method of disarming is presented with- 
out a proper introduction, the chances are that the pupil will 
practice it only half-heartedly and will never have the con- 
fidence really to use it when an opportunity presents itself. 
The factors which influence disarming must be fully explained 
before a man can evaluate his chances of success in any given 

A study of the numerous techniques being taught in the 
armed services and police schools indicates that most methods 
of disarming are not introduced properly. The methods ad- 



vocated by difterent instructors are usually too complicated 
for easy performance and demand too much practice before 
efficiency and self-confidence can be gained. 

The methods presented here have stood the test of actual 
combat. They come from experience gained during the study 
and intensive training of several thousand men. The average 
individual can use them successfully if he understands the 
basic principles and has had a moderate amount of training 
and practice. These techniques succeed principally because 
they are simple. 


There are two general types of disarming techniques. Both 
advocate the removal of the weapon from the body area as 
the first move. The more successful advocates an instant 
follow-up body attack on the gun wielder. The other one, too 
generally advocated by law enforcement officers, concen- 
trates on wresting the gun from the hold-up man. If this 
succeeds, it still is necessary to subdue him before he can 
be brought in under arrest. How he is to be subdued seems 
to be left entirely up to the individual. In this type of dis- 
arming, there are too many possibilities of something going 
wrong. Wiiat starts out to be a scientific disarming trick can 
easily turn into just another struggle for a dangerous wieapon. 
All disanmng methods which involve handling and ivresting 
the gun away, while it is still between the bodies of the gu?i- 
?rian and his victim, are too dangerous to use. 

The gunman who points a gun at anyone is "asking for it" 
and should receive rough treatment. Because of this, the 
student should be trained to disarm and incapacitate at the 
same time. If disarming is taught and advocated in a police 
department, it should be a type that will give the officer con- 
fidence in its use; and it should be efficient enough to dis- 
courage like attempts in the future, by the same or other 

At the best, the disarming of a man who holds a loaded 
firearm involves a certain amount of risk. If this risk can 
be calculated, and if the person held at gun point realizes that 
he has a good chance of success, he will undertake to disarm 
his opponent. If it has been shown in practice that he can do 
an effective job without too much personal risk, by a method 
he has proved to himself during his training, there is a much 
greater likelihood that he will disarm an enemy if he is given 


the opportunity. He will also apply himself to practice much 
more assiduously. After all, when a man holds a loaded gun 
at your stomach and you are going to start an action to dis- 
arm him, you start something that must be finished, the sooner 
the better. Disarming in actual practice is a very personal 
matter and one that must be undertaken by a person who has 
confidence in himself and his skill. 

No two situations will be exactly alike. Differences in size 
and temperament of the individuals concerned, light, terrain 
and other circumstances surrounding the scene of action will 
cause variations in when and where to initiate a disarming 
action. It is entirely up to the man with his hands in the air 
to decide when disarming shall be started. 

Some techniques call for a person to initiate a disarming 
action at the very instant that he is told to put his hands in 
the air. Such methods advocate disarming with the hands 
down at the sides. Although there are a few men who might 
have the skill and the instant reflexes necessary to do tiiis 
successfully, it is not for tlie average man to attempt to dis- 
arm a man with a loaded weapon in this manner, or at this 
time. It is much too dangerous and demands an excessive 
amount of practice in order to achieve only a fair chance of 

Other disarming tactics are presented with the idea that, if 
the gunman is armed with a certain type weapon, a specific 
disarming method must be used. It is easy to see that to 
recommend the use of a different technique for each of the 
various types of weapons soon ends in endless complications 
and results in confusion to the person who is expected to go 
out and actually to disarm a dangerous man. For example, a 
double action revolver that is not cocked can be immobilized 
by grasping the cylinder and preventing it from turning. This 
technique is all right when used in conjunction with another 
disarming method, but should not alone be depended upon 
against a dangerous gunman. Likewise, a .45 cal. automatic 
can sometimes be immobilized by pressing the hand or stomach 
against the muzzle so that the slide is pushed back; but again, 
none but the most foolhardy would attempt this in an actual 
situation. Not only is the element of chance too great in de- 
pending on this type of disarming, but poor light, heavy 
clothing, gloves, and such would prevent success. A simple 
disarming technique that can be used against all weapons 
in all normal situations is much to be preferred. 



When a gunman uses his weapon to hold up another in- 
dividual he is unknowingly placing himself in a defensive 
frame of mind and a defensive situation. It is perfectly ob- 
vious that lie does not wish to shoot; otherwise he would 
already have done so. The reason restraining him in a simple 
robbery, for example, is fear of the law and its consequences. 
The mere fact that he has not fired his weapon indicates that 
he does not desire to do so. This gives the man with his hands 
in the air a psychological advantage, if he recognizes it as 
such, which he may use at the proper time. 

We are assuming, at this point, that the average disarming 
situation encountered by the soldier or the police officer 
will be one in which he is faced by a lone gunman. There 
are methods by which a single man might be able to disarm 
more than one person at a time, but generally they should 
be used only in extremely desperate situations or by an ex- 
tremely skilled man. In any case, a very careful evaluation 
of the chances of success uuisc be made before attempting 
such a feat. Several practical methods of securing a weapon, 
for use against its former possessor, will be discussed later; 
but they are advocated only for specific situations. 

Another assumption is that the gunman will be holding 
his weapon within arm's length of his victim. If he is not 
doing so at the period of initial contact, he can often be en- 
ticed within disarming range by certain strategems. It is only 
when the gun, or the, is within arm's reach of the 
victim that most disarming should be undertaken. Usually 
the gunman will undertake his "stick up" at close quarters, 
because he wants to emphasize the presence of the weapon in 
his hand and its authority. The gun muzzle is often placed 
against the victim's stomach or back. However, if the gunman 
initially keeps himself and his weapon out of arm's reach, 
he can often be forced to close in by reacting to his orders 
too slowly, or by pretending fright or indecision. When the 
hold-up victim acts in this manner, the gun wielder will often 
close in, so as to re-emphasize the gun and his authority with 
it. If robbery or disarming is the motive of the gunman who 
works alone, he will be forced eventually to come close in 
order to operate. 

With the exception of those who are aware of the special 
training in disarming given during the recent emergency, 
most criminals are ignorant of the practicability of disarming 


and will keep tlicir weapons close to their victims. The 
average gunman feels that the mere presence of the weapon 
in his hand will be enough to discourage any opposition. It is 
a well recognized fact in law enforcement that, were it not 
for the possession of a firearm, the average criminal would 
not attempt many of his more violent crimes. The gun is a 
prop which he must have to commit his crime. If it were 
gone, he would not attempt the crime. He knows how helpless 
he would be if it were not for the weapon in his hand, and 
therefore thinks that his victim should feel and act the same 
way. Consequently, his complete reliance on his gun and its 
efficacy makes him more susceptible to surprise attack and 
actual disarming. 

When the command "hands up" is given, the gunman 
experiences a period of tenseness, during which he is 
keyed up for possible resistance to his command. This 
period of initial contact with his victim finds him more 
alert and trigger conscious. At this time it is not advisable 
to start any disarming action, since he is more dangerous 
and less susceptible to surprise attack than he will be later. 
This is the principal reason why disarming techniques, 
which start with the hands at the sides and are initiated at 
the moment of the "hands up" command, are not advis- 

One of the oldest "gags" in the movies is for the victim 
to say, to a fictitious individual supposedly standing behind 
the man with the gun, "Don't shoot, Joe." In the movies, 
the gunman turns to encounter the fictitious character and 
the hero immediately jumps upon him and disarms him. 
This, to use a slang expression, is "corny." However, old 
though it is, in many cases a slow-witted individual may fall 
for ic. One variation, which has been used with success 
against more intelligent individuals is this: Cast an obvious 
glance behind your attacker, as though you saw someone 
approaching from his rear; then as quickly return your 
glance to him, making no comment. Although he may sus- 
pect a trick, he still will be uneasy because a doubt has been 
created in his mind. He begins to think that it would be 
entirely possible for another person to come up behind him, 
and that you are too smart to say anything about it. When 
possible, a hold-up victim should attempt to keep the 
thoughts of the gunman on something other than his gun 
before initiating the disarming action. If he can get the 

D IS A R M I N G 195 

gunman to tallc by asking liini questions, or by volunteering 
information, his mind can be distracted and the stage can 
be set for disarming. 

Considering all these factors, which help to lay the ground 
work for physical disarming, remember that the element of 
surprise is still the biggest single factor in success. The man 
with his gun trained upon you may consider the possibility 
of your trying to escape or of your trying to disarm him, if 
you are desperate enough; but the longer you wait before 
attempting your attack, the less paramount this considera- 
tion is in his mind, and the more careless he becomes. 

By the very nature of the situation, the individual with 
his hands in the air has an advantage he can and must use. 
Usually he can pick the t'wie and stage for his disarming 
action. The man with the gun cannot anticipate it, if no 
give-away indications are made. 


Before going into a detailed discussion of various disarm- 
ing methods, it is well to consider the conditions under 
which they must be practiced. The element of uncertainty 
in an individual's mind, when practicing disarming, must be 
reduced to the lowest possible point before confidence will 
develop. All the demonstrations and lectures in the world 
will not enable a person actually to perform disarming unless 
he has practiced it in circumstances as close to the real thing 
as possible. Unless proper training indoctrination is given by 
the instructor, covering such material as presented above, 
much time and effort can be wasted. 

Practice must be realistic and real weapons must be used. 
These practice weapons may be loaded with blanks for the 
more advanced trainee, but, at the very least, they must be in 
such good condition that the hammer will fall when the trig- 
ger is pulled. Most police departments have on hand num- 
bers of cheap weapons which have been confiscated from 
criminals. They are ideal for this purpose. By sawing off 
the firing pins and plugging the cylinders or barrels, the safety 
factor can be increased without reducing the realism. With 
most of tliese weapons, it is advisable to saw off the front of 
the trigger guard, so as to prevent broken fingers during 
practice, and to cut off any front or back sight blades that 
may cause cuts or scratches during practice. 

Position for Disarniing. Disarming with firearms should be 
practiced with hands upraised, so that the elbows are not be- 




The elbows should not be held 
below shoulder height when prac- 
ticing. Here is shown the impotper 
position from which to initiate 
disarming because, in most cases, 
to lower the arms in this manner 
would arouse suspicion. 

low shoulder height. All disarming methods can be success- 
fully undertaken from this arm position. Although a prisoner 
may be allowed, by some gunmen, to let his elbows drop al- 
most to his sides, he may as well practice from the higher 
arm position, especially since he probably won't be able to 
lower his arms without creating suspicion. The position of 
the hands clasped behind the head, as in handling prisoners 
of war, may also be used in practice. 

Anticipating Movement. The element of surprise is difScult 
to achieve in practice, because the man with the gun knows 
when you are going to disarm. Anticipation on the part of 
the holder of the weapon must be constantly watched and 
checked. It can usually be detected: (i) when, at the slight- 
est movement of the man whose hands are in the air, the trig- 
ger is pulled. This is not natural and would not occur in 
actual disarming; and (2) when, at the slightest movement of 
the trunk of the body, the man holding the gun turns the 
barrel to follow the movement. This means that he is anti- 
cipating, because the holder of the gun, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, cannot think fast enough to follow the move- 
ment of the body with his gun. He will pull the trigger while 

D I S A K M I N C; 197 

the weapon is still pointing in its original direction; he will 
not be able to think fast enough to move the gun barrel, fol- 
lowing, the changes in the position of the opponent, before 
he pulls the trigger. 

In practice, any devices which will enable the student to 
evolve surprise in his disarming attempts will make him 
progress that much faster. Unless checked at the outset, the 
anticipation by the man with the gun will cause the student 
to lose confidence, and he will not get the full benefit of his 
practice. If the instructor can't break the person who holds 
the gun of the anticipation habit, it is best to replace him with 
another man. 

The instructor must watch for evidence of anticipation 
very carefully and check it at once. It is best to explain to 
the entire class all the factors involved. Ask the students 
holding the guns to pull the triggers at the first indication of 
disarming movement by the victim, but to be sure that they 
do not try to follow any slight changes in body direction of 
their opponent by moving the gun barrel before pulling the 
trigger. This is especially important during the body twist 
demonstration and practice, which will be described later. 

Looking the Gunman in the Eye. In all cases, in practice and 
in actual disarming, the man with his hands in the air should 
look the gunman in the eye and keep his eyes off the weapon 
which is threatening him. This is especially true just prior to 
initiating any disarming. The body should be kept relaxed, 
and tensing of muscles prior to any offensive action should 
be avoided. Many times it is so evident that it acts as a give-- 
away to the gunman. If possible, the action should be initi- 
ated when the gunman's eyes and mind are on something else 
besides the weapon in his hand. 

A difficulty that is often encountered, preceding actual 
participation in disarming practice, is that, once the introduc- 
tory instruction is completed, many students immediately be- 
come "wise guys"; they fail to hold the gun within arm's 
reach during practice. This is a natural reaction. It can be 
largely overcome by the instructor as follows: At the outset, 
before any introduction or discussion, give half the students 
guns, pair them off and instruct them to "stick up" their 
partners. It will usually be found that most of the stick-ups 
will take place with the gun within arm's reach of the vic- 
tim. Call the attention of the class to this point; then proceed 
with the introductory material. 


The Trigger Reaction Demonstration. It is only natural that 
any one participating in disarming instruction will doubt 
his ability to accomplish disarming fast enough to beat the 
man who pulls the trigger. Naturally, the first move in any 
disarming method is to re7nove the -weapon jrom the body 
area so that, even if a shot is. fired, it will cause no injury. 
But before this first move, the student must prove to his own 
satisfaction, in practice, the following point: HE CAN 
TRIGGER. A small amount of time elapses between the in- 
stant the gunman's brain orders the pulling of the trigger, 
and the instant when it is actually pulled. This time, while 
the mind is telegraphing its message to the finger to pull the 
trigger, is sufficient to enable a man to move his body away 
from the weapon's muzzle, or, as he actually will do later, 
to knock the gun away from the body area before the ham- 
mer falls. 

This is the first and most important phase of instruction. 
It is the basic principle around which all successful disarm- 
ing techniques must be developed. Without actual knowl- 
edge of this fact and the consequent confidence in his ability 
to beat the man with the gun, the average individual will 
seldom undertake to disarm a real gunman. 

Demonstrate, then let the student practice, the following 
procedure: Stand facing the class; then have a student press 
a cocked gun, or double action revolver, against your back. 
Instruct the man with the gun to pull the trigger the instant 
he detects any movement of your body away from it. Place 
your hands in the air and keep them there. Explain to the 
class that this is only a demonstration of the slowness of the 
gunman's trigger reaction and that the hands will not be 
used at this time, as they will be later in the instruction on 
actual disarming. Execute a body twist, so that the trunk of 
the body is bent away from the gun muzzle. The twist can 
be done to the left or right, whichever is easier. In doing the 
twist, keep the feet in place, flex one knee a great deal, and 
let the other knee remain almost straight. When this is done, 
the body will be turned sideways enough so thai the muzzle 
of the gun is pointing past it, not at it. If the gunman pulls 
the trigger at the first sign of movement and does not follow 
the body by turning the gun wrist, he 'will always pull the 

D 1 S A R M I N <: 



Face the class, with tin: gunman holding the weapon pressed against 
your back, as at the left. Tell him to pull the trigger the moment your 
body moves. Execute a body rivist by keeping the feet in place and 
flexing the right knee a great deal, and by keeping the left knee almost 
straight, as at the right. The muzzle of the gun will then be pointing 
past the body when the trigger is pulled. Note the position of the 
revolver muzzle in relation to your body. 

trigger after the body is out of line of fire, even though he 
is expecting the tnovenient. 

After the demonstration has been successfully executed 
from the rear, do the same thing from the front. Place the 
students behind your back and let the opponent press the 
gun muzzle against your stomach. Point out to the class 
that, even though the man with the gun knows fully what is 
going to tiike place, he still car not think fast enough to pull 
the trigger and register a hit. Sn other words, even without 
the element of surprise, the body can be moved away from 
the muzzle area. In a like manner, the weapon can be knocked 
away in actual disarming. It should be emphasized at this 

K I I. I, (> n a E T K I L I. K D 

point that, if it is possible to keep from being shot and to 
disarm a gunman when he is expecting you to do something 
(as in practice), it will be 50 percent easier to do the same 
thing when the element of surprise is on your side. The gun- 
man's reactions, and the thought processes necessary to pull the 
trigger, will be considerably slowed when he is surprised. 

At this point the same demonstration should be performed 
by each pair of students. 

Let the student practice front and rear until he is satisfied 
in his own mind that he is actually clearing himself from the 
bullet's path. Even a slow body twist is fast enough to pre- 
vent a serious wound; a crease will be the only result. Al- 
though the body twist is used in all disarming, both front and 
rear, in reality it is not a separate movement of the body. 
It occurs naturally in conjunction with the downward sweep 
of the hands in the actual disarming. 

Any disarming method or technique will not be successful, 
from the standpoint of the student having enough confidence 
to use it, unless he is satisfied in his own mind about his speed 
of movement and chances of success. This can be proved by 
the body twist demonstration. 

The arms and hands have as yet had no place in the dis- 
arming procedure. It is well to emphasize again that the pur- 
pose of the body-twist trigger-reaction demonstration is 
merely to prove to the individual that he actually can move 
his bod}' out of the path of the bullet faster than the trigger 
man can think to fire his weapon. 

Use of Anns and Hands. After the body-twist demonstra- 
tion has been practiced, so that each individual has achieved 
proficiency, the arms and hands can be brought into use. 
With the gunman facing the student and having the gun 
within arm's reach, have the man with his hands in the air 
slap the gun away from his body area; or have him strike the 
inside of the wrist of his opponent's gun hand, using the flat 
of the hand to knock the gun away from his body. Again 
the student will find that he can actually knock the gun away 
from his body area before the weapon is fired. He must, of 
course, observe the simple rules, such as looking his opponent 
in the eye. 


Following practice and proficiency in this first procedure, 
the following disarming methods can be introduced and 
practiced. Knowledge and proficiency in the execution of 

U 1 S A K At 1 N G 

these two techniques are all that is necessary to handle all 
disarming situations in which the gun hand is -within arm's 
reach of the hold-up victim. They are effective, regardless 
of the type of weapon used by the gunman, and they can be 
used in all normal circumstances by the average individual. 
They are designed for use primarily against persons armed 
with hand guns; but only sligiit variations arc necessary to 
make them equally effective against shoulder weapons. 

Frontal Disarming (Hand Gun). First step. Facing the gun- 
man with your hands in the air, look him in the eye, be re- 
laxed, and use surprise if possible. 

Second step. Swing the arm, which is on the same side 
as the opponent's gun hand, down forcefully, so that an edge- 
of-the-hand blow is delivered against the inside of his gun 
wrist. Let the force of the blow and the downward swing 
of your arm carry the gun as far out to the side as possible. 


Face the gunman with your body relaxed and look him in the eye, 
as shown ac left. Swing your left arm down forcefully, striking 
an edge-of-the-hand blow against the inside of his gun wrist, as shown 
at right. The gun will be knocked away from his body and the 
fingers gripping the butt of the gun will fly open . . . 




The way in which the edge-of-the-hand blow should strike the gun 
wrist, on the inside and on the downward sweep of the arm, is 
shown at the left. Follow through with a knee to the testicles and 
a chin-jab blow, as shown at the right. Note, at the right, that the 
fingers of the gun hand are open. For that reason it is well to use 
old weapons in practice. 

This edge-of-the-hand blow will knock his gun away from 
your body area. At the same time, the force of the blow 
on the wrist tendons will cause the fingers of the gun hand 
to Ry open and the gun to drop from your opponent's hand. 
Usually the trigger will not be pulled; and if it is, the gun 
will be far out to the side, away from tlie body, before it 
goes off. 

Third step. At the instant your edge-of-the-hand blow, 
and the follow-through, carries the gun away from the body, 
follow up with your knee to his testicles, and use your free 
hand to give him a chin jab. 

This method of disarming combines surprise, attack and 
other elements previously mentioned, and is practically fool- 
proof when properly executed. Tlic wcnpon is knocked out of 


the liand, and tlie attack, by blows to the testicles and chin, 
downs the opponent. Even in the few cnscs where the man 
retains hold of tiie wenpoii, he will not be able to use it be- 
cause of the pain and knockout clfcct of tiic blows to his 
body. This can be practiced with sonic restraint by using 
the flat of the hand against the inside of the wrist, instead 
of the edge of the hand, and by pulling up short on the chin 
jab and knee. Its efficiency and sureness will prove itself 
to the student after a short period of practice. 



IIIM IN IHI 111. - Bl HtlMlO 




rocf OF iifcNo aiow oh inside of 






K I 1. 1. () n n F. ■ 

I 1. 1, r. D 

Rear Disarming (Hand Gun). The same general principles 
apply when the hold-up is from the rear. In this case, how- 
ever, glance over your shoulder quickly, at the moment of 
contact, so as to see in which hand the weapon is held. This 
is necessary to determine whether or not your opponent is 
using the gun barrel in your back or is using a finger to 
simulate his gun, while having the gun out of arm's reach on 
his hip. It is also important to know which arm to use in 






I) I S A U M 1 N (i 

After determining in which 
hand the gun is held, initiate tlie 
disarming action. JVIalce a down- 
ward sweeping movement across 
your back with your left arm. 
Knock the attacker's gun hand out 
to the right, as is siiown in the 
upper right picture. Then pivot 
on the left foot, stepping around 
with the right. End tiie body pivot 
with a chin jab and a knee to the 
groin, as in the lower right pic- 
ture. Note that, because of your 
follow through with a striking 
arm, the attacker's gun hand is 
way out to the side and is empty. 


making the first blow in disarming. Normally, the gunman 
will carry his gun in his master hand, usually the right, and 
will keep it there after contact has been made. He may 
change gun hands while conducting a search, but usually not. 

First step. After determining where, and in which hand, 
the gun is held, make a downward sweeping arm movement 
to the rear, directed at the inside of the gun wrist. Be sure 
to use the arm that will strike the gun wrist on the inside 
and knock the gun out to the side, away from the body. 
Use the full length of the arm to strike the gun hand. Either 
clench the fist so as to make the surface of the striking arm 
hard, or use the edge of the hand. It may not be possible 
to hit the gun hand exactly on the inside of the wrist, as is 
the case in frontal disarming; but by striking with the 
clenched fist, or edge of the hand, on the inside of the wrist 
or forearm, a stunning blow can be delivered that will knock 
the gun aside and usually cause the grip on the weapon to 
be released. 

Second step. Finish the body pivot, with a chin jab and 
a knee to the testicles for the knockout. A complete follow- 
through, with the arm which strikes the gun hand, will 
knock the gun way out from the body area. At the same 
time, the blow to the inside of the gun wrist or forearm will 
ordinarily cause the gunman to let go his weapon. In some 
cases, the grasp on the gun may be retained by the gunman, 
because the blow to the rear is not as well directed as is the 
edge-of-the-hand blow in frontal disarming. In any event, 
the gun hand will be far out from the body and the gun wrist 
can be grasped at the instant the chin jab or testicle blow is 

Disarming Against Shoulder Weapons. It is even easier to dis- 
arm a man armed with a shoulder weapon, because the 
weapon is longer and more unwieldy. The opponent's grasp 
on the rifle, shotgun or submachinegun is with both hands. 
All that is necessary in this case (gun held with butt on the 
opponent's right hip) is: (i) Strike the barrel a hard blow 
with your right hand, with the flat of your hand towards the 
left, knocking the gun out of line with your body. (2) Re- 
tain a grip on the weapon after knocking it away from your 
body; then jerk the gun forward, at the same time kicking 
out his left knee with the edge of your right foot, or kicking 
him in the testicles. (3) When he receives the blow of your 
foot on his knees or testicles, depending on position of his feet. 


Disarming of the shoulder 
\vca|)on— such as the sawed-off 
sliDrjjim, siil>iiiachinct;iin, or rifle 
—Is easier than disarming of tlic 
hand gun. Siveep down witli the 
right arm and use the right hand 
to knock tlie mu/.zle aside, as in 
the first two poses above. Retain a 
grip on the piece, as is shown 
below. Once the weapon is 
knocked away from the body 
area, kick the gunman's Icncc or 
testicles, as is shown in the third 
picture. Jerk the weapon away 
from him at the instant the kick is 

the gunman will release his grip on the weapon. This will 
enable you to fire the weapon or to use it as a club, because 
your opponent will go down and be helpless. It is important 
to strike the weapon away from your body toward your left 
side when your opponent has the butt resting on his right hip. 
Striking it from left to right leaves you open for the military 
butt stroke. 
When the rifle barrel is placed in your back, the same 



principles and methods apply as in the case of the pistol. With 
the gun butt resting on your opponent's right hip, sweep 
your left arm down to the rear; strike the gun barrel on the 
left side; follow through, pivoting on your left foot, then 
move in to the gunman, giving him a kick in the testicles 
and a chin jab. 

These methods of rifle disarming can be used equally well 
against a gunman armed with a sawed-off shot gun, a sub- 
machinegun, or any other type of shoulder weapon. 







n I S A R M T N G 




After determining on which liip 
the giiii hutt is resting, you are 
rc;i(ly to start (lisarmiiig action. It 
is ini|)ni't:int th:it you nlwnys hit 
the wcajxin on tlie siilc that will 
pievciit a butt stroke being used. 
Sweep down and across the back. 
with the left arm rigid, and knock 
the weapon aside, as is shown in 
the picture above. Pivot on the 
left foot, stepping around with the 
right. Step in and place your right 
foot in rear of the gunman, as is 
shown in the lower picture. With 
your right hand, strike an edge-of- 
the-hand blow to his face or throat 
area. If he still retains a grip or 
the weapon, grasp it with your 
left hand. With your foot in rear 
to trip, and with the backward 
blow of your right hand, he will 
go down 0[i his back and the gun 
can be jcrlccd from him. 














There are many kinds of disarming tricks, but the very 
fact that there arc so many is a good reason for limiting 
training to a few tried and proved methods. Those students 
who are interested may be permitted to explore other tech- 
niques on their own. The inclusion of too many types in 
a training program will lead to confusion and a lack of pro- 
ficiency in any of them. If time is available in the training 
program, the following techniques can be demonstrated 

D I S A R M I N r. 



Firs: determine in whiclj of your 
opponent's hands the gun is held 
and wlicther it is held close to 
your back. Then pivot to the right 
on your right foot, so that on 
completion of the pivot you are 
on tile outside of the gun arm and 
are facing the gunman, as in the 
riglit pose above. As you pivot, 
sweep your right arm downi 
knocuing the gunman's arm to his 
left. Bring your right hand up 
and under his gun arm, placing 
your hand on the biceps of his 
gun arm. The completion of the 
movement results in your left 
hand grasping the gun barrel or 
gun hand, exerting backward 
leverage and forcing the gunman 
to release the gun. The move- 
ment ends in an arm lock. See 
lower picture. 

K I I, I, OR C; F, T K I L L F. D 

after proficiency lias been acliievcd in the methods already 

The Arm Lock. Tlie following method of disarming a 
man who holds up his victim from the rear is a good one. 
It has been used witJi success by various law enforcement 
agencies, (i) After loiikiny l);iciv' to sec which hand is hold- 
ing the gun (the right in this case), pivot on your right foot 
to the right, so that you complete your pivot facing the 
gunman and place yourself on the outside, or to the right, 
of his gun arm. As the pivot is being made, sweep the right 
arm down, outstretched, knocking the gun arm to the gun- 
man's left. (2) Following through with your right arm, 
bring it up under the opponent's gun wrist, placing your 
right hand on the biceps of his gun arm. (3) With your 
left hand grasp the barrel of the piece and exert downward 
and backward leverage, bending forward as you do so. When 
this leverage is exerted against the gun hand, the grip on the 
weapon will be broken and the gunman will find that, not 
only has he lost his weapon, but also he is the victim of a 
painful arm lock. This will help in subduing him. 

Securing Pistol from Opponent. The following disarming 
method enables the victim not only to get possession of the 
gunman's weapon, but also to have it in immediate firing 
position. If a lone gunman is encountered, the use of the 
more simple edge-of-hand blow is advisable. However, there 
may be times when the gunman is accompanied by com- 
panions. In this case the method of disarming must result in 
your having control of the situation and possession of the 
weapon, so you can use it to shoot, or as a threat against its 
former owner and the other members of the hold-up party. 
Naturally, if more than one gun is trained on you, even this 
method will stand little chance of success, no matter how 
perfectly executed. 

A great deal of practice is necessary to master this par- 
ticular technique; but skill in its execution, coupled with cor- 
rect judgment as to when it should be used, has proved it 
to be successful. It is a more spectacular type and can be 
used by an instructor to introduce disarming and its possi- 
bilities to a group of students. It is not advocated for use 
against small automatic weapons, but works well against 
revolvers and automatics having a barrel length of 4 inches 
or more. 

First step. With your hands in the air and facing the 

D I S A 11 M I N <; 



Facing the gunman, as ac the Icfc, bring your left hand down 
on top of the weapon, grasping it around tlie cylinder, with your thumb 
on the inside. Knock it away from the body, to the left, in the same 
motion. As the gun is knocked away, bring your right hand down force- 
fully, striking a blow with the flat of your hand against the inside of 
the attacker's gun wrist. Retain a grip on his wrist, as shown ac 
right. Gripping the wrist tightly, jerk it up with your right hand . . . 

opponent who has the gun in his right hand, bring down the 
left hand so that your kft thumb hooks on the inside of the 
frame, with the thumb of the left hand on the inside of the 
weapon, and knock it to the left, away from your body. 

Second step. Exert downward pressure on the frame and 
barrel of the gun. In conjunction with this downward lever- 
age, slap the inside of the gun wrist with the right hand. This 
blow to the inside of the gunman's wrist, together with the 
leverage being exerted down by the left hand, will cause the 
gunman to release the weapon. 

Third step. The gun, being gripped in your left hand, or 
initial grasping hand, can be placed butt first into your right 
hand and is in immediate firing position. It is best to take a 




... at the same time, exert downward pressure with your left hand, tlie 
one that is^ grasping the gun, as shown at left. Note that this whole 
procedure is done, out and to the side away from the body. After the 
leverage has forced the gunman to release his weapon, the action winds 
up with your left hand placing the gun butt in your right hand, as at 
right. Step backward as this transfer is made. The gun is now in 
a firing position. 

Step to the rear as the transfer of the gun is made from your 
left to your right, or shooting, hand. 

To Take Over a Shoulder Weapon in Shooting Position. A 
similar disarming tactic, to secure a shoulder weapon so that 
it is in immediate shooting position is as follows: 

First step. Facing the opponent who has a rifle (butt on his 
right hip) pointed at your stomach, strike down with the left 
hand so that your left thumb hooks on the inside of the 
weapon. Knock it to your left, away from the body area. 
Grasp the barrel of the weapon with the striking hand as 
you knock it aside. 

Second step. Using the right arm, step in and hook it 
under the weapon near the trigger guard, and jerk up. With 
the original grasp on the barrel by the left hand (which is 
used to push down) and the use of the right arm to jerk 
the gun upward, the gunman's grip on the gun will be 
broken by the great leverage exerted. 

Third step. As the rifle leaves your opponent's hands, a 
step backward may be taken, so that the gun can be placed 
in a firing position. If desired, a knee can be used against 



1^ J 



Face your opponent and look him in the eye, as at left. Strike 
down and out to the left with your left hand,, grasping die weapon on 
top of the barrel, with your thumb on the inside, as shown at right. 
By this first movement, the muzzle is forced out to the side, away 
from the opponent's body. Step in, hook yoor right arm under the 
weapon, near the trigger guard, and jerk up . . . 

his groin as the gun is jerked from his grasp. In addition to 
wresting the weapon from him, there is also a good chance 
that he will receive a knockout blow on the chin, from the 
butt of his own weapon as it is jerked upwards out of his 
hands. In practice, this last feature must be watched to 
avoid injury. 

Hand in Back Attack. It is possible to disarm a man who 
places a hand in the middle of your back and keeps his drawn 
gun on his hip when he holds you up. When you find 
yourself in such a predicament, you should realize a: once 
that the man with the weapon has had some sort of train- 
ing in the proper methods of restraining an individual at 
the point of his gun. A'losc attackers, when they have a 
prisoner at gun point in this manner, feel that if the pris- 
oner makes an attempt to disarm, he will fail. Consequently, 


K I I, I, () K <; 1". T K I L L li D 


At the same time, force the muzzle down, as shown at left. The 
gunman's grip on the weapon will lie l)roI;cii, and the chances are 
good that the butt of the piece will hit him on the chin as the 
weapon is released. A knee blow m.ay be made to his testicles. In 
the final step, right, the weapon leaves the opponent's hands. As 
you grasp the small of the stock, the gun muzzle is raised to a firing 
position. At this point a step backward is advisable, so as to be out 
of reach. 

the element of surprise here is much in your favor when 
you actually disarm your opponent. 

The method is little known, but is simple and can be 
accomplished with practice. The necessity always of look- 
ing to the rear when somebody orders "hands up" is very 
obvious. Once having ascertained that a hand is in the middle 
of your back and having found the location of the gun, 
decide for yourself which direction of body turn would 
bring you into the weapon, or away from the weapon. 
It is assumed that the gun is held in your opponent's right 
hand close to his hip, and that his left hand is in the middle 
of your back. After determining this, start your disarming. 
Pivot to the outside of the arm held in the middle of your 

[) 1 S A K M I N (; 217 

back. Pivot completely around on your left foot, taking a 
step towards him as you complete the pivot, until you are 
at a point opposite him. The pivot and step toward him 
will be so that he will be unable to pull the trigger in 
time. Once beside him, you are naturally out of gun range. 
A blow and trip, or throw, may easily be applied because, 
with the first body contact, he becomes off balance. In 
this particular method, you must be sure of your ground 
and pick the stage for disarming carefully. If he attempts to 
shove you forward with the palm of his hand, a good time 
to initiate your disarming is at the time when he shoves 
you forward, because at this moment he is most likely to 
be off balance. 

Weapon-in-Pocket Attack. The man who places his weapon 
in his coat pocket and approaches within arm's reach de- 
manding "hands up" is laying himself wide open for dis- 
arming. He can be handled with ease. Facing him, with 
your hands raised (the weapon being in his right coat 
pocket and within arm's length), all that is necessary is to 
shove him backward by hitting him sharply on the point of 
the shoulder of the gun hand; that is, on his right shoulder. 
A violent blow will pivot his body to his right, so that the 
gun barrel points away from you. His hand on the gun is 
locked in the pocket and is useless. At this point, step in 
beside him and apply a trip, edge-of-the-hand blow, or other 
method of elimination. The attacker who carries his gun in 
his pocket will usually come into arm's reach without being 
enticed, for three reasons: first, he hides the gun from other 
people's view; second, he will come close enough to use his 
free hand for searching; third, since he wants to emphasize 
to the man being held up that he has a weapon, he has to 
get close in order to prove it. This type of hold-up occurs 
daily and is one of the easiest for a trained man to handle. 

Attack in an Automobile. There is a distinct possibility of 
successful disarming when you are sitting in a car, driving 
or not, with a man covering you with a gun. If you have 
had a little practice, you can readily analyze your disarming 
possibilities. Supposing the gun is in the man's right hand, 
or in any position away from his body and left arm— you 
can knock the gun hand against his body by a sweeping 
movement and deliver a knockout punch with your free 
hand, a chin jab, edge-of-the-hand-blow, or other. This 
method has many variations. A serious student should prac- 


tice it with various individuals and try to visualize all pos- 
sible situations. He should be concerned particularly with 
how the gun is held in the gunman's hand and its relation 
to his own body. Practice in this type of disarming will siiow 
up your limitations, and the various possibilities of disarming, 
so that you will soon be able to recognize them as cir- 
cumstances occur. Knowing the fundamentals of disarming, 
it will be easy to devise tactics for use against the gunman 
who points a gun at your head. He should know better; he 
shows his ignorance in attempting hold-ups of this type. 

When the Attacker is Out of Reach. All methods of disarm- 
ing when the gunman is out of arm's reach and cannot be 
enticed in should be based on the circumstances of your own 
situation. How desperate are youf Your chances of success 
are good, but by no means certain. You have a possibility 
of kicking the pistol out of his hand by a sudden horizontal 
sweep of the foot, kicking the gun aside, and following 
right in. Kick with the side of the foot, with the impact 
being on the inside of the gun hand. Since this kick will 
place you off balance, follow through with your body and 
fall forward on the gunman. If he is out of kicking range, 
your chances are that much poorer, but there is still a 50-50 
chance. The best action is to catch him off guard and execute 
a forward dive or tackle to the side of the gunman 
on which the weapon is held. This tackle, naturally, should 
be followed up by bringing the man to the ground and 
subduing him. Experiments iiavc sliown that it is much more 
difficult for a man to fire at a moving object directly off 
and down to the right (gun in right liand), tlinn it is for him 
to fire to the left and down. If the man is holding a rifle 
on you, your chances are much better, because tiie larger 
the weapon the more unwieldy it is for quick, sudden 

Another consideration is that ordinarily the gunman will 
pull the trigger while the weapon is still pointed in a 
more or less horizontal position. Consequently, by timing 
your attempt properly and being fast enough, your body 
will be in a horizontal position during the forward dive, 
at the time of the firing of the weapon. In this case, unless 
you receive a head shot, the possibilities of getting no more 
than a crease are sjood. 

When Moving Forward. Suppose you have started to move 
forward and the weapon is being held in your opponent's right 



hand, or butted against his tight hip, as in the case of a rifle. 

The sweep of your left arm down and to the rear, strik- 
ing the rifle or pistol aside, and the following blows to his 
testicles nnd ciiiii rcnmin the same. The only thing whicii 
you have to consider, tjien, is the way in which you will 
initiate your pivot. 

The best way to do this is to start the pivoting movement 
when your right foot is just being advanced and your left 
foot is still on the ground. In this position, by pushing with 
with the ball of the right foot and pivoting on the toe of 
the left, a quick and satisfactory pivot into your man will 


When approaclicd and ordered to put up your hands by the gunman 
who comes in close and conceals his weapon in his coat pocket, watch 
for the opportune time. Then, with the hand opposite his gun arm, strike 
a hard blow to the point of the gunman's shoulder, causing him to spin 
to the right, aivay frojii you so tliat vour bodv is out of range. See left 
above. When your blow pivots him awav, off balance, step in imme- 
diately. Place one foot, the right, behind him and deliver a blow as 
shown at the right above. He will go down with his right hand still 
grasping the now useless gun in his pocket. If need be, )our feet can be 
used, once he is on the ground. 

Z20 K I I, L O R G F, T K I L L E D 

If the weapon is being held in the attacker's left hand or 
against his left hip, the reverse procedure will apply. 

The same method of pivoting will suffice if a hand, or 
finger, is in your back and your opponent's weapon is held 
on his hip. If this occurs, remember again to pivot towards 
the side away from the gun hand. 

Some instructors believe it is advisable to fake a gun 
barrel in a prisoner's back by using the stiff forefinger, or 
knuckle, to imitate the gun barrel. The gun hand is kept 
back out of arm's reach, so that any attempt directed against 
the "fake" gun hand will fail. This type of procedure par- 
ticularly is not one for law officers to use, since it really 
tempts the victim to try disarming and thus causes him to 
be shot. A police officer or soldier whose object is to bring 
in the prisoner, not to kill him, should let the prisoner know 
that the gun is on his hip. He should use his free hand to 
shove the prisoner along, not to fake a gun. 

Chapter 8 


THE soldier or police officer should avoid getting him- 
self into a situation which would permit an opponent 
to attempt to disarm iiim. 


A- previously stated, the man with the gun is at a dis- 
advai cage; he does not want to shoot or he would already 
have done so. This is especially true of the law enforcement 
officer; his mission is not to kill but to restrain and capture. 
Mc must take more clianccs in handling his prisoner than arc 
necessary on a battlefield. 

The man held at gun point is usually an unknown quan- 
tity; he may be meek and docile, or he may be so desperate 
that he will attempt disarming, given the slightest oppor- 
tunity. Fear of capture, punishment for crimes committed 
in his past, dope, or just plain viciousness, coupled with the 
possibility that he has received training in disarming, make 
every such prisoner potentially dangerous. Therefore, he 
should be handled carefully. Too much reliance should not 
be placed upon the mere presence of the weapon in the 
hand to control or to command obedience and respect. 

Generally, police and military departments do not ques- 
tion too closely the man who is forced to shoot an antagonist 
who attempts to escape; but they certainly hold responsible 
the policeman or soldier who permits a prisoner to disarm him 
and escape. The publicity given to a successful disarming or 
an escape attempt undermines public and organization confi- 
dence. Therefore, if it is necessary for the policeman or soldier 
to use a gun to restrain a prisoner, he should be trained to 
use it pioperly as a means of enforcing his authority. 

Prisoners who are desperate enough to attempt escape usu- 



Keep out of arm's reach and keep the gun hand well back on the 
hip. From this position, tiic prisoner usually should be ordered to 
turn around, raise his liands higher, and spread his legs apart, before 
he is searched from the rear. 

ally are quick to take advantage of carelessness and overconfi- 
dence on the part of the officer. They make full use of the 
element of surprise and the slowness of the officer's trigger 

Rules for Handling Prisoner. The following general rules 
should be followed when handling a criminal at gun point. 

(i) Give every indication— by inference, speech, actions— 
that you will unhesitatingly shoot at the slightest provocation. 
Dominate all the actions of the prisoner. 

(2) Keep out of arm's reach until you are ready to search 
for weapons. 

(3) Make the prisoner keep his hands way up in the air 
and his back toward you, if possible. 

(4) Do not allow the prisoner to talk, look back, gesture 
or otherwise distract you. 

(5) If the immediate area of the action is not suitable for 

I> K I S () X I'. K II A N I) L I jN « 


an initial search for weapons move him by oral commands 
CO a more suitable area. Use well-placed kicks, or shoves with 
the free hand, if necessary to make him move faster and obey 
orders promptly. 

(6) if possible, use the wall search method when searching 
for weapons. 

(7) If no wall is available, make the prisoner spread his 
legs until he is in an awkward position before approaching 
from the rear to search for weapons or other items. Do not, 
alone, search from the front, if it can be avoided. 

(a) Keep your gun hand back against the hip and use 
your free hand to make the "frisk." 

(b) Keep your foot that is on the same side as the search- 
ing hand against the heel of the suspect's shoe. Search the 
closest half section of his body; then move to the other 
side, change gun hands, and repeat. 


The prisoner's hands and legs 
are spread far apart. He is forced 
to lean forward and support him- 
self with his arms against the wall. 
The searcher hoolts his foot inside 
the prisoner's foot. At the least 
hostile act, the foot Is jerked out 
and the prisoner falls. This is an 
effective way of searching and 
handling one or more prisoners. 


Tlic prisoner's legs are spread 
far apart, putting him in a very 
unbalanced position. His hands, in 
this case, are resting on top of his 
head. The hands-on-head is a good 
position. It can be maintained a 
long time without tiring, and the 
arms are prevented from gradually 
lowering, as is the case with the 
hands-in-air position. 


K I I, I. (1 It C |-. r K I 1, I. K D 

The man with tlie gun can oper- 
ate niucli closer to the prisoner if 
he places one foot against the pris- 
oner's heel. The side of the body 
is toward the prisoner, so that the 
groin area is protected. 

After practice, the swivel-type 
cuff can be affixed with one hand. 
Tlie prisoner's hand that is being 
cuffed is pulled way out from his 
back, thus increasing his unbal- 
anced position. 

(8) After the search for weapons, apply handrnffs, use 
a come along, or have him precede you, at gun point, to 
whatever destination you select. If there is a possibility of 
the prisoner making a break— because of crowded streets, 
narrow doorways and hallways, poor light— grasp his belt 
in the rear with your free hand. Keeping the gun back on 
your hip, control the prisoner's movements by kicks and 
the grip on his belt. It is extremely difficult for him to dis- 
arm you as long as a strong grip is maintained on the belt 
and the gun is held well back. 

Trouscr and Coat Tactics. There is a variation of this tactic 
which permits free movement and still prevents a sudden 
break. Cut, or take off, the prisoner's belt or suspenders; rip 
the top buttons from his trousers, if necessary, so that he is 
forced to use one hand to hold them up. This prevents any 
sudden action on his part; the minute he lets go of his 
trousers, they will slip down and bind his legs. It is also 
very difficult for a prisoner to run if he is forced to hold 
up his trousers with one hand. Not only does removing the 
trousers support create a physical handicap, it also has a 
psychological effect. If a person is partly undressed, it tends 

I' U I S (> N I U II A \ II I INC 


When the occasion warrants, the 
prisDner's clothing can be used to 
iniitu>hili/.e him. Not only are his 
arms and legs temporarily re- 
stricted, he also is under a psycho- 
h)gical disadvantage in his partly 
dressed condition. 

to subdue impulsive moves. Just so, pulling a coat down 
over the prisoner's shoulders will bind his arms temporarily, 
while he is being searched, or until final disposition is made. 
In emergencies, soldiers and police officers have followed 
both procedures— they have dropped the prisoner's trousers 
around the ankles and pulled his coat down over his arms, 
thus anchoring him in one place until the situation war- 
ranted more permanent measures. This strategy is particu- 
larly good if a lone individual is forced to stand guard over 
a number of potentially desperate prisoners. 

Occasions may arise when it is expedient to approach the 
suspect from the front while conducting a search for weapons. 
This is more dangerous than a search from the rear. The gun 
must be kept well back; and the body must be kept side- 
ways, hip foremost, so as to protect the more vulnerable 
spots— groin, testicles— from a hand, foot, or knee blow. 

If visibility is good and the situation is otherwise favor- 
able, a suspect can be ordered to lower one hand and unfasten 
his belt buckle, or other means of trouser support. His 
trousers will drop, binding his legs and providing an addi- 
tional precaution while making a frontal search. Likewise, 
his coat can be pulled down over his arms so as to bind 
them at the elbow. 

Although these methods of prisoner control and contact 


from the front are good, they arc more risky. There is 
always a possibility that the more desperate type of prisoner 
will try to draw and use a concealed weapon, or will attempt 
a disabling blow and disarming. 


When a desperate man is apprehended and held at gun 
point, the arresting officer always should search for his weap- 
ons. Usually, tliis searcli should be made from the rear, so 
that the prisoner is in doubt about the officer's position and 
the exact whereabouts of his gun. 

This initial frisk for weapons is very important. Although 
it is often hurried, it should never be done carelessly. The 
prisoner's hands, feet and legs are sources of danger. The 
searcher should keep his groin, or other vulnerable parts of 
his body, and his weapon, out of reach of the prisoner while 
making the search. However, if the searcher is forced by 
circumstances to get close to his prisoner, he should get his 
body so close that any blow delivered by the prisoner cannot 
be executed with full force. 

The "Pat" Search. The initial search for weapons, some- 
times called the "pat" or "feel" method, cannot in any sense 
constitute a thorough body search; but it can detect most 
weapons and other bulky objects. After this initial "pat" 
search, the prisoner is usually taken to a headquarters, where 
he is disrobed and his clothes and person subjected to a de- 
tailed examination. Tlie pat search should cover the pris- 

Deadly weapons can be carried in any number of places wlierc a 
hasty search will fail to locate them. A knife in wrist holster taped 
on inside of arm when concealed by sleeve of shin or coat is many 
times initially overlooked, as is a small "hideout" gun when carried 
in the same location. 



Weapons are many times carried by assassins and criininals in seem- 
ingly innocent objects such as a book where the inside pages have 
been hollowed out. 

oner's arms, armpits, waist line and back, his groin and tes- 
ticle area, and the entire surface of his legs, down to the 
shoes. In addition to the more obvious places, firearms and 
bladed weapons have been found on prisoners in the follow- 
ing places: the hat, hair, necktie, shoes, belt; suspended by 
a string down the back of the neck; tied or taped to the 
arms; inside the wrists, groin, legs and armpits. The searcher 
should look with suspicion on such innocent objects as foun- 
tain pens, pencils, cigarette cases. Many such items have 
been adapted to conceal knife blades, or tear gas projectors, 
or small caliber cartridges which can be fired by manipula- 
tion of concealed trigger mechanisms. A collection of items 
of this type should be displayed in every training-school. 

If, in the searcher's judgment, the situation is serious 
enough, the prisoner can be knocked out, or stunned, by a 
gun butt or edge-of-the-hand blow, so as to permit a more 
thorough search and provide a better means of handling the 

Searching More Than One Prisoner, In some circumstances, 
a lone individual may be required to search and disarm more 
than one prisoner or suspect. He should require the prisoners 
to raise their hands, stand in column about 4 feet apart with 
their backs toward the officer and their feet spread. The 
nearest prisoner should be searched first and, on completion, 
should be directed to proceed to the front of the column; 
then the next prisoner should be searched, and so forth. By 
remaining in the rear of all the suspects and keeping them 
under surveillance, the officer should be able to control the 


K I I. I. () i( <; i: I N I f I. I' I) 

■111:1 I 


If a lone officer or man is forced to search more than one suspect, the 
suspects should be made to stand in column, about 4 feet apart, in an 
unbalanced position. The rear man is searched first, then is directed to 
move to the head of the column. Then the next man is searched, and 
so on. 

entire group. The wall search method can also be used in 
cases of this kind. 

Searching When Carrying a Shoulder Weapon. Although the 
law enforcement officer usually carries a hand gun, he may 
find himself in situations in which he carries only a shoulder 
weapon, such as a rifle, submachinegun or shotgun. The 
normal methods of search, employed when using the hand 
gun, will be extremely difficult. If he has enough confidence 
in himself physically he can lay down his weapon and search 
in the same manner he would use when covering the prisoner 
with a hand gun. If he wishes to keep the weapon trained 
on the prisoner, he can conduct a search in the following 
manner. Direct the prisoner to lie on his back, with his arms 
outstretched close together over his head and his feet close 
together. Place the muzzle of the rifle in the pit of the sus- 
pects stomach and keep the gun upright, with the trigger 
finger inside the trigger guard. Then, to fire the weapon, 
it is necessary only to lift the finger against the trigger. 
The weigiit of the weapon will be enough to counterbalance 
the trigger pull, so that the piece will fire with slight move- 
ment. Conduct the search with the free hand. Then direct 

P |{ I S O N I". K II A N 1) I. 1 N (; 229 

the prisoner to turn over, and repeat the process. The muzzle 
of the rifle can be twisted in the prisoner's clothing to pre- 
vent it slipping off. 

In certain situations, the finger has been used successfully 
by unarmed individuals as a bluff in simulating a gun barrel. 
The chances of success in a stratcgem of this kind will 
depend entirely upon the searcher's force and command of 
the situation. If the approach is made from the rear and the 
prisoner is not allowed to turn to see what is pressing against 
his back, he usually can be controlled long enough to permit 
a search of his person and the securing of his weapon. The 
knuckle of the forefinger will be a suitable imitation of a gun 
barrel when pressed in the middle of a man's back. The 
forefinger, when applied in its full length, may bend if 
weight is pressed against it, thus giving away the situation 
to the more e.xperienced type of criminal. 


Military and civil police records are replete with cases in 
which seemingly docile and subdued prisoners who were not 
properly secured have escaped, either killing or injuring the 

Although each service has its own instructions on the type 
of persons to be handcuffed, it is still up to the individual 
officer to rely on his judgment of the potential danger and 
the difficulty in handling the prisoner. In most police depart- 
ments the officer is instructed to use handcuffs whenever the 
status of his prisoner is doubtful, and in other ordinary cir- 
cumstances. However, the degree of desperation of a prisoner 
is frequently an unknown factor, and the conventional appli- 
cation of handcuffs will not always suffice to prevent a 
desperate man from attempting to escape. After the shock of 
capture and arrest has worn off, an escape attempt will often 
be made, even though handcuffs have been applied. 

The proper use of handcuffs on various types of prisoners 
requires individual practice and the exercise of good judg- 
ment. Although the officer may have been told when and 
where to use handcuffs, he must have training in applying 
them so that they perform their function efficiently in all 

With his wrists pinioned by handcuffs, a desperate prisoner 
is still far from helpless. If his hands are cuffed together in 
front, so that the arms swing free, it is possible for him to 

230 K I r. I, OK n r. r k i r, i, f. d 


This is the more popular type of handcuffs, with an adjustment that 
|)ennits a close fit to all sizes of wrists. The niethoil of cuffing shown 
here ]>ern\its the prisoner to use his hands for eating and other normal 
actions. But it also makes him more dangerous, since he can grasp a 
gun, strike a blow, or a concealed weapon, cveji though both hands 
arc pinioned. Prisoners have been known to pick, or otherwise break, 
locks or links « hen thev arc secured in this manner. 

deliver a knockout blow using both his hands or the handcuffs 
themselves. When an officer is alone, it is not advisable to hand- 
cuff himself to the prisoner. This leaves the prisoner with one 
hand free for attack and restricts the officer in preventing 
any attempted escape. Many officers who handcuff themselves 
to their prisoners deposit the keys to the cuffs with another 
officer, in the prisoner's presence. This usually discourages an 
attempted escape by the prisoner, although it also incon- 
veniences the officer. Generally it is much better to use tHe 
handcuffs to pinion both the prisoner's hands. 

Since there are many methods of using handcuffs, each 
prisoner can be cuffed in a manner which will prevent him 
attempting to escape or attacking, according to the officer's 
estimate of his dangerous potentialities. This is particularly 
important if the prisoner is being moved from one locality 
to another. 

Types of Handcuffs. There are two general types of hand- 
cuffs. One is a cuff of fi.\ed size which is applied to all pris- 
oners, regardless of wrist size. The more popular type is an 
adjustable cuff, which makes possible a secure grip on any 
size wrist or other part of a limb that is to be pinioned. 

I» R I S () N F. K 1 1 A N O I, I N G 


No attempt should be made to apply handcuffs until the 
prisoner has been subdued, by physical or mechanical means. 
Handcuffs are often applied after the prisoner has been sub- 
dued by the hands, fists, baton, blackjack or other weapons, 
or when the prisoner is held at gun point. On other occasions, 
such pressure holds as the arm lock are applied before cuffing. 

There are methods of applying handcuffs in a surprise 
attack on the prisoner, but this procedure is often very risky. 
It should be used only by extremely skilled persons. If he so 

Using the cuffs to secure a pris- 
(liicr to a tree, post, or pole until 
ic c:\n l)c taken in. 


When appl.ed in this manner, with the backs of the hands, not the 
palms, facing each other the liantlcufTs arc effective. The prisoner is 
given less freedom, but he cannot use his hands effectively, even though 
his arms are free. 


K I I. 1. OK r. V. T KILLED 



There arc ninny clnsscs and types of handcuffs. They range in 
price and quality from tlic cheaper Spanish-made cuff to the very 
finest which can be purchased for only a little more. 

Handcuffs, like the sidcarm, should he of the best type and quality. 
Failure of either one at a crucial time can result in disaster. The 
best type handcuffs are those that have a rotating jaw, allowing the 
cuffs to be applied swiftly and fitting the smallest to largest wrist. 

These new Smith & Wesson cuffs have great strength and yet 
are also light in weight. They arc so designed that they may be 
clamped on the wrists with both key holes toward the body and 
away from the prisoner's hands. This makes picking more difficult. 
A double lock is another new feature. By using the punch on the 
handle of the key to depress a plunger, the rotating jaw is secured 
against travel in either direction, thus preventing increased tightening 
after application and the consequent loss of blood circulation in the 
pinioned wrists. 

chooses, a prisoner who, has not been subdued prior to actual 
cuffing can be very difficult. 

Rules for Handcuffing. The following are good general rules 
when handling a potentially dangerous prisoner. 

(i) When moving the prisoner by car, the wrists should be 
handcuffed, or tied, and then held to the body by the belt, 
tied to the outside door handle, or tied to the leg. 

(2) The legs and feet are dangerous. Loop a belt around 
the feet and tie to the cuffs if the situation warrants. The 
officer should always consider the knees, feet and manacled 
hands of the prisoner as potential weapons and should restrain 
them from free movement whenever possible. 

(3) Many fanatical prisoners who have been only hand- 

!• U 1 S O N E U HANDLING 233 

cuffed have escaped, while traveling by bus or train, by crash- 
ing out through the window. A common dog chain, with 
padlock, can be put to good use on persons of this type, 
binding the ankles to the handcuffs. Special leg irons are 
available for this purpose, but a dog chain will make a satis- 
factory substitute. 

(4) In case of an emergency at the scene of action, use the 
handcuffs, or any of the other tying expedients, to secure 
the prisoner to a post, tree, or such. Then proceed with the 
other elements of the situation. To secure more than one 
prisoner in an emergency, use an automobile skid chain. 
Loop it around some stationary object, such as an automobile 
bumper, then handcuff the prisoner by locking a section of 
the chain within the cuffs. 

(5) In handling and moving a prisoner, always stay a little 
to his rear and make him precede you. He is then in a posi- 
tion where his every action can be observed, yet he is unable 
to see what his captor is doing. Always use this procedure 
when passing through doors. 

(6) Firearms must be kept out of possible reach of the 
prisoner; and the officer's master hand should be kept free for 
action— the right hand in most cases. 

(7) Violent prisoners must first be subdued pliysically, or 
held at gun point, before handcuffing. In all cases of this type, 
the cuffs should be applied with the prisoner's hands behind 
his back. The arm lock, hammer lock, and similar holds are 
useful when physical force is used. Force the prisoner to the 
ground on his stomach. By applying pressure, make him put 
his free hand back so it can be secured by the cuffs or a tie 
can be made. If a dangerous prisoner is handled alone and he 
is held at gun point, arms in the air, make him keep his back 
to the gun, spread his legs apart and bring one hand at a 
time down to the rear for cuffing. 

(8) In extremely violent cases where time is short, use the 
gun butt, edge of the hand, baton, or blackjack to knock him 
out or stun him before cuffing. 

(9) When forced to handle dangerous prisoners, either 
stay entirely out of arm and leg reach, or get in very close, 
so that an attempted blow cannot be delivered with full force. 


When there are no handcuffs available, the officer may have 
to use emergency means of securing his prisoner. Any of the 


KILL OR GET K 1 L L ]■: D 


One wrisc is locked and pinioned, with enougli room to permit die 
jaw of the other cuff to be inserted between the cuff and the wrist of 
the locked cuff, as sliown at upper right. The second cuff is then locked. 
In effect, the cuffs arc iinl<cd together like a chain while, at the same 
time, the wrists arc kept pinioned in a rigid position. With the inter- 
locked cuff, the use of the hands is greatly restricted, as shown at lower 
left. Any exertion can be painful if the cuffs are applied tightly. 

Dangerous prisoners can be further limited in action by pointing the 
hands in opposite directions, as shown at the lower right. The restriction 
here is so complete that, even though the prisoner were given the key, 
he still could not unlock the cuffs. 



following articles may be satisfactory: a piece of rope, the 
prisoner's shoe laces, adhesive or tire tape, flexible wire, the 
prisoner's belt, necktie, or handkerchief, a silk stocking, a 
long, twisted piece of cloth. The effectiveness of these ex- 
pcilicnr.s is c-iinrely cicpendcnr upun training nml pr:icricc in 
their use. Errors in tying procedure are usually glaringly 
apparent during practice sessions. 


This method is especially good when a lone officer is transporting a 
prisoner by automobile. It can be used also to lock a prisoner to a chair 
in which he is sitting, the links of the cuffs being passed around the 
rung or leg of the chair. The same method, locking a single leg, may 
be used in the seat of a car, as shown at upper right. Or both legs may 
be passed through the loop of the arms, as shown at lower left. The 
use of cuffs shown ac lower right secures the arm of the prisoner 
that is next to the driver, but leaves one arm free for maintaining 
balance or smoking. 

2 36 

K I 1. 1, OR a f.r K 1 1, 1. F, n 

Should circumstances warrant, the hands can be cuffed behind the 
back in this manner. This is a good mctliod to use when forced to 
walk the prisoner a long distance. 

By passing one end of tlie cuffs through a trailer coupling or 
wagon wheel, before completing the cuffing of the other hand, the 
prisoner can be firmly secured. 

PRISON IC K II A N 1) 1. 1 ,N (I 


When there are two or nioic prisoners, tliey cnii be tciiiporarilv 
secured, under liglit guard, in this manner. In this case three pairs of 
cuffs are used. An autoniohilc chain, with one or more pairs of cuffs, 
also is useful in securing prisoners u> any solid object. The chain can be 
used, together with the culfs, to wrap around the bodies of several 
prisoners, thus restricting their movements. 

Three pairs of cuffs can be u.sed to restrain three men. Although these 
men are fastened only by their hands and are free to use their feet, it is 
difficult for them to move swiftly, since one man must always walk or 
run backward. 




The. -w-rists cuffed with the link under the belt, as shown in the first 
picture, will greatly reduce the freedom of arms and hands. This is a 
good method to use when walking a prisoner a long distance, or when 
transportbg him by car. Ideally, the belt buckle should be moved far 
enough around to prevent its being loosened by the hands, as shown in 
the second picture. The belt can also be used to restrict the hands 
further, when the hands are cuffed behind the prisoner's back, as is 
shown in the third picture. 

Another variation is to remove the belt and force tlie prisoner to 
hold up his trousers with his hands. Still another method, when trans- 
porting the prisoner by car, is to roll down the window and put both 
his arms outside, with the link of the cuff over the outside door handle. 



Boot or shoe laces can be used effectively, provided they are pulled 
tight enough and providing the wrists are pulled together, with a wrap- 
ping around the cord between the insidcs of the wrists, as shown at 
upper left. This method is effective when the thumbs, as well as the 
little fingers, have been tied to each other, as illustrated at right. This 
prevents twisting of the hands and possible breakage of the wrist cord 
by exerting leverage. An outside view of the same method is shown at 
lower left. If the hands are placed back to back behind the body, an 
almost unbreakable tie is made. 


K I 1. I, n a ]■: r k i 1. r, i: ri 

Tying with slioe lace or cord is most 
effective when the hands are placed first 
around a pole or tree. Placing the victim's 
back to a tree and tying his wrists, little 
fingers and thumbs, provides an inescapable 
tie, especially if the arms are placed around 
a small tree, as shown at right. 


Here is shown a pair of hand- 
cuffs used in transporting two 
prisoners. A 5-foot chain is at- 
tached to the connecting links of 
the handcuffs and a 3-inch ring is 
attached at the other end of the 
chain. This combination is avail- 
able commercially, or can be im- 
provised by using a dog chain 
with the handcuffs. 

•— O' 

P R I S f) N F. R TI A N n L T N R 



The liog tie, an extremely effective method, is initiated from the arm 
locic, with your opponent face down on the ground and his forearm 
bent up behind iiis back in a painful position. A little additional pressure 
on his bent arm will force him to place his other hand behind his back, 
at your order. With a rope, tie his wrists together. Take one end of the 
cord, run it around his neck, and tie it to his pinioned wrists. There 
should be enough pressure on the cord to force his hands up high 
toward his shoulder blades. Cross his ankles and, after doubling his legs 
up behind him, tie them with the other end of the cord, so that they 
remain in position. Any struggle to free himself will result in strangula- 
tion. Wlien correctly applied, there is no escape from this tie. Various 
knots have been advocated in making this tie, but any standard tying 
knot may be used. The essential thing is that the victim shall be unable 
to make any effort to release himself. 




A tie using tape, strips of twisted 
clocii, insulated electric wire, 
twine, or rope, as shown at left, 
is always effective. Above adhesive 
(or tire) tape is used to tie not 
only the wrists but also the fore- 
fingers. By taping tlie forefinger 
of each hand to the opposite fore- 
arm, the victim is prevented from 
obtaining leverage and twisting 
his arms so as to break the tape. 
Tape is also a good reinforce- 
ment of any other material used 
for tying. 

I' U I S () N i: K II A N n T, I N G 


A canvas or leather belt, or a necktie, makes an effective tic. The belt 
is wrapped around each wrist several times, as sliown at upper left. 
After tightening, tlie belt buckle is fastened, as shown at upper right. 
The buckle should be placed underneath, so tliat the prisoner cannot 
loosen it with his teeth. The method sliown at lower left is especially 
effective if the victim's arms are first placed around a post, tree, or other 
solid object. Again, it is well to keep the buckle out of reach of the 
victim's teeth. At lower right is another method of belt tie. Here the 
wrists have been wrapped before tightening the belt. The material used 
for this tie must be strong enough to withstand the leverage that can be 
exerted by pushing the elbows in opposite directions. 

Chapter g 


THERE are many cases on record in which law enforce- 
ment officers have cornered desperate criminals or insane 
persons in buildings and have had to resort to gunfire to 
subdue them. These cases range from an armed criminal in 
a room to the planned raid against a building. The latter has 
its counterpart in combat patrol operations and in street 
fighting, and the same principles apply. 

Properly planned raids will result in the subjugation and 
capture of criminals with a minimum of casualties. Improper 
planning, and failure to know and appreciate the many factors 
mvolved, have caused many needless casualties, without 
achieving the desired result. Training— in common sense pre- 
cautions and in the basic principles of cover, concealment, 
fire and movement, as practiced by the combat infantryman- 
should be given every law enforcement officer. 

A raid— properly led and executed by well-trained, ade- 
quately armed men— will result in success; but police history 
is replete with hastily planned, poorly executed operations 
which not only have failed to apprehend criminals but also 
have resulted in the untimely death of police officers. 

Most well-equipped police departments today have gas 
equipment on hand. When at all possible, it should be used. 
However, because circumstances will arise when gas muni- 
tions are not readily available, law enforcement officers must 
be able to execute raids which depend solely on prior 
planning, skilled execution, and firearms. For, if they assume 
that gas will be available in all emergencies and then are 
forced into a situation where it is not available, a psycholo- 
gical prop is knocked from under them and failure may 

The Barrow Brothers Incident. A classic example of what 
can happen when a raid is poorly planned and executed is 
tlie incident involving the notorious Barrow brothers, as 


K .\ I I) S A N I) l< () O M C; O M II A [' 145 

described by Colonel Sterling A. Wood in his book. Riot 
Control. Although outnumbered and surprised, they suc- 
cessfully "shoe it out" with twelve law enforcement officers 
and escaped. 

On the night of 17 July 1933, the two Barrow brothers, 
wanted for murder, accompanied by two woman compan- 
ions, rented a cabin at the Crown Cabin Camp, six miles 
southeast of Platte City, Missouri. It was a double brick cabin, 
with a covered garage between the two rooms. Each room 
had one door facing to the south and one door opening into 
the garage. After the gangsters had parked their car in the 
garage, it could be backed out only on the south side. 

Late in the next afternoon a tip was received by Sheriff 
Coffee at Platte City. He posted deputies to watch the cabin 
and asked the State Highway Patrol and the Sheriff of 
Jackson County for assistance. The mixed force included 
four deputy sheriffs from Kansas City in a police scjuad car, 
armed with one submachinegun, two riot shotguns, and one 
revolver; three State Highway Patrolmen, armed with an- 
other submachinegun and their revolvers; Sheriff Coffee, 
with another submachinegun; and four deputies, armed with 
one rifle and their revolvers. 

The cabins were dark as the officers approaciied. The squad 
car was driven to within about fifteen feet of the garage 
door, and the headlights wore played on the door of the 
east cabin. Captain Baxter, of the State Highway Patrol, 
and Sheriff Coffee, carrying bullet-proof shields in front of 
them, went toward the east cabin. Captain Baxter was 
armed with a submachinegun. Sheriff Coffee commanded 
the occupants to come out for questioning and was answered 
by a woman's voice, saying "As soon as we get dressed." 
After a few minutes wait, the Sheriff called that unless they 
came out the cabin would be bombarded. His answer was 
a fusilade of shots. The sheriff was hit three times, but the 
shield protected all vital spots. As he commenced firing, 
Captain Baxter's submachinegun jammed. 

The two officers withdrew. Rifle bullets were now pepper- 
ing the squad car and the "bullet-proof" glass. After firing 
about six shots, the submachinegun in the car jammed and, 
at about the same time, the driver was shot through the 
legs. The squad car was then backed away from the garage. 

246 KILL on c; E r IC 1 I, L E D 

Another officer was wounded. Just then the door of the 
east cabin flew open and a man and a woman ran out. They 
stumbled under a burst of fire but made the garage, raised 
its door, and reached their car. Here they were joined by 
the other pair, who came directly from the west cabin into 
the garage. The car dashed backward out of the garage and 
drove off into the night. It was a clean getaway, thoutrh 
a number of weapons were left behind and fresh blood stains 
indicated that at least one of the group had been wounded. 

Despite the complete surprise of the attack, the bandits 
had fought their way through a cordon of oflicers and 
escaped— twelve armed officers against only two men and 
two women. 

The Barrow incident is not an isolated example; there are 
many others. Not only does a failure such as this cost lives, 
but law enforcement in general loses prestige and public 
confidence. Also it increases the arrogance and self-confidence 
of the more desperate criminal types. 


In planning a raid, the objective is tiie first consideration. 
This may be the apprehension, or subjugation, of criminals 
or insane persons; or it may be search and seizure of the 
premises. Next is the element of surprise. If at all possible, 
the raid should be executed under such conditions and at 
such times that it will be a complete surprise to the defend- 
ing party. 

A well-planned raid, executed without the benefit of sur- 
prise and made in the face of enemy fire, obviously is much 
more difficult tlian one where surprise is present. It involves 
more risk and rei]uires more skillful execution. No raid should 
ever be undertaken against armed, desperate men without 
careful planning of the most efficient employment of weapons. 

The following discussion should be considered only as a 
general pattern for the planning of a successful raid. No two 
raids will be exactly alike. The local situation, the time ele- 
ment, and the nature of the objective will influence the plan- 
ning and execution of each. Initiative and common sense 
must be coupled with the experience gained in actual combat, 
if police operations of this type are to be generally successful. 


Any group action which involves the use of weapons and 
the consequent possibility of casualties must be well led. 


World War II reemphasized that there must be a unified 
supreme command in all military operations, small and large. 
This holds true in law enforcement. The raid commander, 
once chosen, must be given authority and his decisions must 
be carried out explicitly by all members of the raiding party. 
Innate qualities of leadership, experience and sound judgment 
are requisites in any commander. In the Armed Forces, the 
choice of a commander for any given operation is ordinarily 
dictated by rank; but in civil law enforcement, the selection 
of the leader and of the personnel to carry out the raid is 
sometimes not so simple. Raiding parties often are made up 
of representatives of different law enforcement bodies. Over- 
lapping jurisdiction, and a need for additional strength and 
experienced personnel, will often result in the raiding party 
being made up of representatives of State, Federal, county and 
municipal police forces. Such a mixed personnel situation 
presents problems in the planning and execution of the raid 
and in the selection of the raid commander. If at all pos- 
sible, the major phases of the raid should be carried out by 
one police organization under the leadership of a man known 
for his ability— one who has the confidence of the members 
of the raiding party and who knows the individual capabili- 
ties of tiie men in his command. 

Mixed raiding parties often operate under a handicap be- 
cause of differences in training, experience and cooperation. 
This handicap must be recognized— and surmounted— in the 
planning stage. Failure to cooperate or to obey orders, for 
any reason, after the actual raid has started will lead to pos- 
sible casualties and failure. Petty or jurisdictional jealousies 
must be kept to a minimum. 

The raid commander should be selected and his authority 
established; and he should be given his choice, when pos- 
sible, of the men and equipment necessary to do the job. 
He must then consider the following factors as they pertain 
to his mission. 

Estimate of the Situation. By observation, information and a 
study of past records of the individuals involved, the follow- 
ing facts should be ascertained, if possible, prior to the 
planning and execution of the raid. 

(i) The nwnber of criminals or other persons involved, 
and their individual characteristics. 

a. Will they surrender peaceably if given the chance? 

b. Will they fight it out? 

z^H KILL () K (; r. 1 K I 1. 1. !■: » 

c. What kind of a leader have they? 

d. Is the legal penalty due for crimes already committed 
such that anything other than force is likely to succeed ? 

e. Are they skilled in fighting? Have they had combat 
expeiience against police? Have they been in the Armed 
Forces ? 

(z) Armament. 

a. What specific types of weapons do they have— rifles, 
shotguns, hand guns, submachineguns ? 

b. What do their past records, if any, show about their 
attitude toward the use of weapons? 

c. Is their ammunition supply limited? Extensive? 

d. Is there a possibility, due to military experience and 
training, that they may employ trip wires, boobytraps, or 
explosives ? 

e. Are they particularly skilled in the use of their weap- 
ons? What particular weapons? 

(3) Location and Surroundings. 

a. What type of building are they occupying? Is it con- 
structed of wood, brick, concrete? How many floors? 

b. Where are the doors, windows, skylights located? What 
is their relation to adjoining buildings and to the terrain? 

c. Is the roof accessible from adjoining buildings? Is it a 
possible source of enemy fire, or a likely means of approach? 

d. Is there a basement? What and where are its entrances 
and exits? Does it connect with basements of other build- 
ings? Is it a likely place for enemy fire or approach? 

e. Is there a garage? Can it be entered without exposure 
to gunfire? Could a car from the garage be used to make 
a sudden break to escape? 

f . Where, exactly, in the building are the criminals located ? 
If unknown, can this best be determined by drawing fire 
or by studying the defense possibilities? 

g. What is the exact interior plan of the building? Can 
this information be obtained from the owner, landlord, ten- 
ant, architect, city records? 

(4) Other Factors. 

a. Is it safe to use high velocity weapons (or any fire- 
arms) because of the proximity of other residences and 
civilians? By delaying the action, can gas equipment be ob- 
tained? Can it be used to good advantage? 

U A I I) S AND R () O M c: O M It A r 249 

b. VVlinc is tlie attitude of the populace and local civil 
authorities, toward the use of extreme force, if necessary? 

c. Will the death of any of the criminals or their asso- 
ciates, due to police action, bring on undue criticism from 
the press or the public? 

d. Arc any women involved in the action? Any hostages? 

(5) Eiiejity Capabilities. 

a. Considering the characteristics of the criminals involved, 
what reaction can be expected from a surprise attack? 

b. Is a surprise attack possible? Do they have lookouts 
posted ? 

c. Should a contact be made with the defending party 
to try to bring about a peaceful surrender? Is a last ditch 
fight to be expected? 

d. Can contact be made by phone, sound system, voice, 
or intermediary, if desired? 

e. What will be the probable result of an overwhelming 
display of force and armament? 

f. Can the water, light, gas, and other utilities be cut off 
conveniently? What will be the result? 

g. Can a break be expected, once it becomes too hot 
inside the building? Where is this most likely to take place? 

The raid commander who has the answers to these ques- 
tions should, by the exercise of good judgment and with 
suggestions from other members of the raiding party, be 
able to work out a successful attack. 

Caution should be exercised during the planning stage to 
avoid too much high level planning. Persons in higher au- 
thority, who are not going to participate physically, should 
avoid entering into detailed operational plans. Their arbi- 
trary decisions may cause the raid commander and his men 
to act against their own good judgment. 

Members of the Raiding Party. Personnel making up any 
raiding party should be selected by the officer in charge, if 
possible, and should be known by him. Men with courage, 
initiative and ability, coupled with past experience in combat 
and raids, are most desirable. Men who have had actual 
combat infantry experience can also be valuable. 

The size of the raiding party will depend on the resistance 
expected. Generally it is a sound plan to use the military 
axiom which demands a superiority of at least three to one; 
provided, of course, that the number of the defenders is 
known. Situations may arise where such a ratio is not pos- 

2 5<' KII, r. OR RET KILLED 

sible. In that case, surprise, superior armament and faultless 
planning and execution must compensate for lack of numbers. 

If time permits, it is usually possible to concentrate a 
sizeable superior force of officers against any group of crimi- 
nals. Providing the raid commander can maintain control, 
through his own abilities and through trusted subordinates, 
he should take advantage of any possible superiority in num- 
bers and armament. If the size of the raiding group is such 
that the commander does not have personal knowledge of 
the experience, training and abilities of all the men at his 
disposal, he should cry to assign key missions to men of 
known ability. 

Briefing the Raiding Party. The plan for the raid should 
be presented to all members of the raiding party and the 
mission should be stated clearly and in detail, with general- 
ities avoided. The commander must make clear 'who is to do 
what, ivhen, -where, and how. Each man should be briefed 
exactly on his duties and also should be given an oppor- 
tunity to ask questions. Tiic raid commander should, as 
much as possible, explain the "whys" for certain steps. If 
each member of the raiding party understands why, he co- 
operates more effectively. This is especially true if the men 
in the raiding party are inexperienced, unknown to each 
other, have had different levels of training, or are from dif- 
ferent organizations. 

If the raiding party is large and has been a.ssembled from 
various localities and departments, subordinates should be 
assigned, during the preparation stage, to arrange for weap- 
ons and munitions, transportation, communications, equip- 
ment, and first aid. If the operation is of considerable size, 
the leader can issue maps, sketches, written orders and oral 
instructions. Any action that will eliminate possible error 
and strengthen control is certainly advisable. 


The decision on the type of raid to be undertaken will 
depend on the local situation and the opposition. A surprise 
raid, which requires simultaneous entry into the building in 
order to force immediate surrender, may be one plan. Or 
it may be desirable to place the men in position, contact the 
defenders and order them to come out and surrender. Where 
the defenders have been alerted and have made known their 
intention to fight, the opening phase of the operation will 


be a simultaneous, concentrated fire upon the building. 

A raiding party, of any size, normally should be split 
into two sections. One section should surround the area, 
and the other should make the actual assault, if it has been 
decided to storm the objective and force a quick decision. 

The Party Suriounding the Area. Usually this group will be 
responsible for cutting off any attempt to escape, for setting 
up roadblocks if needed, and for covering the advance of 
the assaulting party by fire or gas. It should also provide 
for any unforeseen incident by holding some men and 
special weapons in reserve. Another important function will 
be to throw up a protective cover, so as to keep vehicular 
traffic and the inevitable curious public from getting into 
the area, where they are actually in danger and might hamper 
the operation. In heavily populated districts, this alone may 
take as many, or more, men as are in the entire assault 
group. Fire departments, auxiliary police, and additional 
police drawn in from other areas, have all been used to 
control this phase of the operation. 

Maintaining Control. In a situation involving a fire fight, 
prior to a physical assault, the raid commander must have 
complete control and must be able to direct the actions of 
his group at all times. The only way he can do so is by 
having his men well briefed on their exact duties and by 
having a logical plan which is ficxible enough to meet any 
situation. Methods of communication must be devised during 
the planning stage. The leader can best maintain control by 
placing himself where he can observe the major phases of 
the action. This does not mean that he should lead an initial 
assault, thus limiting his view. He should select a position 
that is strategically located for his command post. He should 
tell all his men where it is located and when and where, in 
the various phases of action, he can be contacted. As the 
action progresses, this command post may be changed; but 
in a limited action, such as a raid on a building, it is usually 
not necessary to move about until the last assault phase, 
when the raid commander may move in as he sees fit. Con- 
trol established by a workable means of communication is 
especially necessary when tiie raiding party is large and when 
the operation takes place at night. In darkness, particularly, 
the final assault phase must be well-organized and controlled, 
to prevent confusion and the possibility of the attackers fir- 
ing on one another. 

2^1 R 1 I. I. () K t; K r K I I, I, IC D 

Means of Control. ( i ) T'nue. Using a set time to initiate 
an action is a good metliod, if all watches arc synchronized 
and if a surprise assault is to be launched. Time can also 
be the means of launching other set phases. It is well, also, 
to have a secondary prepared signal for launching the as- 
sault, in case something goes wrong before the synchronized 

(2) Sound. Signals, such as whistle blasts, horns, sound 
systems and voice, can be utilized, but they must be used at 
times when outside noises (gunfire, for example) do not 
drown them out. They must be strong enough to cover the 
entire area of the operation. 

(3) Sight. At night, colored flares, if available, provide an 
efficient method of controlling various phases of the action. 

(4) Radio. The use of radio-equipped cars, walkie-tallcies, 
or other types of portable sets, should be mandatory, espe- 
cially in a large operation. The recent development and use 
of tiny transistor type radio tubes and miniature batteries has 
made the "Dick Tracy" two-way wrist radio an actuality. 
Before too long a raid commander will probably be able to 
have direct communication with each man in the action. 

(5) Messengers. Written massages delivered by hand are 
better than oral ones. Under the stress of combat, oral mes- 
sages are subject to distortion, especially if they are lengthy. 
In planning a means of communication, it is obvious tliat 
speed of contact is important. For this reason, messages sent 
by motorcycle or foot should not ordinarily be used if a 
swifter means is available. 

A few of the basic signals which should be included in the 
briefing are those for attack, open fire, cease fire, hold 
ground, retreat, and for the reserves or surrounding party to 
close in. The character of each raid will determine which 
of these signals, or others, will be necessary. 

The Approach. An assembly point for all members ,of^^the 
party should be designated in the immediate vicinity of 'the 
objective. In a surprise raid, this point must be out of sight 
and hearing. After the members have assembled at a desig- 
nated time, a last-minute check should be made of plans, 
weapons, communications, and other equipment. Last-minute 
instructions should be issued by the leader, watches should 
be checked (if a set time is to be used), and last-minute 
questions should be answered. The raid commander should 
then send the men to their positions. He must be sure to 


allow ample time for them to get into position. If the attack 
has been set for dawn, information about the time of day- 
break obviously is necessary. Up to the point of attack, the 
organizational phases of all raids are similar. The scope of 
the raid and the local situation will influence the initial phases 
and determine tiie actual action, once the operation is 

Every police department should have on hand specially 
prepared "canned" plans which are to be used for emergency 
raids. These plans should be standardized, to take care of 
all foreseeable situations. They should be taken up during 
departmental training sessions, just as disaster plans and 
other emergency situations are covered. 


In a surprise raid, calling for entry of a building, the fol- 
lowing points should be considered: 

(i) A covering party should remain outside to block all 
possible exits (roof, doors, windows). 

(2) A plan of the inside of the building should be studied 
in advance, and the location of sleeping quarters ascertained, 
if the raid is to be made at night. 

(3) Ordinarily, entry should be made at one point only, 
especially if the raid is made at night. Simultaneous entry 
from dilferent direcrions is apt to cause members of the 
raiding party to shoot each other instead of the criminals. 
If it is necessary to enter from more than one point, ade- 
quate recognition and cease-fire signals should be prepared. 
If a plan of the building is available, definite limits of pene- 
tradition for each man can be set, to prevent confusion. Men 
should be placed outside to cover all exits. 

(4) Entry from a point where it would be least expected 
should always be considered. For example, if available and 
accessible, a skylight in the roof is often a good point of entry. 

(5) A signal should be arranged for the covering party out- 
side to close in when the criminals have been apprehended. 

(6) In a nigiit entry, at least fifteen minutes should be 
allowed for members of the party to condition their eyes 
to darkness. Night sight alwuys must be gained prior to 
entry of i dark building. In like manner, a brightly lighted 
room should be entered from darkness only after the eyes 
have been conditioned to bright light outside; otherwise, the 
officer may be blinded by the sudden glare. 

254 Kl L L O R G E T K I I, L E D 

(7) Entry should be made with gun in hand. Doors and 
windows should be entered and passed through diagonally, 
so as to avoid being silhouetted against the sky or outside 
light. A listening pause should be made after the initial entry. 

(8) Each man should carry a flashlight, for possible use 
after entry. 

(9) Once the effect of surprise is lost, by shooting or 
other noise, it is sometimes advisable to have the headlights 
or spotlights of squad cars turned to cover the outside of 
the building. These lights will help prevent possible escape. 
If this maneuver is desired, it should be planned in advance, 
so that squad cars are in position. 

(10) It is best to stay close to the walls when advancing 
down hallways or up stairs. 

(11) In old wooden buildings, watch out for squeaky 
floors, steps or doors. Doors with creaky hinges can often 
be opened more silently by lifting up the door slightly, 
thereby taking the strain off the hinge. 

(12) In advancing througii a dark room containing fur- 
niture, it is best to keep to the middle of the room, to avoid 
encountering obstacles that may produce noises. 

(13) If a noise is inadvertently made while trying to move 
silently through a darkened room, a pause should be made 
until it is certain that no alarm has been given. If the noise 
alarms the occupants, it is best to drop to the floor in a 
prone position and face tiic source of danger. The weapon 
should be in hand and out in front of the body. 

(14) Patience in this type of entry is invaluable. If two 
hostile parties are aware of each other's presence in the same 
darkened room, the best strategy is to remain still and let 
the opponent move first, thus disclosing his location. When 
under this strain, heavy breathing— which is natural— should 
be suppressed, as it will give away your position. 

If a gun battle is imminent, throw some object carried 
in your pocket, such as a pencil or comb, into a corner 
away from you. If the enemy fires at the noise, shoot at 
his gun flash. It is well to place a shot on each side of his 
muzzle blast. When you fire first from a prone position, 
roll over and away, if possible, so as to escape return fire 
at your muzzle blast. If standing upright when opening fire, 
drop down the instant the shot i; fired. 

A position on top of a piano or table is very advantageous 
in a dark room, especially if it places you above the normal 


line of fire— and if it can be occupied prior to contact and 
maintained without noise. 

(15) Hand guns are tiie best weapons to carry in making 
silent entry in darkness. Shoulder weapons and submachine- 
guns are too unwieldy and can be noise makers. Parts of 
the clothing or uniform that make a noise when moving, 
such as gun and belt harnesses, should be removed before 
entering. Shoes also should be removed unless they are 
sneakers or have rubber soles. Luminous dials on wrist watches 
can be a give away in a silent night entry. They should be 
removed or covered. 

(16) When a lone suspect is finally located in a darkened 
room and is in bed asleep, shine a flashlight on his face when 
awakening him. The sudden glare will blind him when he 
opens his eyes. Hold the flashlight away from the body, to 
one side or the other if there is any chance of the suspect 
being awake or opening fire. Desperate criminals often sleep 
with their weapons under the pillow or under the covers. 
If possible, make your initial approach from behind the 
head of the bed occupant. This will place iiim in a position 
from which he cannot fire accurately when awakened. 

Night entry presents many hazards, especially where des- 
perate men are likely to be encountered. Unless the members 
of the raiding party have unquestioned skill, training, experi- 
ence and courage, it is often better to cover the house from 
the outside, awaken the occupants and demand that they 
surrender— even though they may not do so without a fight. 
This is especially true when the building is large, the oc- 
cupants many, and the exact interior construction and room 
arrangement unknown. 


(1; The tactics to be used when attacking armed oppo- 
nents without entering a building depend on local police 
equipment. Whenever possible, tear gas, smoke, or sickening 
gas (CN-DiVI) should be used. See chapter 13 Chevtical Muni- 
tions for Control of Mobs and Individuals. 

(2) The capabilities of individual police weapons must be 
exploited to the fullest. Use the right weapon for the right 

(3) Fields of fire must be set up that will cover all pos- 
sible exits. If available, automatic weapons should be con- 
centrated on the area from which the defenders are most 
likely to make a break and from which most of the gunfire 

z!;6 K I I. I. () rt <; I', r k i i. i. i: t) 

in the building is being received. Sufllcient police, with ade- 
quate weapons, should be assigned to cover all possible exits. 

(4) Adequate cover should be selected for all firing points. 
If such cover is not available at close range, where low vel- 
ocity weapons may be effective, higher-powered weapons 
should be used from areas further away, wlicrc cover is 

(5) Closed garages and other possible exits of cars should 
be covered, so as to prevent a break using a vehicle. If a 
possible escape car is visible, the tires, gas tank, radiator, or 
other vital part, should be punctured by gunfire. 

(6) If men who are in position, or who are advancing 
while firing, are likely to be subject to crossfire from their 
flanks, they must be protected by placing additional men 
and weapons to provide covering fire on these danger areas. 

(7) The types of weapons used by the defenders should 
always be considered in planning an advance and selecting 
cover. Bullet-proof vests, portable armor plate, shields, and 
bullet-proof glass will not stand up against high velocity rifle 
bullets. If a car is used for cover against rifle fire, the hood 
and engine block will provide some protection. The body 
of the car will not. 

(8) Any attack that has as it.s objective the entry of a 
building should be initiated and covered by heavily con- 
centrated fire on windows, doons, roof, or other points from 
which enemy fire is being received. 

(9) A running advance, from cover to cover or toward 
the defended building, should be made in a zig-zag manner, 
with the body in a crouched position. Such an advance 
should be made under covering fire if possible. It should 
be made in short runs, or bounds, so that the time of 
exposure to gunfire is short. 

(10) An assault in the face of gunfire should be so 
organized and planned that there are sufficient numbers in 
the assaulting party to enter the building and subdue the 
defenders. Single, isolated charges, carried out by individual 
members of the attacking party, often result in needless 

(11) Well-trained snipers, armed with telescopic-sighted 
rifles, often can be used to great advantage in combat of 
this sort; and the use of binoculars by the controlling officer 
has a definite advantage. 

(12) A'lany buildings have blind sides— with few, if any, 
doors and windows— so that they can be approached safely. 

RAIDS A N I) l< () () iM V. () M II A T 257 

Once the blind side of a building is reached, the party can 
follow around the outside walls and enter at a previously 
chosen section. If accurate covering fire supports the men 
who are gaining entry in this manner, it is difficult for the 
defenders to reach them by fire without unduly exposing 

(13) The attackers should always avoid bunching up. 
Any concerted advance on the besieged area should be made 
in lines of skirmislicrs, one man running forward to 
cover, then another. Since there is always a possibility of 
criminals possessing submachineguns or shotguns, a con- 
certed frontal assault should be made only after such weapons 
have been silenced, or made inoperative, by covering fire 
in volume. 

(14) If the number of the defenders is small and their 
exact location is known, a basic strategy of keeping them 
and their weapons busy by returning hre, no matter bj\\v 
inaccurately directed, should be used. This will enable other 
officers to approach and enter the building from unpro- 
tected or blind sides. 

(15) When armed opponents are barricaded in such a 
nifinner that they can only be approached fronrally, a truck 
or automobile, with the rear compartment loaded with a 
bullet resisting material can be used. Packed newspapers, 
magazines, firewood and sacks of coal are effective for this 
purpose. The vehicle is backed up to the desired position 
in the attack. 

Bundles of magazines and newspapers, tied together com- 
pactly, will provide a satisfactory shield against small arms 
fire. Twenty pounds of newspaper tied in a bundle (full 
sheet size) will stop ordinary hand gun and shotgun bullets— 
but will not stop high-velocity rifle bullets. Magazines, being 
a higher quality paper, can be made into even more effec- 
tive shields. Scoop shovels, heavy planks, the old type fold- 
ing automobile hood, pieces of furniture, doubled up mat- 
tresses, have also been used successfully. In improvising such 
a shield, it is only common sense to consider the armament 
that will be used against it, and to test it with a comparable 

(16) In a large raid, especially one that is conducted at 
night, the protective cordon placed around the area should 
always include several scjuad cars, with engines idling. 


to be used for pursuit in case the unexpected happens and 
the criminals make a successful break in an automobile. If 
there is a possibility of escape by car, and there is a lack 
of pursuit vehicles or an insufficient force, road blocks can 
be constructed. These may consist of logs, spiked boards, 
commandeered cars or trucks, or any other bulky material 
that will impede a speeding vehicle. A man with a shotgun 
or automatic weapon, stationed in a covered position near 
a road block, will make it all the more effective. 

(17) An attempt to flush the occupants of a house into 
the open can be made, If surprise is possible, place men 
covering all exits. Then, with a squad car, approach a pro- 
tected side of the building and sound the siren. This may 
succeed in flushing the occupants into the open in an attempt 
to escape, especially if the covering party is not visible. 
Once the occupants are out of the building, the covering 
party can force a surrender, or can at least be in an ad- 
vSiitageous position should a fire fight ensue. 

If the criminals fail to leave the building, they can be 
ordered to surrender. If this fails, the covering party can 
remain in place; and time can be taken for organizing a 
concerted attack. 

(18) When tear gas, CN-DM, or smoke bombs are not 
available, police may resort to demolitions. Dynamite sticks 
with short fuses may be used as concussion grenades, to 
be thrown through windows; and charges to blast down 
barricades and walls can be prepared. Of course, men with 
a knowledge of demolitions should handle this sort of action. 

(19) When a criminal is holed up in an outhouse, or some 
type of building where there is no danger of fire spreading, 
a fire bomb can be used to force him to come out into the 
open. Such a bomb can be easily prepared, as follows: Fill 
a glass container (such as a beer bottle) with gasoline. Plug 
or seal it securely and tie a strip of soft cloth, about two 
feet long, around it. Saturate the end of the cloth in gaso- 
line and light it. Throw the bottle against the building. 
When the glass shatters, the gasoline will be splashed around 
and ignited by the flaming streamer attached. 

(20) In a night operation, all critical areas of the defensive 
position should be subject to instant iliununation by means 
of spotlights, flares, etc. Cars with spotlights should, when 
possible, be placed in protected positions to eliminate draw- 
ing fire. Portable spotlights should be used in like manner. 


Aside from the obvious advantages of being able to light up 
any given area at will, the psychological effect on defenders 
is sometimes very great. 


The weapons available to a pohce organization must be 
used intelligently if the most is to be made of their inherent 
combat qualities. The use of the right weapon often will 
make close-quarter physical assault unnecessary. Concen- 
trated firepower, accurate sniping, and the use of arms 
capable of penetrating the walls and barricades of buildings 
often will eliminate armed resistance and prevent needless 

The Pistol and Revolver. The combat use of these weapons 
is practically limited to distances of not over 50 yards. 
They are most useful at close quarters and inside buildings, 
especially if the men carrying them have been trained in 
combat shooting. The hand gun, with the two-handed grip 
and utilizing a rest wiicre possible, can be effective up to 
250 yards, provided the sliooccr has been trained to use his 
weapon this way and has had practice. 

Sawed-OfI Shotguns. Sawed-off shotguns, or riot guns, as used 
by police, have two principal advantages— one psychological, 
the other practical. In handling prisoners and mobs, the large 
bore of the sawed-off shotgun (usually 12-gauge) has a 
deterring effect on anyone who looks at it from the muzzle 
end. It is also a most practical police weapon because of its 
wide shot-pattern and its effectiveness at ranges up to 60 yards. 

The normal police load for this gun is Double OO buck- 
shot. In the cartridge, this consists of 9 pellets, about .32 
caliber in size. 

The pattern diameter of this shot group should be known 
to all law enforcement officers who are likely to use the 
weapon. Normally the 9 pellets in the cartridge will spread 
about one inch to a yard of range. The spread of the pellets 
is uneven; even at a distance of 15 yards all of them will not 
hit a man-size target. Depending upon the individual gun, 
at 50 to 60 yards the pattern will be 5 to 6 feet in diameter, 
and some of the pellets will hit a man-size target consistently. 
Beyond this distance, it is quite possible that all nine pellets 
might miss a man, even though the charge was aimed at him. 
It is obvious, therefore, that the most effective use of the 
riot gun and its buckshot charge, at a single target, is at dis- 



The sawed-off shotgun is one of the most deadly weapons in the 
police or gangster arsenal. Commercial type 12 gauge sporting weapons 
can easily be made into deadly shore range combat arms by cutting 
off the barrels and stoclts. The shotgun is tliercby made more man- 
euverablc and concealable. Cutting off the barrel also eliminates tlie 
choke, resulting in a wider dispersion and pattern of buckshot pellets. 
Tear gas cartridges arc also available for firing in this type gun. They 
arc best fired and loaded on a single shot basis due to chambering and 
ejection problems. 

tances of less than 60 yards. Ac night, when used for guard 
duty or in covering a designated area, as in a raid, it is a 
better weapon than a rifle, where a single poorly aimed bullet 
may miss by 3 or 4 feet. 

It is usually effective to use the riot gun when covering 
a door or window from a distance of 30 to 40 yards, so as 
to get the benefit of dispersion and cover the entire area. 
When used against a crowd, or when more than one gun is 
fired on a specified area, the riot gun naturally can be em- 
ployed at greater ranges than when used against a single 
target. Beyond effective range (50-60 yards) the 9 pellets of 
the charge will spread over an area of about 25 feet at 100 
yards, and 50 to 75 feet at 200 yards. Stray pellets have been 
known to wound or kill up to 500 yards. 

After the policeman understands the capabilities of this 
weapon, he will also better appreciate the danger of using it 
in areas where its scatter qualities may injure innocent persons. 

At close ranges, the lead pellets will penetrate a 4-inch 
piece of pine; at 40 yards a 2-inch piece of pine; and at 
250 yards a %-inch piece. Beyond point-blank range, the 
Double 00 buckshot is not likely to pierce the walls of any 
well-built house or the body of an automobile. 

In addition to the many kinds of lighter commercial shot 
charges, the modern rifled shotgun slug (instead of the 


round ball) should be considei'ed. In the 12-gauge size, this 
single slug weighs about an ounce. A shotgun firing it is 
capable ot shooting a iz-inch group at 100 yards. Its extreme 
range is about one mile, and it is capable of penetrating the 
average frame house or an automobile body and killing the 
occupants. When rifics arc not available, a supply of this type 
cartridge for use in the riot gun, in place of the Double OO 
buckshot charge, will result in more effective all-around use 
of the weapon. 

SubmachinegunB. police departments of any size have 
one or more submachineguns. This weapon is accurate only 
at medium ranges, and, in reality, fills in the gap between 
the hand gun and the rifle. Most American-made guns of this 
type fire .45 caliber automatic pistol ammunition. In World 
War II, the weapon was used extensively by all participating 
armies, the European type being about .35 caliber (9mm). 
This gun can be fired from the hip or the shoulder. Its 
accuracy is comparable to a rifle up to 200 yards, depending 
on the type of ammnnition used. It can also be used from the 
hip most effectively at close quarters, under poor light con- 
ditions, or when time is not available for nn aimed shot, or 
burst, from the shoulder firing position. 

Although it is possible to use this gun on full automatic 
and to fire it effectively in bursts of 3 or 4 shots, its best use 
for pohce is as a semi-automatic weapon, pulling the trigger 
for each shot. In ordinary circumstances, the gun can be 
fired much more effectively, and rapidly enough, on semi- 
automatic. It is easily possible, after training, for the average 
officer to shoot one aimed shot a second. To be able to use 
the gun effectively on full automatic under combat condi- 
tions, requires a great deal of firing practice and training. 
With an untrained man, there is a tendency to spray lead 
indiscriminately, as though he were spraying water from a 
hose. This is especially true in combat, when an untrained 
user will not only exhaust the ammunition supply rapidly, 
but also may lose control of his weapon, due to recoil. 

If a police department has a submachinegun as part of its 
equipment, provision must be made for instruction and prac- 
tice. Adequate ammunition must be. supplied, and either in- 
struction must be limited to the select few who will be 
required to use it, or an extensive program must be under- 
taken to instruct the whole department. Too often a weapon 
of this type is misused by personnel unfamiliar with it. 

Usually the submachinegun is not used or taken out of its 

262 K I I, I, K r, V. T K I I, I. I", D 

case until a specific situation demands it. For this reason, 
congealed grease and dust, as well as unfamiliarity with the 
weapon, have often caused it to jam. On the other hand, 
proper training, normal care and an appreciation of its 
capabilities can make the submachinegun a valuable weapon 
in the police arsenal. 

Rifles. A well-stocked police arsenal should always include 
a number of rifles for possible use in riots, road blocks, raids 
and other special situations. The caliber of these rifles may 
vary with individual choice, but they usually will be .30 
caliber or over. A police department that is made up of per- 
sonnel who use not only their sidearms but also their shoulder 
weapons accurately and effectively, is much respected. 

As in the case of the submachinegun, the rifle should only 
be used by men who have had training and practice with it, 
even though this may limit its employment to a few selected 
individuals. From the standpoint of ammunition supply, com- 
bat effectiveness and training, it is best to have shoulder 
weapons standardized so they are all of one type and caliber. 
This should apply also to hand guns, riot guns, submachine- 
guns, and all other equipment. 

Rifles are very effective when fired by men trained to use 
their inherent accuracy, range and penetrating power. In addi- 
tion to having all, or a selected part, of the force trained in 
use of the rifle, having a few such weapons equipped with 
telescopic sights and mounts is much to be desired. In most 
departments, the type of officer who is a "gun crank" can 
usually be found. In all probability, he will be skilled in rifle 
shooting and may personally own a scope-sighted rifle. Such 

A rugged scope sighted high powered rifle such as this Remington 
model 721 caliber jo/06 with Lyman telescopic sights is a potent ad- 
dition to the standard police armory. 

an officer, who can serve as a sniper at longer ranges, will 
be most valuable in a combat situation calling for precision 
shooting. Accurate long-range rifle fire will often eliminate 
the necessity for close-quarter work and therefore reduce 

RAIDS A N 11 H O O M C O M HAT 263 


The policeman who uses firearms in combat should know 
the potentialities of his weapons— in range, man-stopping 
qualities and penetration of solid substances. Not only that; 
he should also be aware of the danger of misusing his weapons 
in areas and situations where innocent persons are endangered. 
Every training course in weapons should cover this phase of 
their employment. 

An especially effective way of impressing students with the 
power of weapons is by actual demonstrations of bullet pene- 
tration and range. Permanent displays, showing the penetrat- 
ing quahties of the weapons in such substances as hard and 
soft wood, automobile bodies, brick, sand, plaster walls, 
newspapers, mattresses, bullet-proof glass, magazines, bales of 
straw, and so forth, are most effective in making the point 

Another effective demonstration is to use laundry soap, wax, 
or lard to simulate human flesh, showing the reaction to 
various bullets. Large sheets of paper can illustrate the pattern 
of riot guns at various ranges. 

Stopping Power of Various Calibers. There is endless contro- 
versy over the stopping power of bullets of various sizes and 
muzzle velocities. Arguments have been long and loud as to 
wiiether or not a small-power, high-velocity bullet is more 
deadly than a large-caliber, low-velocity slug. 

Generally, it has been considered tiiat the big, slow moving 
pellet, such as the .45, is superior to a light-weight, faster- 
moving bullet. If you hit a man on the chin with your fist, 
all the force of the blow is transmitted to the recipient. The 
big, slow-moving bullet functions in this manner; all the 
energy of the bullet is exhausted at the time of impact and 
the bullet does not penetrate and go on through. However, 
when a target is hit with a speedy, hght-weight bullet, it 
generally penetrates the target and sings off into space, wast- 
ing a lot of velocity and shocking power. Although this is 
generally recognized as the standard argument for the larger 
caliber hand gun, many instances are on record of such large 
calibers failing to stop individuals in combat. On the other 
hand, there are instances where small caliber bullets have 
done the job as well as any other size. 

No one caliber is best in all cases, and, although larger 
calibers generally are better, they are not infallible. The 
human factor enters in— the position of a man's body at the 

264 K 1 I. I. OR G E l' KILL F. \1 

time of impact, whether he is off or on balance; the spot liit; 
the size of the man; his resistance to sudden shock; his animal 
courage and fighting spirit— all affect the stopping power, 
regardless of tlie caliber of the weapon or the size of the 

Most police departments have cases on record which will 
illustrate the stopping power of bullets. Such cases should be 
covered in the training period devoted to this subject. And 
students should be informed by lecture and demonstration, 
of the specific penetrating power of certain calibers of bullets. 

Bullet penetration tests are usually based on firing at %" 
pine boards stacked together to the required thickness at a 
15 ft. range. A penetration of one inch in the pine is con- 
sidered sufficient to give a serious wound. The following 
calibers will penetrate as follows: 

In Inches 






240 gr. 

1 1" 

.357 A1AGNUM 

15H gr. 


.30 LUGER (7.65M,M) 

93 gr. Metal Jacketeil 
115 gr. Aletal Jacketed 



'58 gr. 
255 gr- 


.380 AUTO. 
.32 AUTO. 
ut5 CAL. AUTO. 
.38 S & W 
.32 S & VV 
.25 AUTO. 

95 gr. Metal Jacketed 

71 gr. Metal Jacketed 
230 gr. Metal Jacketed 
'45 gr- 

85 gr. 

50 gr. Metal Jacketed 



Heavy lead alloy bullets are generally carried and used 
in most police revolvers. Automatics generally fire metal 
jacketed bullets which increase penetration and better pre- 
vent the automatic from jamming. In modern warfare lead 
bullets are banned as they are considered as "dum dum" and 
inhumane. The peace officer, however, can take full advantage 
of the solid lead bullet in his fight against criminal elements. 

The heavy lead slug when driven at high velocities expands 
in diameter on impact and develops much greater shocking 
and stopping power. The metal jacketed bullet will give more 
penetration everything else being ccjual but it hokls its 
shape and diameter due to its construction. 

It is easy to see that any such flimsy barricades as bureaus 
and tables will not necessarily stop bullets. Another fallacy 
is that a mattress is ample protection against small arms fire. 


Actually, tlie .38 and .45 will penetrate 10 inclies or more 
of solid mattress, not of the box spring type. Either the .38 
or .45 will penetrate most plaster walls found in dwellings. 


Combat inside buildings, wiicre one individual attacks or 
defends himself against another, where criminals and insane 
persons are cornered in rooms, differs from street fighting. 
Street fighting, in the "Stalingrad" sense, means heavy artil- 
lery, mortars, smoke, grenades, automatic weapons, flame 
throwers, and similar equipment of the modern army. 

Normally, in room combat, the only armament will be small 
arms such as the police officer normally carries, plus any 
other weapons he may improvise on the spur of the moment. 
Naturally, if time and circumstances permit, special equipment 
and armament— such as tear gas, riot guns, and submachine- 
guns— should be used; but in most situations it is necessary to 
get the opponent, dead or alive, in the shortest possible time, 
and the officer must depend upon himself, his assistants and 
the small arms he normally carries. 

Tactical Considerations. In one respect, room entry and fight- 
ing is not unlike land warfare, where the terrain is decisive. 
Here the construction and architecture of the house and its 
individual rooms play an important role. A hasty survey of 
the building and the exterior of the individual room, once it 
is located, is the standard procedure. Common sense then will 
usually dictate the course of action. Of course, all possible 
means of escape should be blocked. 

It is well to consider the mental attitude of the individual 
being attacked. Is he frightened, desperate, cold-blooded? 
Can he be induced to surrender without a fire fight? 
Naturally, oral persuasion should be tried before making any 
physical attempt. 

If possible, there should be a numerical superiority of 3 to i 
in an attack of this kind. There will be occasions when one 
or two officers may be forced to make a room entry and 
shoot it out; but three or more make a better combination. 

It is important to know the gunman's exact location in the 
room. If you can get him to talk, you may be able to place 
him. The movement of furniture or a barricade will often 
give a clue. If the attack is in a hotel, often, by looking at 
the rooms next door, an idea can be gained as to how the 
besieged room is furnished. Rooms of many American and 
European hotels are built and furnished alike. 

2 66 K I I. L o u G E r K I r, l e o 

If unable to get any definite indication of the defender's 
location in the room, there are some general rules which can 
be applied. Instinctively, a desperate, anned man will take 
up a position in a room where he can sec the door and what 
comes through it. In other words, he will be on the side of 
the room opposite the door side. On the other hand, an 
unarmed man, who is hiding and scared, will be on the door 
side of the room, or even behind the door, as it opens. That 
is why, when searching a house or a room, you should slam 
each door hard as you open it. If it doesn't bang against the 
wall, but only makes a tliud, cover the area immediately. This 
behind-the-door technique is an overworked movie trick, but 
cheap crooks and the like pick up and use such methods. 

In actually entering the room, the door itself must first be 
breached. It will be locked, or have a chair against it, if time 
has been permitted the defender. It is a simple matter to 
blow the lock of a door with a couple of well-placed shots. 
Or fire axes and such can be used if they are available. If the 
door is heavily blocked on the inside, time will have to be 
taken to get rid of tiiis block and still avoid being in tiic 
line of fire. Care should be taken, at all times, to avoid being 
in front of the door. Shots from the interior may cause 

Tactics of Entering a Room. Once the door is breached, com- 
mon sense and strategy enter into the picture. There are 
numerous strategems that should be employed before physical 
entry is made. If possible, the defender's fire should be drawn. 
It will disclose his position and deplete the limited amount of 
ammunition usually carried by criminals. 

If the action is at night, as it often is, be sure that your 
eyes are conditioned to darkness and that lights outside the 
room are extinguished. Any movement outside or into the 
room will cause a siliioucctc if the light is on. Often the 
defender, in the room, can look under the door and determine 
your location. 

Improvised dummies, or other larger objects, can be thrown 
into the room or pulled by a rope across the door, to draw 
fire. A light bulb thrown into the room, to cause a loud 
pop; a flashlight on a stick, in a dark room; a bottle of am- 
monia; burning oily rags; dust from a vacuum cleaner— all 
will create confusion and often cause a break, especially when 
accompanied by shouts of fire, or by tear gas. On one occasion, 
when a fire extinguisiier was used through a transom, follow- 
ing up a threat to use tear gas, the defender gave up. These 


methods are simple and may be improvised from material at 
hand. They often work because of the nervous condition of 
tlie defender. If they don't work, a physical entry will be 

Typical Example. Here is a typical problem of room entry 
and its solution, oversimplified for instructional purposes. 

Situation. A desperate man is cornered in a single room 
which has no exits except the door. He will shoot it out; 
all methods of cajolery have failed. All ruses to draw fire have 
failed; an attack is necessary. The room is an ordinary hotel 
room. It is dark. His location in the room can not be 

Attackers. Three men armed with pistols only. Time does 
not permit getting special equipment, such as tear gas and 

Solution. The leader decides on the plan of attack. A leader 
is necessary, even if the attacking party consists of only two 

After the lock has been shot off the door and it is found 
tiiat the door swings freely on its hinges, lights in the hall 
are put out. 

Acting on the premise that the defender is in one of the 
corners, across from the door side of the room, attacker 
No. I dives from around the side of the door into the center 
of the room, on his belly. He stays flat on the floor and 
holds his fire until the defender fires. At the same instant, 
Nos. 2 and 3, from a standing position at each side of the 
door, fire into each corner. Chances are good that one of 
these initial bursts will get the defender. If not, No. i must 
finish him off. No. i also must watch the corners on the door 
side of the wall, in case the defender is holed up there. No. i 
has remained on the floor all this time, in a prone position. 
His is the position of risk; he should be the coolest head and 
the best shot. No. 2 will stay outside the room until told to 
enter by No. i. No. 3 after the first burst, goes down the 
hall and covers that avenue of escape, in case a break is made. 

It is important that clearly understood signals be arranged 
for contingencies that cannot be foreseen. Never more than 
one man of the attacking party should be in the dark room 
with the opponent at any time. In the dark there is too much 
danger of firing at a friend instead of a foe. 

The solution described is only one of many, but it is 
sound and has a good chance of success. It is certainly better 

268 U I I. L O K c: K T KILLED 

tlian the door-crashing technique so overworked in the movies. 
Plans must be flexible, however. The diagonal method of 
cross-firing, for example, will often succeed without entry 
into the room at all. This is especially true in a small room. 


From the discussion of attack above, the following facts 
are obvious, if you should have to defend yourself in a room. 

I. Don't imprison yourself and limit your mobility by 
placing yourself behind a flimsy barricade— made up of what 
is on hand— which ordinarily a bullet will penetrate. If you 
do place yourself behind such a baiTicade, you will limit 
your mobility, for when you want to leave the room in a 
hurry, you are at a disadvantage. 

1. Have the lights out in your room. The longer the lights 
are out, the more conditioned your eyes become to darkness. 
This will give you an advantage; for if the lights are out in 
your room, and if the attackers leave the lights on in the 
hall, you can easily place them by looking under the door. 
A few well-placed shots through the walls or door then may 
solve your problem. 

3. There are two places where the attackers will least ex- 
pect you. Both are good because they combine, with the 
element of surprise and cover, the factor of mobility. If you 
lie on your stomach in the middle of the room away from the 
door, you will make a very small target; and you will be in a 
good firing position. Or place yourself somewhere near the 
center of the wall facing the door, on top of a table or any 
other furniture. This is the last place the attacker will expect 
to find you; and you also are in a position of mobility, once 
the firing is over. It is most likely that you will be above the 
line of nre during the initial bursts. 

4. Hold your fire. Remember that, in darkness, you always 
instinctively fire at the other man's muzzle blasts. You will 
always know where the attacker is when his gun goes off. So, 
when you are on the floor, it is wise, if possible, to roll over 
and out of the area each time you fire. 


A factor not often enough considered in combat inside 
houses, is the penetrating power of sidearms through ordinary 
walls and doors. 'With due allowance for the ammunition 
factor, certain well-placed shots through doors, down or up 

K A IDS A N I) It () (I M C () M II A I' ioy 

clirougli floors, or tlirough ceilings or sections of wall, may 
finish the atcack before it starts. One of the easiest ways of 
getting a man in a room, if a subniachinegun is available, is 
to siioot a line about a foot above the floor for the length of 
the room. 

The .38 caliber pistol, or larger caliber, is normally carried 
by the law enforcement officer. He should realize the penetrat- 
ing power of this weapon, so as to apply it best when the 
need arises. 

For detailed information on the penetrating power of 
various calibers, see the section on The Bullet: Fenetration 
and Capabilities, earher in this chapter. 


Police Departments and certain types of military organ- 
izations should have available bullet-proof vests and police 
shields for use against armed individuals in raids and in situa- 
tions where frontal attack is necessary. Law enforcement 
supply agencies, such as W. S. Darley and Co. and Federal 
Laboratories, stock these items. They arc relatively inexjicn- 
sivc and iiclp to reduce casualties when they arc used properly. 

Practice in shooting from behind the police shield should 
be mandatory during combat firing training. Shooters should 
not be allowed to stand and use the shield. All shooting should 
be done from a kneeling position. 

I3ullct-proof vests, especially, should be available. These 
vests fonncrly were cither solii! metal plate or a chain type 
of mail, or were niade of overlapping steel strips. They were 
quite restrictive in the body movement of the individual and 
were heavy, so that they could not be worn with comfort for 
any length of time. They can, however, be issued for special 
missions. The overlapping-strip type and the solid-plate type 
are more satisfactory and more bullet-resistant than the chain 
mail vest. Newer body armor vests are made of plastic and 
nylon, increasing the protection to the body, greatly reduc- 
ing the weight, and making the vest less cumbersome. 

Since World War II increasing use has been made of body 
armor vests. Two types tested by the U. S. Army have proved 
most successful thus far. Each weighs about eight pounds. 
One is made of twelve layers of spot-bonded nylon. The 
other, the Marine Corps model issued to the ist Marine 
Division in Korea in 1952, consists of a vest with "built-in" 
inside pockets into which twenty laminated fiberglass "doron" 
annor plates, each about five inches square, are inserted, to 



A protective police shield can be constructed of bullet-proof steel 
plate or preferably of the new light weight fiberglass material. Every 
police department should have on hand this item of equipment for 
use in combat situations. 

Firing position when using police shield. Note that gun is being 
fired through a firing slot in the upper right hand corner. The shield 
protects all vital parts of the body. It can be constructed in various 
sizes by the individual department, if desired. Fiberglass panels can 
be purchased for this purpose. Steel type shields arc commercially 
available. It is generally a good idea to paint the outside of the shield 
a dark color so as to more readily conceal the firing position when 
used at niglit. 


protect the thorax, abdomen, and back; nylon is used in the 
shoulder areas where flexibility is needed. Such a vest gives 
great protection against grenade and bomb fragments and 
against bullets whose velocity at time of impact is not over 
1400 feet per second. The Universal Moulded Products Corp. 
of Bristol, Virginia, is a basic manufacturer of the doron 
material, which can be made to any thickness needed, depend- 
ing on the type of protection desired. 

This new light weight armor is also being used in armoring 
police automobiles, bank trucks, and automobiles for im- 
portant dignitaries; and our military services are continually 
e.xperimenting and developing new uses for it. Eventually it 
could replace steel armor plate entirely, because of its lighter 
weight. Currently it is being used in lining cockpits of air- 
planes and by the Infantry for protecting body areas that are 
subject to long range rifle, pistol, and submachinegun fire, and 
grenade, mortar and artillery shell fragments. The United 
State Army has a quantity of vests available for issue to 
selected assault units. 

In training, a demonstration should be made of a bullet- 

Individua! wearing new type bullet-proof vest, holding one of die 
white curved fiberglass "doron" bullet-resistant panels. A vest for a 
normal sized individual, giving front and back protection, consists of 
about 20 panels. It is approximately 75% lighter in weight than the old 
type vest made of steel plates, strips or chain mesh. Approximate 
weight is nearly eight pounds. For additional protection double 
panels can be inserted in the pockets, depending on the desire of the 

272 K 1 [, 1. O K C F, T K I L L r. n 

I/isfc!c view of vest showing poclicts in wliicli proccctivc curved 
fiberglass "doron" panels are inserted. 

proof vest, placed around a sand bag and fired at by con- 
ventional police and sporting hand guns. In any firing demon- 
stration involving a protcctivc-tvpc vest, it should be stressed 
that cartridges developing nui/,zlc velocities greater than 1400 
feet a second will possibly penetrate. The chain mail type 
ordinarily will be penetrated by bullets of much lower velo- 


Little has been written on the subject of room combat. 
Too often such combat is left to trial and error— and needless 
loss of life. It is important, therefore, that consideration be 
given, in police training, to all aspects of this dangerous type 
of criminal apprehension. The basic principles, at least, should 
be deeply ingrained in students. Once these principles are 
learned, their application in each raid will not be too difficult. 

A basic principle is that the leader must take the time to 
think through his plan to its logical conclusion. Only so will 
casualties be kept to a minimum. Room entry is a case in 
point. The movies are prone to show attackers breaking into 
a room by putting their shoulders to the door. This tactic, 
except as a last resort, is foolhardy. Because of it there have 
been too many dead "heroes." 

Chapter lo 


To cushion the initial shock of battle and to provide 
realistic training and practical tests, the modern soldier 
is required to participate in an "assault," or "blitz," course 
before being sent into actual combat. In this course he is 
subjected to live ammunition, demolitions and other simulated 
battle conditions. He uses his rifle, bayonet, hand grenades 
and other personal weapons in a realistic manner. 

Similarly, if a soldier's or police ofliccr's basic weapon is 
his hand gun, he should have a certain amount of a coinparal)lc 
training. When a hand gun shooter becomes familiar with his 
weapon and can use it accurately for aimed shots, after train- 
ing on the target range, he sh.ould be projected into situations 
where he will be forced to use his weapon as he will use it 
most frequently in nian-to-man combat. This, of course, 
apphes not only to the hand gun, but also to the rifle or 
other firearm which he may carry. 

Soldiers and law enforcement officers do not carry weapons 
for the exclusive purpose of shooting bull's-eyes. Primarily, 
their weapons are for use against enemies and criminals. Those 
concerned with hand gun training sometimes lose sight of this 
simple truth and place overemphasis on the bull's-eye target 
type of training, with a consequent neglect of the other. 

Target training and cojnbat firing are both needed to make 
a proficient, all-around combat shot with the hand gun; but 
those trainers (and they are legion) who consider pistol 
marksmanship training the complete answer to training a man 
in the combat use of his hand gun, are like tlie proverbial 
ostrich with his head in the sand. 

It is unfortunate that many soldieis and law enforcement 
officers have an impersonal attitude toward their training in 
weapons firing. This applies particularly to those shooters 
who are not interested in weapons and shooting in general 



This type is suitable for training witii cither the hand gun or shoulder 
weapon. Each shooter is separated from others. Note the silhouette 

and CO those who subconsciously feel that the technique of 
hitting an inanimate black dot on a white piece of paper is 
not closely related to the man targets they will encounter in 
combat. This leads to an indifferent attitude during training. 
Consequently, for psychological as well as practical reasons, 
realistic combat shooting ranges, involving the use of lifelike 
targets, are especially beneficial. They arouse the individual's 
interest by injecting the personal element into the use of his 
weapon. By means of practical ranges and training, the shooter 
who looks on his hand gun as he would any other piece of 
equipment, can be made to appreciate his weapon and his 
capabilities with it. Being able to use his gun effectively on 
a practical range will develop his all-around confidence— in 
himself, his ability, and his weapon. 

The problems of the civilian police department are not 
always the same as those encountered on tne battlefield. Al- 
though training in combat firing is essential, there should be 
additional variations added to the shooting program to meet 
specific law enforcement needs. 

Aimed, accurate fire (single or double action) has a 





The white stakes are used in practice. Bullet impacts are easily 

observed because of dust created on impact. The dark spots represent 

places where water has been thrown, to prevent too much dust arising 

from the impact of bullets. 

The same range with bobbing targets exposed. The target in the 
center runs across the range; the others bob out from behind walls. The 
curtains hanging from the ceiling reduce concussion. 

276 K I 1. 1. o R r. F. r K I L I, V. n 

definite place in police combat training. After bull's-eye tar- 
get accuracy is achieved, the police trainee should then be 
projected into practical police-type combat ranges, where 
he shoots at silhouettes under simulated conditions such as 
he may encounter during the routine performance of his 
many and varied duties. 

Since World War II, and as a result of combat experience, 
there has begun a gradual increase in practical weapons 
training programs and techniques by police departments. 
There has come about a realization that a few shots a week 
at a paper target do not qualify the law officer for actual 
fire fights with criminals. 

Unlike the soldier, the police officer is faced witJi an addi- 
tional hazard. Once he commits himself and his firearm to 
action, he must not only hit his man but he must also avoid 
wounding or killing innocent bystanders. The fear of police 
departments of injuring innocent spectators is a real and 
ever-present one. The unfavorable publicity resulting from 
such an accident is often so great that the department will 
swing almost entirely away from advocating the use of fire- 
arms. Regulations sometimes make it almost impossible for 
the average officer to use his hand gun with any degree of 
confidence or skill. His firearms training is cut down to the 
extent that not only is he hcsita.c to use his weapon but 
when he is forced to do so, to perform his duty or save his 
own life, he becomes a greater hazard to the bystander than 

There has to be a "happy medium" in police training. 
The current trend by progressive police departments has 
been to give more emphasis to practical range firing and to 
create a state of balance with the conventional target range 
firing. One complements the other. 

The Federal Bureau of Investigation is doing a great deal 
to develop and encourage practir 1 police weapons training. 
Along with the regular training program for bureau per- 
sonnel, trainees from various city, state and county police 
departments are invited to participate. A very practical and 
effective course in shooting has been in a continuous process 
of development for many years at the Bureau ranges in 
Quantico, Virginia. 

The F.B.I. Practical Pistol Course is one of the finest ever 
developed to properly train the police oflicer to defend him- 
self and the citizens of his community. A total of fifty 

r n A r N I N (; r R c ii N i Q u v. s 277 

rounds arc fired at a man-sized silhouette target in a total 
time of six minutes and ten seconds. In this period, firing is 
from the 7-yard line to the 60-yard line; right and left hands 
are used and many different firing positions assumed. 

All trainees get sound training in the use of the ordinary 
police weapons. Tliose trainees, from outside the Bureau 
ranks, take back to their various departments training doctrine 
and information that in many cases are passed on and used 
in their own local training programs. 

One of the most practical and well known civilian police 
training programs is the "Combat Course" of the Toledo, 
Ohio, Police Department. This course has a series of targets 
that simulate the situations under which a police officer mav 
be called upon to use his gun. The range facilities cover 
approximately 8 acres of ground and include: 

The Observation Courye— here metal men appear at doors 
and windows of simulated house fronts and spring up sud- 
denly among trees, disappearing again in 10 seconds. Fired 
single action. 

The Bull's-eye Target— a sound recording, optical illusion 
bull's-eye target set at 30 yards; and fired sirigle action. 

The Rodeo Course— z scries of metal targets strategically 
placed on a '4 -mile, twisting, up-and-down-hill road; fired 
double action from a moving automobile. 

The Running Man Target— z moving figure which threads 
its way through stationary figures, to be hit without in- 
juring the "bystanders" or be penalized in points. Again, 
firing is double action. 

An Anatomical Target— shaped like a man. Four-inch areas 
are located in six vital areas of this figure, and shots hitting 
any of them would theoretically make a person unable to 
proceed. (Three areas would be fatal and three disabling.) 
Firing, at a distance of 15 yards, is timed, and the target 
requires the officer to fire double action, 6 shots in 10 
seconds, simulating actual conditions where he might meet 
an armed adversary who is ready to shoot or shooting. 

Most of the targets are fired double action instead of single, 
thus accurately duplicating the type of firing that officers 
would be likely to encounter in actual combat situations. 

The importance of the combat type pistol training is finally 
becoming more and more recognized. The Indiana University 
Center for Police Training, in combination with the Colt 
Patent Firearms Company, is now sponsoring invitational 


police combat pistol matches. Individuals and teams composed 
of regular members of any organized police department are 
eligible to compete. Regularly organized bank, railroad, and 
industrial police along with Federal agencies are also eligible 
to enter this comiicrition, which is now being held annually 
in Bloomington, Indiana. The interest and entries are in- 
creasing yearly. It is hoped that from this and other type 
combat training courses a standardization of "practical" fire- 
arms training for police officers will eventually be achieved. 
Generally too few civilian police departments are using 
practical range training. Most stick to the conventional 
bull's-eye training while others emphasize the "safety with 
weapons aspect" to an almost ridiculous degree. Too many 
have no training at all, after the badge is pinned on the 
officer. In almost all cases not enouafh attention and train- 
ing is given to the close-quarter, instinctive-pointing type 
of shooting,, even though police case histories show that this 
is the type of combat they encounter the most and usually 
under poor lighting or adverse shooting conditions. 


The conditions of actual close-quarter combat with hand 
guns— which make instruction and training in the instinctive 
pointing technique necessary— are as follows. 

(i) In most cases, the time to take an aimed shot will not 
be available, and the hand gun ordinarily will be used at 
distances of 50 feet or less; 

(2) The light necessary to see and use the sights ^if the 
time were available), is not always sufficient; 

(3) The grip on the weapon is a convulsive one, because 
of combat tension; and 

(4) The instinctive position assumed by a hand gun user 
in a fire fight will usually be an aggressive forward crouch. 

Most or all of these conditions are usually present in every 
case in which hand guns are used by men shooting at each 
other. It follows, then, that systems of practice and practical 
ranges should be developed, to give the shooter actual ex- 
perience in shooting under combat conditions. 

Silhouettes. Silhouettes are facsimiles of men. If the primary 
objective of hand gun training is to teach men to shoot men, 
these silhouettes should he the principal type targets used. 
They should be placed, and fired at. on ranges that simulate 
all foreseeable conditions under which a soldier or law en- 
forcement officer would ordinarily use his weapon. 


After being trained in combat firing on silhouette targets 
—under all possible light, terrain and other conditions— and 
after he has had shooting training on a range of the type to be 
described, tlie student no longer will harbor doubts as to why 
he should receive training in combat firing. He will realize 
that there is a vast difference between being able to hit a 
stationary bull's-eye target, at a given number of yards and 
under ideal conditions, and being able to hit a target that 
shoots back under combat conditions. 

Rcsuhs of Practical Range Training. The practical hand gun 
range described below, known as the "House of Horrors," 
was in operation over a two-year period. During this time 
several thousand hand gun shooters, of all degrees of training 
and experience, fired over it. A study of the records led to 
the following conclusions: 

(i) That target shooting proficiency dlo?ie is not enough 
to equip the average man for combat, where the hand gun is 
his primary weapon. 

(2) That the instinctive-pointing technique of combat firing 
is the best ail-around mctiiod of shooting the hand gun with- 
out the aid of sights. 

(3) That this type range is a reliable test of the combat 
effectiveness of all the known techniques of hand gun shoot- 
ing without the aid of sights. 

(4) That there must be greater appreciation, by most 
training officers, of the physical and psychological effects of 
combat tension upon the hand gun user. In addition to the 
changes in established techniques which were demonstrated, 
those shooters who were psychologically unsuited for combat 
or who had the wrong kina of temperament were discovered. 

Constructing a Practical Range. If an old unused basement 
or a warehouse of medium size is available, a good combat 
range can be constructed at very little expense, using local 
materials. The first precaution, naturally, is to make the walls 
and ceiling bullet proof against the caliber gun to be fired. 
This can be done by adding 5 or 6 inches of rough planking 
to the walls or ceiling, or by sand bags, or by a dirt filling- 
inside a wood retaining wall. 

In this range, at irregular intervals, place bobbing silhouette 
targets, stationary silhouette targets, and actual dummies. 
These can be painted to resemble men and can easily be set 
up, using hinges, springs, and trip latches, so that they pop 
out, or up, by pulling a cord or wire control. Steps, movable 

28o K 1 1. 1, OK G i: i' ic I 1. 1, r. 1) 

floor sections, or similar innovations may be built into tiiis 
basement. Passageways, made of scrap lumber or burlap hung 
from the ceiling, can be built in or installed, to give reali-^ti^: 
close-quarter effects such as might be found in a house, 
alleyway, or basement. The silhouette targets may be placed 
at appropriate intervals, in conjunction with whatever built- 
in effect it is desired to simulate. The result, naturally, should 
be that which the students expect to encounter most fre- 
quently. General lighting effects should be dim, so that only 
outlines are visible. A sound effect system of amplifiers and 
records can be installed, if available, and can be coordinated 
with the targets. Guns which fire blanks at the shooter can be 
put into dummies. Other innovations which help to create 
combat tension and realism can be installed. The possibilities, 
in building a range of this type, arc almost endless, largely 
depending upon the available local materials and the ingenuity 
of the builder. 

A word of caution here. The tendency to use boobytraps, 
false floors and other trick devices, such as are found in a 
carnival "fun house," should be avoided. These trick devices 
can, in a large measure, defeat the purpose of the range. 

Described in the following pages is one such range (The 
House of Horrors), constructed and used for the successful 
training of large groups of men for specialized military duty. 
The basic floor plan took its shape simply because of the 
original construction of the only available basement, which 
consisted of three separate compartments. The floor is dirt and 
the original rock walls and pillars are covered by 6 inches of 
dirt held in by a wooden form made of 2-inch planking. The 
training weapons used in this range were standard model 
.38 Spl. revolvers, the .45 cal. automatic, and the Colt Ace. 

In all cases the shooter is accompanied by an instructor, 
who guides him through the course and makes comments or 
makes corrections during the shooting sequences and im- 
mediately after they occur. 


Let's follow a shooter who, in this case, is armed with a 
.22 cal. Colt Service Ace. First, he is brought into a small 
room at the head of the stairs, indicated in the lower left 
in diagram. He is seated in a chair and left alone in this 
room, which has dim lighting. He is given a knife and sheath 
to strap on, and is told to read the following instructions, 
which arc posted on the wall: 

r K A I N I N <; r k <; fi n i q v r, s 281 

You are equipped with a pistol, 24 rounds of ammuni- 
tion, and a fighting knife. Upon these weapons your life 
depends as you go down into the darkness. Below are 
twelve of our enemies awaiting you as you make your 
way along. You will fire at these enemies in bursts of 
two shots. You will use your knife at appropriate times. 
You will fire directly to your front, to your left, or to 
your right. You will never fire to your rear. A coach 
will follow immediately behind you to act as your guide 
and confessor. 

Arc you one of the quick or one of the dead? 
There are no boobytraps, collapsible stairs or trick 
devices in the darkness below. Just enemies who shoot 

If you come out ahvc, please tell no one else the de- 
tails of what you have been through. 
While he is reading the instructions, he is subjected to 
several record sequences (broken English) of typical enemy 
propaganda newscasts. Interspersed with the records are other 
sound effects, such as organ music; or morbid symphonic airs 
may be used. (In this range the extracts from the Firebird 
Suite by Stravinsky were used.) After not less than 5 minutes 
of this indoctrination, the student is called into a little annex 
at the head of the stairs and given his pistol and 3 magazines 
of amnmnition, 8 rounds to a magazine. The instructor tells 
him to insert one magazine and place the other two where he 
can get them in a hurry. He is then asked if he has any ques- 
tions; if so, additional last minute instructions are given. When 
he is ready, he is told to pull back the slide, loading his weapon, 
then proceed cautiously down the steps. The instructor fol- 
lows immediately behind him with one hand in contact with 
the shooter. 

The instructor, aside from acting as a guide and making 
on-the-spot corrections, trips all targets at the appropriate 
times. For obvious safety reasons, the instructor at all times 
maintains contact with the shooter (usually with one hand 
hooked into the back of his belt) while he is carrying his 
pistol. The instructor stays out of reach when the knife is 
used and when the student is in complete darkness. 

As the shooter descends the steps, a record sequence 

(Stravinsky) is started and is interspersed by shots and screams. 

When he reaches the bottom of the stairs, the coach pulls 

target No. 1, which is a bobbing target concealed behind a 

pillar. It is dimly illuminated by a red light. After firing, 




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7u/iael hm ar/i^/cmt coiu/ebs and flaorinq. 


shooter and instructor continue around target No. i to 
target No. 2, which is also a dimly illuminated quarter-size 
silhouette target popping out at eye level from behind an- 
other pillar. Target No. 3 is a half-size stationary silhouette, 
which is exposed to the shooter's view by pulling aside a cur- 
tain. This target is illuminated by a dim green light. Target 
No. 4 is next, concealed behind a curtain. This dimly-lit full 
silhouette is exposed when the curtain is pulled. A blank- 
firing revolver placed in the center of the target fires in 
conjunction with the opening of the curtain. 

At this point, the shooter's gun should be empty, if he 
has fired the required bursts of two at each target. In any 
event the gun is taken from him by the instructor and he 
is told he will proceed alone through the tunnel using his 
knife at appropriate times. Just as he is about to go down 
to his knees to enter the tunnel, the instructor exposes 
Dummy A, which is constructed of old fatigue cloches and 
excelsior; and the shooter uses his knife on it. While he 
has been proceeding from Target 1 to Target 4, a locally- 
made Gestapo-type torture scene record sequence, inter- 
spersed with cursing and other sound effects, has been 
played. While the shooter is going through the pitch dark 
tunnel on his hands and knees, with his knife in his hand, 
he is subjected to the Stravinsky music sequence and to ad 
libs given him over the sound system by the instructor or a 

Progressing through the tunnel, he encounters strings hang- 
ing from the ceiling to simulate cobwebs, and crawls over 
partially inflated inner tubes (inclosed in fatigue suits) which 
simulate dead bodies. While he has been progressing through 
the tunnel, the instructor has moved to a position where he 
can see him emerge from the tunnel. Upon emerging, and 
after stabbing a stationary Dummy B, he proceeds up the 
stairs to the platform and then down the stairs— into a pit, 
then up out of the pit by means of another set of steps. The 

All numbered targets are to be fired at. Lettered targets, with the 
exception of D, are dummies for knife targets. Dummy H is an Amer- 
ican so placed that the student will have to choose between firing at the 
soldier or passing him. This teaches recognition of U. S. troops. All 
targets and curtains are controlled by an accompanying officer. These 
devices are moved by attached strings. Target Nos. 4, 5, 8 and 9 are full 
silhouette targets with blank-firing pistols attached. 


latter procedure imparts an illusion of height and depth, 
which is emphasized by a lack of light and the artifically de- 
veloped combat tension. 

As the student proceeds, a sentry-killing sequence is started 
over the record player and a curtain is pulled, exposing a mov- 
ing dummy which, for a short distance, falls towards him. 
This dummy is dressed in "aggressor" uniform and is illumi- 
nated by a dim blue light. After using his knife on Dummy C, 
the instructor, remaining out of contact with the shooter, tells 
him to place his knife on the ground. Then he is given back 
his pistol, which he loads, proceeding under the guidance of 
the instructor to Target No. 5. A sound sequence of a dog 
barking and growling is sent out over the record player at 
this time. 

As the shooter goes through the open door at point D, a 
half silhouette which rises from the floor is pulled and he 
fires the first two shots of his second magazine. He then 
approaches a door which swings in either direction. If 
he kicks the door open and enters the next room, he fires at 
Target No. 6, which is a quarter silhouette concealed in a 
window frame. It is exposed when a shutter swings out, as 
the cord controlling the spring latch is pulled by the in- 
structor. On the other hand, if the shooter pulls open the 
door, he fires at Target No. 7, a half silhouette which 
from the floor and is illuminated by a red light. A discussion 
of the best ways to enter doors of rooms occupied by an 
enemy is held at this point. 

During the firing at Target Nos. 5, 6, and 7, sound effects 
over the amplifier have consisted of a whispered conversation 
interspersed with faint groans and pleas, such as would be 
made by a wounded man asking for water. Proceeding on 
toward Target No. 8, over a flooring, sections of which have 
been placed on pivots so they will tilt slightly to simulate un- 
steady footing, he enters the area of Target No. 8, which is 
in total darkness. There he returns the fire when Target No. 8, 
which is a life-size silliouette of an "agsjressor" soldier, illumi- 
nated by the muzzle blast of a blank-firing pistol installed in 
the dummy. At this point, after a short pause, the instructor 
tells him to proceed and, at the same time, pulls a string 
rattling some cans to his immediate left. These cans are in 
complete darkness. If the shooter fires at them, a discussion 
is carried on by the instructor as to the advisability of shoot- 
ing at something vx'hich he cannot see. He then approaches a 
door at point (F). He pauses there and a record sequence of a 

r R A 1 N 1 N t; T K C II N I <} V V. s : 85 

rape scene involving a young woman is played. He is told 
to kiclc open tiic door and get the rapist. As lie goes through, 
a life size silhouette fires at him; and lie returns tiic (ire. 
These are the last rounds in his magazine (provided he has 
not fired at the cans); so he is told lo reload before proceed- 
ing on to a curtain at point (G). 

A short music sequence commences over the amplifier at 
this point, and a conversation is heard involving a number 
of persons. He is told to listen, and hears the sound of bottles, 
laughter, and cards being shuffled. The instructor tells him 
there are enemies in there playing cards and he is to go in 
and get them. The instructor ceils him to jerk the curtain 
aside at (G) and enter the room. In the corner, under a 
bright light, is standing a dummy of an American soldier in 
full equipment— a sergeant with his stripes exposed, to facil- 
itate recognition. If he fires at it, he is reprimanded for 
shooting one of his own men, when recognition was easily 
possible (this happens to about io7o of the shooters). He is 
told that the American (dummy) is there for the same pur- 
pose and has been awaiting an opportune time to do the same 
thing he is about to do. 

Proceeding on around the pillar, he approaches a curtain 
and listens to continued sound effects of the card game in 
progress beyond it. If he has not fired at the American dummy, 
he has eight rounds left in his gun. As he pulls aside the 
curtain, he fires at Target Nos. 10, 11 and 12. These targets 
are life-size silhouettes of 3 men sitting at a table playing cards 
by candlelight. After firing at the three seated targets (3 
bursts of 2— seldom done— usually one of the card players is 
missed), he should have two rounds remaining in his pistol. 
Seeing no other targets, he is allowed to relax. As he does so, 
thinking he has completed the course, the instructor pulls 
Target No. 13, which is a three-quarter size silhouette bobbing 
out from behind a pillar, firing a blank shot as it comes into 
view. The shooter fires his last two rounds. At this point, his 
gun is taken from him and he proceeds out through the exit. 

A brief, general critique of the shooter's firing technique 
and his reactions to the targets during his 15-minutc ordeal 
is given. 

It is difficult to describe by written words and diagrams the 
effects of this range on the shooter. All the elements involving 
the use of the handgun, mentioned earlier, have taken place 
while the shooter was making his way through the course. 
He was subjected to physical and niencal tension, to the ele- 

zSa K t r, r, OK CRT K I L L F, D 

ment of surprise, and to the unknown. Realistic and difficult 
shooting and reloading conditions were caused by poor light- 
ing, unsteady footing, and sound effects; and the loss of sense 
of direction, because of his irregular progress, was emphasized. 

In this sequence, the shooter learned by his own mistakes. 
He also had the opportunity, which seldom occurs in combat, 
of being corrected on the spot by the instructor, at the time 
and under conditions in which the mistake occurred. There 
is no better way to teach and to learn the use of weapons 
and their employment than by practicing under conditions 
as close to the real tiling as possible. 

In The House of Horrors there were twelve silhouette 
targets at which the shooter fired in bursts of two shots. 
None of these silhouettes had been at any greater distance 
than ten feet from the shooter. 

After the period of trial, error and experiment was com- 
pleted, a careful observation and study was made of the 
records of 500 men, who had just previously qualified in the 
prescribed course on standard target ranges, either as marks- 
men or experts. These 500 men, when projected into The 
House of Horrors averaged four hits out of a possible 12 
silhouette targets. After these same 500 men had received in- 
struction in instinctive pointing, they were again sent through 
this range. (Necessary changes in lighting and target location 
were made, to provide a fair test by eliminating, to a great 
extent, any benefits derived by previous familiarity). The 
average nuiuber of hits on the silhouettes increased from 
four to ten for this group. On this range, or any similar one, 
it is not difficult to establish a system of scoring after a num- 
ber of shooters have gone through and an average number 
of hits is determined. 

After this test, many more hundreds of men were put 
through the range, with the same general improvement noted. 
It was particularly noticeable that men who had received 
training in instinctive pointing only, and who had never fired 
the hand gun previously, did as well as those who had had 
previous bull's-eye instruction. 

Once realistic conditions and situations are created, under 
which men will actually be firing, and after training and im- 
proving the ability of the shooter to fire under these condi- 
tions, confidence in himself, his ability and his weapon will 
be achieved. 

Again, the payoff will be in LIVES— enemy and criminal 

I' K A 1 N I N C r r. C II N I Q U I', s 



Tliis type of surprise target is practically fool-proof in 
operation. It does not contain the usual springs, hinges, and 
so forth, which arc a continual source of trouble and which 
are commonly found in bobbing targets. These targets can 
be best installed behind the edges of walls and behind trees, 
and in ranges such as the House of Horrors. 

The counterbalance principle used in their operation is 
the secret of their success. The "offset" hole, through which 
a bolt or large spike can be driven into the target support to 
make the pivot point, is largely responsible for ease and 
simplicity of operation. This pivot point eliminates excessive 
weight on the end of the arm opposite the silhouette. The 
more the pivot point is offset and the more weight added on 
the end opposite the target, the faster the bobbing action of 
the target will be. 

In the first illustration the release cord is pulled and secured 
tight, holding the target from view. When this cord is re- 


These surprise targets are foolproof and easy to make. The counter- 
balance weight and ofl-center pivot make for smooth, easy operation. 
Weight on the target, as shown above, swings the silhouette into view 
when the cord is pulled. 



leased, by trip or other mechanism, the weight falls until 
it hits the stop and exposes the target. 

The device in the second illustration works on the opposite 
principle, the cord being pulled to bring the silhouette down 
to where it is exposed. The target disappears immediately 
from sight once the cord is released. 

Awning pulleys and sash cords have produced the best 
results on such target devices. 

The silhouette, which can be of any size, is tacked on the 
end of the arm and is replaced when it is shot up. Likewise, 
the end of the zvm which is exposed to the fire can be replaced 
merely by splicing on another piece of wood, thus eliminating 
the replacement of the whole weight and counterbalance 

Old pieces of plywood are good as a backing for silhouettes, 
with light paper replacements stapled on the plywood backing 
when needed. A piece of plywood will take an incredible 
number of shots before it falls to pieces; and it is not as sus- 
ceptible to splitting or damp weather as is a solid piece of 
wood or cardboard. 

Here the cord pulls the target down and the weight swings it up. 
Awning pulleys and cords make the best release devices, and plywood 
cutouts make durable silhouettes. (Illustrations are from The American 



An object lesson course, to impress upon the trainee 



Gjiubac slioociiig is not a sport, but a "deadly" serious business. 

Chapter 1 1 


A KNOWLEDGE of the elementary principles of move- 
ment and concealment in hostile territory is essential, 
not only for those who are in the Armed Forces but also for 
members of state police forces, sheriffs' offices, and civil de- 
fense organizations. Army manuals, covering the subject in 
detail, may be purchased from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. It is 
intended here merely to set forth some of the basic tech- 
niques tliat can be covered in a lecture, designed primarily 
for members of civilian organizations. 

Typical Problem. This lecture may be based on a hypo- 
thetical situation, such as the one described below, elaborated 
and localized to lend greater interest. Points in the narrative 
niay be discussed as they arise. 

Training aids are suggested, as follows: 

(i) If the class is small, a sand table for demonstration 

(2) If the class Is large and if the facilities are available, a 
film strip, or glass slides, in a darkened room. 

(3) Or, as an alternative, each student can be issued a map 
to follow, or a large map may be drawn on a blackboard. 

The Situation. Corporal John Thomas, of the State Police, 
is one of the surviving members of an ill-fated patrol. He has 
escaped an ambush and at 1700, 15 September, is standing 
on a ridge above the Jones Farm, in hostile territory. 

The Objective. To return to a selected rendezvous point on 
the outskirts of Blank City. 

Rendezvous Tirne. The patrol members had agreed to stay 
at the rendezvous point until 2100. 

Equipment. Corporal Thomas has a map, a revolver, a 
carbine, a compass, and his wits. 



KILL () H (i K r K I l. I. I', I) 

Preparation. Thomas has devoted considerable time to 
studying the map, and has located himself on it. He now 
compares the map with the terrain. He knows that the map 
may save him many mistakes. 

After locating landmarks and choosing a tentative route, 
Thomas then divides the ground into sectors, with a recog- 
nizable landmark in each sector. He rules out of consideration 
all paths, trails, and roads, which might be covered by the 
enemy and selects the most difficult and wildest route— be- 
cause it is least likely to be covered. He realizes that the sun 
is in front of him and may shine on him; so, to make the 

When possible, your clothing should blend with the terrain and 
not be in contrast with it. 

1'. I. r. M K N r A K Y !■■ 1 K L D C: K A F T 293 

best of the situation, he darkens his face, hands and clothing. 
In this way, his figure will blend with the background. To 
escape detection, he must use every ditch or depression, and 
every dark or shadowed piece of terrain. 

Techjiique. At 1830, Corporal Thomas leaves his observa- 
tion post near the Jones Farm and proceeds north al)our 8o(j 
yards through the woods. As he takes cover and observes 
around a rock, he sees a herd of sheep in his front. He does 
not want to disturb them, because that would indicate to any 
one watching that something is wrong. Thomas decides that 
it will be easy to go below them and keep out of sight. 

Before he proceeds, however, he checks on the direction 
of the wind by wetting his cheeks. The cheek is extremely 
sensitive to moisture and wind. The wind, he finds, is coming 
from the northeast; so it should be safe to pass below the 
sheep, who have a keen sense of smell. After he is well past 
them, he checks the terrain with the map and finds that his 
detour was too long and that, if he were to continue, he 
would walk into the center of a road net, where enemy 
guards are certain to be. 

Heading east, the Corporal crosses a small stream and begins 
CO climb a ridge. Nothing more happens until he is within 
200 yards of a big rock. Suddenly, from behind the ridge, 
two crows rise and fly quickly about him, cawing as they go. 
Immediately he is suspicious. A good woodsman is always 
suspicious of disturbed animals or birds until he learns the 
cause of their alarm. The Corporal knows that something, 
probably a man, has frightened the crows. He takes cover and 
looks around for a line of retreat, if that becomes necessary. 

Ten minutss later, three siieep come trotting onto the 
skyline. They stop every now and then to look behind them. 
Since the sheep arc still frightened and continue to trot on. 
Corporal Thomas is even more certain that a man is some- 
where on the ridge. If the man were a shecphcrder, he would 
undoubtedly have a dog with him. 

The Corporal tests the wind, finds it from the right direc- 
tion and remains concealed. After ten minutes of cautious 
waiting, he continues uphill toward the rock. The rock 
proves to be an excellent landmark. From his present site, 
it looks quite different, but its distinctive size enables him 
to recognize it and locate himself on the map. 

From his map he finds that he is now near the Hanson 
Farm. Looking around, he is able to see a good deal of the 



To be effective, cover must shield the user from enemy fire. 

country he had not seen before. To observe from the top of 
the rock would give him an excellent view, but it would also 
silhouette him against the skyline. A place in the grass beside 
the rock, although it restricts his vision, gives him more 

He looks around— very slowly, for he knows that quick 
movements are easily seen. To his rear he sees a bright flash, 
several hundred yards above him. At first he is dazzled, then 
identifies the glare— a man with iieldglasses. The Corporal 
thinks to himself, "It is lucky that the observer does not know 
he should shade his glasses, to keep them from flashing a 
message over the hillside." 

F. I. E M K N T A R Y I' I F. F. I) C K A F T 


Tlie observer seems to be looking directly at Corporal 
Thomas, but Thomas does not move. His safety lies in per- 
fect stillness. After a few minutes, tlie observer gets up and 
starts walking toward the Blank City road. 

The Corporal continues his observation and makes a mental 
note to avoid all houses as he goes forward. One of them 
might have a dog that would bark and give him away. He 
remembers that the same warning applies to farmyards; there 
is always some animal which will make a noise. Alarm noises 
of domestic animals are better known than those of wild 
animals; people recognize them for what they are. 


An old Indian trick that often draws fite and discloses an enemy's 


KILL O 11 G E r K 1 L L IC D 

Never look over an object when you can look around the side of 
it. This holds, also, when firing a gun from cover. 

Ac this point, he sees a shepherd only loo yards away. Since 
it will soon be dark, he does not want to waste time. Keeping 
his head down, he crawls on his stomach for about 30 yards 
to»a deep ditch, down which he makes his way unobserved. 

After about 300 yards, he rests. His crawling and rapid 
withdrawal have tired him. He crawls into some brush, keep- 
ing his carbine close by and spending the last half hour of 
light observing the countryside. 

To the left and below him, the Corporal sees a small stream, 
which he knows leads to a road and then joins the main stream. 
His plan is to get to the road by moving down the stream 
in the water. The high bank will hide his body and the 
noise of the water will mask the sound of his movements. 
If this were still water, he would avoid it as a plague, because 
still water, like dead wood and leaves, is a sound trap. But 
this stream flows rapidly because of the sharp decline; so he 
proceeds to the stream and follows it to the road. 

The stream leads into a culvert too small for him to crawl 
through. He must, therefore, cross the road. His point of 

I-. L E M K N T A R Y \' I K L I) C K A F T 297 

crossing gives him a clear view of tiie road. He sees thac the 
road is gravel and chat he cannot move up or down the road 
because there is a guarded road junction several hundred yards 
away in each direction. He must then wait for a counter- 

After a half hour a car finally comes by, and the Corporal, 
the sound of his movements covered by the car noise, dashes 
across the road to the grove on the other side. As soon as 
he is again ready to move forward, the door of a house to 
the rigiit of the grove opens and an armed man steps out. 
Thomas, knowing that the man will be unable to see clearly 
for a time because he has stepped from a lighted room into 
darkness, quietly leaves the immediate vicinity, continuing on 
through the trees. 

He then gets b.ick into the scream. He is still Coo far from 
safety to risk leaving footprints in the soft mud banks of 
the creek. 

He follows the stream along the edge of the woods, then 
cuts through the woods to the junction of the creek leading to 
Blank City. The first 500 yards along this creek are easy 
enough, but the creek bed becomes so shallow and rocky that 
he must move forward on the ground. So he walks through 
the high grass, stepping high and taking each step very care- 
fully. This avoids the brushing noise of the root moving 
through tall grass and keeps him from tripping over low 

In this way. Corporal Thomas reaches the rendezvous at 
2015. He waits in the shadows X)f the designated building 
until he is joined by the two other surviving members of the 
patrol. The three men then return to their headquarters. 

Chapter 12 




THE police baton in tlie hands of a guard or police 
officer is an additional symbol of his authority and im- 
plies that he knows how to use it. If he is skilled and practiced 
in its use, lie can cope with most situations where physical 
force is necessary. ]5asically, the police baton is an offensive 
weapon. It is usually used defensively only to enable an officer 
to survive an attack so that he may retaliate with offensive 
action of his own. Tiic manner in which he uses his baton 
depends upon the local situation. It can be used as a club, as 
a jabbing or parrying instrument, or as a restraint device. 

The short baton is round and made of hard wood or plastic. 
It is I Ui iVi incites in diameter atul aixnit 12 to 36 inclies long. 
Generally the short baton, or niglit stick, is carried by the in- 
dividual patrolman on his beat, while the long baton, or riot 
stick, is more useful in handling crowds, mobs, riots. Whether 
long or short, the technique of using the weapon is much the 

The Grip, Either Baton. The grip is most important. Place 
the loop or thong of the stick over the right thumb so that 
the stick will hang with the thong crossing over the back of 
the hand. Turn the hand in and grasp the handle so that the 
thumb points parallel to the stick. Raise the baton to a 45- 
degree angle— and the grip is complete. The thong must be 
adjusted in length to fit the hand. When correctly adjusted, 
the butt of the club should extend slightly below the edge 
of the grasping hand. If gripped in this manner, the baton 
will not fly out of the hand when in use; but, if an opponent 
should seize it so that it can no longer be used as an effective 
weapon, it can be released by relaxing the grip- The thong 


M I S C K L L A N I'. () U S W K A l> () N S 


should never be looped about the wrist, for then an oppo- 
nent -who grabs the baton and twists it prevents the officer 
from releasing it and pinions his hand in a painful manner. 

Left: Baton grip No. i. Initial 
position to enable the baton to 
be gmspcd properly. Note the 
leather loop is hooked over the 
thumb anil passes over the back 
of the hand. 

Right: Baton grip No. 2. Note 
that the grip is toward the place 
where the Icatlier loop is fastened 
to the baton, and that the leather 
loop passes across the back of 
the hand. 

Left: Baton grip No. 3, inside view. Note that the leather loop 
docs not pass around the wrist as would commonly be assumed. Only 
the thumb is encircled by the leather loop. In the event that the baton 
is grasped by a mob member (this is not a likely event if the baton 
wielder has been properly trained) and the baton is lost to the mob 
member, the leather loop will slide off the thumb and the policeman's 
arm will not be pinioned in the loop, with the hand immobilized also. 

Right: The WRONG way to use the leather loop on the police 
baton. If an opponent gains control of the baton he can, by twisting 
it, immobilize the policeman's arm and take him out of action. 

300 K I I. I. OR G F. T IC I L L K O 

Tlic tliong can be fastened to the baton cither at the butt 
end or approximately six inches from the butt end. The length 
of the thong will have to be adjusted accordingly. 

The Blow. A blow delivered by the baton is generally 
effective in the same body areas as those in which the edge 
of the hand is best used. (See chapter 2, Offensive Unaruied 

However, the policeman should not, ordinarily, use his 
baton as a bludgeon to strike blows about his opponent's head. 
Used in this manner, the night stick is dangerous and fatal 
injuries can result. Side blows to the temple and throat area 
also are potentially fatal when delivered with enough force. 
Blows delivered to the top of the head and forehead are also 
dangerous, yet at times even this kind of blow has been in- 
effective. Wild blows, using the full length of the arm in the 
swing, are not nearly as effective as they seem; they leave a 
police officer wide open for parry and retaliation by a trained 

Well-directed blows to the following areas are usually as 
effective as head blows, with less chance of serious injury to 
the recipient. A man who is moving in to attack can be 
dropped with a downward blow to the collar bone; or by a 
shoulder shove, to twist the body, followed by a hard blow 
across the big muscle in the back of the thigh. This can be 
delivered with full force and results in cramping the leg 
muscle so that the victim is temporarily unable to walk. If 
the opponent's arm is outstretched, a blow to the back of the 
hand, or the outside of the elbow or wrist, will suffice. Blows 
to the shin bone will often block an attempted kick and can 

A blow to the temple, the top 
of the head, or the side of the 
throat, is potentially dangerous. 
Concussion, skull fracture, or rup- 
ture of the neck artery may result. 

M I S C; K I. I. A N F, (1 V S \V F. A P () N S 


A downward blow to tlie collar 
bone will break up the most deter- 
mined attack. Tlie broken collar 
bone will make tlic whole arm 
useless, but will not inflict an in- 
capacitating injury that is po- 
tentially fatal— as will blows to the 
head area. 

By using the night stick, or 
baton, as an extension of the arm, 
and thrusting at the solar plexus 
about 3 inches above the navel, 
an opponent is forced to give 
way. This is a useful method for 
clearing a way tlirough a hostile 
crowd. It does not inflict any 
serious injury, but causes enough 
temporary discomfort to be effec- 

A sharp blow to the shin will 
discourage an attempted kick. Also, 
a blow to the inside, outside, or 
edge of the wrist will prevent use 
of the hand, or any weapon it 
may be grasping. 



When an opponent advances 
from the front, siiove liim sharply 
on the left shoulder with the left 
hand, causing him to spin off bal- 
ance. Strike him hard with the 
baton on the big rear leg muscle. 
This blow can be delivered with 
all possible force. It will cause 
the muscle to cramp and will 
down the opponent. It will not 
cause permanent injury but will 
prevent the opponent from walk- 
ing for a short time. 

A blow to the inside of the 
wrist wilt cause the opponent to 
release his grip on any weapon 
he may be grasping. Like a blow 
by the edge of the hand, the blow 
on the wrist tendons forces the 
fingers to release their grip. 

Tlie thong of the baton can be 
looped around the wrists. By 
twisting the baton, the wrists can 
be so pinioned that a painful and 
compelling control of the prisoner 
is effected. 


also be used against a kick after it has been launched and 

By using it as an extension of the arm, the night stick 
can be an effective parrying instrument in much the same 
manner as the foil serves a fencer. A powerful thrust de- 
livered to tlie solar plexus will temporarily disable the op- 
ponent; and short jabs to the plexus and stomach region are 
effective in clearing away crowds or clearing a pathway 
through a mob. 


The English peasant in the medieval times of Friar Tuck 
and Robin Hood fought with a long, stout, round wooden 
stave called a quartcrstaff. It varied in length from six to 
eight feet and was quite a formidable arm. He used it as a 
two-handed offensive and defensive weapon. Because he was 
seldom permitted to bear other arms, such as edged or other 
lethal weapons, the peasant developed the technique of fight- 
ing with the quartci-stnff to a high art. Competitions were 
held at county fail's in somewhat the same manner as we have 
challenge wrestling niatciies at county fairs today. 

In the Orient, a similar long stick has been used over the 
centuries. Tradition has it that the ancient Buddhist monks 
carried the stick on their wanderings, using it as a defensive 
weapon as well as a cane. Police in Japan and other areas use 
it in mob control today. 

Duri[ig World War II interest was revived in this type of 
fighting aiid many members of the armed services were given 
instruction in stick and cane fighting. The principles are much 
the same; only the length, diameter, and strength of the stick 
cause variation in the technique. 


For purposes of this discussion we will use the word baton, 
considering it to be synonymous with the term "riot stick" 
in modern police terminology. This is a formidable weapon 
in the hands of a trained man who has confidence in his ability 
and training. 

The long baton, properly used, is an important weapon in 
riot control. With this weapon, trained men will have no 
hesitation in making physical contact with the mob members. 
When it is used in tactical formation so that each man is pro- 
tected on his flank by other s(]uad meml)ers similarly armed, 
a niol) can l)c split, forced to flee, or be subjected to casualties 


K I I, r. <) u c, F. r K I 1. 1, F. 1) 


f-c/r; Port arms is the position that the policeman armed with the 
baton will normally use when moving into action and from one area 
to another. The better the appearance, the more psychological effect 
it will have on the mob. The baton can be used in various drill forma- 
tions in the same manner as the rifle. The combination of white baton, 
white helmet, and white gloves, gives a well-drilled unit a very 
"snappy" appearance, and has a practical use also. In night actions 
it enables the leader of the unit to have better control of his men as 
he can better see them. The gloves— aside from the visual effect— also 
protect the hands of the soldier against cuts, blows, and thrown 
objects. The helmet can be plastic or metal. The plastic type safety 
helmet now used by workers in mines and steel construction is light 
and tough and will give protection against practically all types of 
thrown objects. 

Right: The parade rest position, aside from the drill aspect, should 
be used when the unit is facing a potential mob action but there is 
still no activity. 

When standing in the parade rest position it is sometimes necessary 
to prevent non-aggressive mob members from getting too close to the 
police line. A sudden series of rapid thrusts with the baton to the eye, 
throat, stomach, or testicle area will keep the desired interval. The 
thrusts, should be rapid and the withdrawal also rapid to prevent the 
mob member from grabbing the baton. Note that the thrust is made 
with the leg extended to the front to give the maximum distance to 
the movement. The object is to force the individual back and keep 
his distance, not to hit him. 

M I S C I". I. 1. A N K (I U S W p. A I' O N S 


tliat may not be fatal but are at least temporarily disabling. 
The full potential of this weapon and its tactical value in 
riot control is not yet realized by most police and military 

An examination of various training manuals on riot con- 
trol written in the years past for civil police and military 
units, will indicate mention of the riot stick as an issue weapon 
but little is said concerning its proper use. Tiic baton is not 
a weapon to be used by each man as he sees fit and to permit 
him to engage in individual combat with various members of 
a mob. It is a weapon best employed in mass in attack or de- 
fensive fonnations. 

The tip and butt end are used to deliver blows and jabs. 
Its full length is used in restraint and in defense. Its thong is 
used as a means of restraining prisoners. In addition its use in 
drill and dress formation adds much to the appearance of the 
unit, which in turn has a sobering effect on the mob. 

Trained units using the riot stick alone are capable of hnndl- 

t-c'ft: A forceful blow or thrust to the testicle, groin, stomach, or 
solar plexus area will put most mob members out of action, h would 
normally be followed by advancing with the rear foot and delivering 
a butt stroke blow to the chin or head area. This is a disabling tactic 
for use against a violent adversary. 

One of the best methods of forcing a mob to break ranks and leave 
an area into which the formation of baton men arc advancing, is to 
use short thrusts to the stomach ^nil solar ])le.\us area. The force of 
the thrust can be regulated by the situation. A line or wedge forma- 
tion moving against a crowd using this technicjuc can often clear the 
area without resorting to more violent blows. 

Right: Blows such as this to the Adam's apple or' point of jaw 
area are disabling and can be fatal. Normally, the same upward thrust 
to the body area with force will disable the opponent, with much 
less chance of a fatality. 

306 K I I, r. OR GET ICir. LED 

iiig mobs of large si'/.c. VVlicii the riot stick is combined in the 
unit witli tlic cnpabiiitv to use gas munitions and firearms, a 
complete range of weapons is available to apply the principle 
of "necessary force" against the mob. 

Left: A butt stroke to the jaw or temple can cause a fracture or 
a "knockout." This bh>\v delivered from the parade rest position will 
normally be followed by a butt smash to the rioter's face on the re- 
turn to the port or ready position. Note that in this and all illustra- 
tions, the leg of the baton man is advanced toward the adversary. 
Blows are delivered by "stepping in" to the opponent. At the same 
time the forward leg always protects against a kick to the groin area 
by the mob member. A return to the ready position so that the stick 
man is in a forward crouch witii stick at port arms is always ad- 
vocated. In this position the stick man is ready for the next adversary, 
since he is in a position of mobility and balance and one leg is 
normally forward making his body area "out of reach" to the mob 

Right: Baton blow from the chest position that can result in a 
knockout or other serious injury. This blow would normally be a 
follow-up to an upward two-handed blow with the baton from the 
parade rest position. 

M I S C n I. I, A N F. O U S W F. A I' O N S 



Blows to the inside or outside of the ankle, shin bone, and 
knee cap are effective. These blows arc given from the port arms 
position, with the hand on the point of the baton shoving to give 
more monientuin. In the illustration a blow is being struck to the 
inside of the ankle which is a very sensitive spot and is one that can 
be used against a rioter launching a kick. All blows arc followed up 
with cither a return to the on gii;ird position or followed up with 
other thrusts or blows until tlic point is rcnchcd where the rioter 
cither is out of action or flees. 

A blow from the port arms position breaking tlie collar bone 
is very effective in putting a man out of action. The blow is not 
only painful but will immobilize the whole side of the body and 
put the most aggressive mob member out of action, with little pos- 
sibility of a fatality. The blow can also be delivered from the rear. 
Normally, blows to the head area arc dangerous and should not be 
used when fatalities are to be avoided. 



f^Cr: ' 

Blows to the biceps, elbow, and inside and outside of the 
wrist, are very effective. These can be used without danger of perma- 
nent damage whether or not the rioter has a striliing weapon such 
as a club. 

Left: Blow to and across the large leg muscle— No. i. The left hand 
is used to strike a forceful blow or thrust to the point of opponent's 
right shoulder. This places the opponent off-balance and forces him 
to pivot, exposing the rear of his leg to a blow with the stick. 

Right: Blow to and across the large leg muscle— No. 2. As the body 
pivots exposing the rear of the leg, a blow of maximum force is given 
to the large leg muscle. The more the victim is turned exposing the 
striking area, the better. A blow delivered with all the force possible 
will do no permanent damage but will be very effective. The blow 
will normally cause the muscle to cramp and, aside from the pain 
inflicted, will rtiake him unable to run, walk, or move about. Many 
times the effect of the cramp is such that the recipient will fall to 
the ground and stay there until the cramp leaves. The principal after- 
effect will be a bruise area at the point of impact. 



Left: The long baton is very useful when it is necessary to restrain 
or force back non-violent mob members who are pressing against 
the police lines. A shoving motion can be changed to a blow at any 
time, cither by liringiiig the baton upward against the chin or by a 
forward thrust to the Adam's ajiplc area. The knee will be used against 
the groin should the mob n)eml)er try to grajiplc with the baton. 

Right: When the stick man is faced with a passive mob, especially 
when women mil children are in the front line, he can often force 
a retreat by shoving against the throat or face area. Such a thrust can 
vary from a forceful one to a "shoving" action. It is usually sufficient 
to use this type of baton action alone against female mob members 
ajid children that are often put in the front ranlcs against the police 
by trained agitators and leaders. If this maneuver is not sufficient, or 
the line can not be moved back by this means due to pressure from 
the rear, gas munitions arc necessary. 



After the rioter has been subdued, many times it is necessary to 
walk him to a rear area where he can be held for questioning or other 
purposes. The riot stick is very useful to control the prisoner. Those 
come-alongs which necessitate the use of both of the policeman's hands 
are all right for short distances and enable complete control. 



Note ill both the left and riglit Illustrations that the elbow joint is in 
such a position that the outside of the elbow or tlie point is resting 
against the stick. Downward pressure exerted by the policeman on the 
hand results in a painful, controlling pressure on the prisoner. 

The method at left is only ef- 
fective for a short distance with- 
out tiring the policeman. He is 
shoving forward with his left 
hand which is grasping the shirt 
to create an off-balance position. 
At the same time he is lifting 
with the hand on the stick to 
impose a greater degree of con- 
trol on the prisoner. This type 
of come-along is more spectacular 
than otliers and puts the victim 
in a ridiculous position— that can 
create much humor among on- 
lookers with the definite psy- 
chological advantage thus ob- 

M I S C E I, L A N F, O U S W i: A 1' O N S 


Many times it is necessary to transport a rioter over a considerable 
distance to a point where he can be released to the custody of others. 
This type of prisoner control must be such tliat, regardless of attempts 
by the captive to release hiniscif, he has little opportunity. It should 
also permit the policeman to maintain control with only one hand 
on the stick, leaving the other hand free if necessary to grasp his 
pistol, or at least have access to it. 

The left illustration shows the rioter with one hand pinioned by the 
thong on the stick and being forced to hold up his pants with the 
free hand. The belt should be cut or removed and tlic buttons on the 
pants ripped oH so that they will fall if not licid up by the prisoner. 

The right illustration shows both hands pinioned by the thong, 
which is twisted so as to make a tight bind. In this position the rioter 
can be kept under control by one or two hands by pulling back on 
the arms, or by jabs with the butt of the stick to the small of the 
back or kidney area. 

The opposite illustration is 
very usable for a potentially 
violent prisoner. Strangula- 
tion can be effected by pres- 
sure on the throat. Again, the 
bolt can be cut to occupy his 



This metliod of moving a prisoner with the bacon is a good one 
when the prisoner must be taken a long distance. A firm grasp on the 
rear of the collar with sharp thrusts to the kidney area with the tip 
of the bacon will normally be sufficient to keep a prisoner under con- 
trol once he has been subdued enough to permit the application of 
the come-along in the first place. If he gives trouble a kick to the 
back of the knee joint will put him on the ground and subject him 
to further forceful handling. 

Many times in a general riot 
tlicre will not always be calm 
in the back areas in tlic rear 
of the main action. Attempts 
may be made to liberate pri- 
soners. In this case the prisoner 
can be controlled by having 
both wrists pinioned by the 
thong of the baton. At the 
appearance of possible trouble 
the policeman can force the 
prisoner to the ground with 
jabs to the kidney area and a 
kick to the back of the knee. 
With one hand he can still 
control the prisoner and at 
the same time have his side- 
arm available for instant action 
against a rescue accempc. 



Stick release— I. If n mob mem- 
ber grnsps the riot stick it usually 
can be forcibly retrieved by 
quick counter action, tliat can be 
followed by offensive tactics. 

Stick release— 2. Step quickly to- 
ward the adversary and grasp the 
end of the stick in the rioter's 
hand, either above or below his 

Stick release—}. Exert full 
strength and jerk the end of the 
stick from the rioter's grasp and 
step backward. As the point of 
the stick is released, a follow-up 
can be made to the point of the 
jaw with the right elbow. 

Stick release— 4. Once the stick 
has been released it normally will 
be in a raised position, high above 
the left shoulder. From this posi- 
tion a butt smash can immediately 
be delivered to the throat or jaw 
area. Practice in this type of re- 
lease will develop great confid- 
ence and make it a very rare oc- 
casion when any rioter is able to 
wrest the stick from its owner. 



Another very effective means of releasing the baton if grasped by 
the rioter. The counter must be immediate so that the policeman is 
not pulled off balance. The kick to the knee joint, plus the extra sup- 
port given by the thong, will usually effect the release rapidly. Note 
that the body of the policeman is leaning in the direction of his pull. 

Using the baton to strike a blow or a lifting effect against the 
testicle area. Many times it is necessary to clear a crowd from around 
a speaker or agitator and approach is made from the rear. The force 
of this blow can be as the situation dictates. A jab to the kidney is 
also an alternative. 



The riot stick can be used as a defensive weapon against over or 
underhand attacks with cutting or bladed weapons, clubs, bottles, 
or other weapons. 

In the upper illustration a block is being made of the rioter's over- 
head blow. This must be followed up either by withdrawing to an 
on-guard position or by immediate offensive action against the enemy. 
From this position a follow-through butt stroke to the rioter's head 
and jaw area is indicated. 

In the lower illustration a blow is being delivered to the inside of 
the wrist. Note that the blade is still out of range of possible contact. 
A blow to the inside of the wrist will force the fingers of the hand 
holding the blade to open and drop the weapon. One to the outside of 
the wrist, if forceful enough, will have the same effect. Generally, 
blows with the baton delivered to the same areas that are vulnerable 
to edge-of-the-hand blows will be most effective. 


PRACTICE with use of the long baton is vital. Training must be 
of the type that will give the policeman the "feel" and have confidence 
in the stick as a weapon of offense. It is not enough to simulate thrusts 
and blows. A durable canvas bag filbd with a substance such as saw- 
dust that will give slightly with each blow is best for use in training. 
Kicks are also delivered against such a training aid. 

RIOT UNIT. A diagonal view of a squad equipped wijli riot sticks 
and, in this case, short 37nim gas guns. Note that the squad leader is 
in the rear with a submachine gun. A formation of this type, with 
each member of the group giving flank support to the other, whether 
it is a squad, platoon, or company, can present very formidable offen- 
sive action. If the formation is not broken and the men are disciplined, 
there can be no real opposition to it from the unarmed mob. If pres- 
sure of numbers is too great, the riot unit should not be committed 
until gas munitions are used. Always in the reserve should be the 
necessary firepower to back up violent opposition. 



In addition to the baton, many police officers carry, as an 
article of issue or personal choice, the blackjack (slapjack, 
sap, persuader, pacifier, billy). This striking instrument con- 
sists of a somewhat cylindrical leather case with a lead shot 
filling in its striking end. It may or may not have a spring 

The blackjack ranges, in design and size, from the so-called 
vest-pocket model— which is round and about 5 inches long 
and three-quarters of an inch in diameter at the striking 
end— to a larger variety, which is about 10 inches long and 
is either round or flat on the striking end. Although such a 
weapon is most useful in handling unruly prisoners, it can 
be dangerous. Lack of appreciation of its efficacy has caused 
many officers to use it too freely and too forcefully. 

The Blow. In subduing dangerous criminals with the black- 
jack, blows are usually directed against the head. Blows 
against the face will cause bad bruises and may break bones 
in the facial structure, but are not always sufficiently stunning. 
The blackjack is best used' against the top portion of the 
back of the head. Blows should be struck no further forward 
than a point opposite the ears and no lower on the back of 
the head than ear level. Because of the structure of the skull, 


At the top is shown a common type blackjack, carried by police 
officers. It is made of cow-hide, is leid-fiUed on the striking end, and 
has a spring handle. The thong is so made that it can slide back and 
forth, makm{; different grips possible. 

The blackjack shown at the bottom is an effective type and is safer 
for general law enforcement. It stuns, but does not have as much 
cutting or abrasive effect. Because of the wide striking surface, con- 
cussion is less likely. 





At the top are brass knuckles, a well-known implement for use in 
hand-to-hand fightine. 

Next is shown a heavy-type, round, blackjack with spring handle 
and thong. 

Third from the top is the most vicious type of blackjack known. The 
brass knob on the end of the telescoping spring shaft will easily pene- 
trate the skull bones. This weapon was developed during World War II 
and was used in underground warfare. 

At the bottom is the iron claw, the most effective of all mechanical 
come-along devices. This is particularly suitable for handling unruly 
prisoners. Its use should be advocated where departmental regulations 

a Stunning or knockout blow can be effected with less danger 
in this area. Very hard blows against the temple or against 
the top of the head, or the forehead, can easily cause skull 
fracture and concussion. 

Those blackjacks which are entirely round or are only 
slightly elliptical on the striking end, tend to localize the 
force of the blow in a small area because of their shape. This 
type is more likely to cause a fracture, a cut, or a bad con- 
tusion, depending on the weight of the weapon and the force 
of the blow. 

M I S C F, L I, A N 1". O U S WEAPONS 


Of all the types of blackjacks, those with a flat striking end 
about 3 inches wide are the best. They have as much stunning 
efiFcct as is needed and, because of the width of the striking 
surface, the full force of the blow is not pin-pointed on a 
small area. There is therefore less probability of a cut or 
fracture. Blackjacks which contain either a flat or coil spring 
in their handles will deliver harder blows with less manual 
force, because of the whipping effect of a snappy wrist action. 

It should be remembered that the blackjack is a dangerous 
instrument when used improperly or too forcefully. The 
officer who carries it should experiment on various objects 
before attempting to use it in subduing a criminal. By lightly 
tapping on the back of his own head with his blackjack, or 
by using it against the back of his hand, he will more readily 
appreciate its effectiveness and be better able to judge the 
amount of force he should use in its application. 

At the top is shown the metal telescoping blackjack in the carrying 
position. It IS usually carried with the tnong around the wrist and the 
weapon lying in the palm of the hand. 

Below is shown the extended striking position. Note the metal ball 
on the end of the spring. The tremendous "whip" given the striking 
end by the spring will cause skull fracture with very little effort. 
This type weapon definitely is not for police use, since it is in- 
tended to maim or kill, not stun. 



Left: Thrust blow witli muzzle to stomach area. The man armed 
with the empty gas gun still has a potent weapon to strike blows. 
Although the shorter gas gun is not designed for use as a weapon 
for close-in fighting, it can be used as such when necessary and the 
man armed with it is in close contact with the mob. All men armed 
with the gas gun should have practice and confidence in its use as 
a striking or thrusting weapon, even though they normally are pro- 
tected from actual physical contact by their comrades armed with 

Right: Butt stroke from the port position, striking with the toe of 
the gunstock. A butt smash can be delivered to the head on the fol- 
low-through when the gun is . being returned to the port arms or 
ready position. 

Left: Two-handed blow to the jaw area from the parade rest posi- 
tion. This is usually a surprise blow and can be accompanied by a 
knee to the groin. The gas gun can also be used to shove a mob mem- 
ber to the rear in a situation where no actual violence is taking place. 

Right: Tlvrust to small of back or kidney area. 



In addition to the strangles wliich use the bare hands or 
the victim's garments (see chapter 2, Offensive Unarmed 
Combat), there are three other types which have long been 
used in military and criminal circles. Some or all of them have 
been taught in military training centers where close combat 
instruction is given. 

These strangles, from the attacker's viewpoint, are much 
more efficient and deadly than those employing the bare 
hands. The necessary mechanical aids are always available or 
can be easily improvised. 

The Garrotte. Thugs in India have long been known for 
their method of strangling, called garrotting. It can be 
executed with a rope, strong cord, or piece of twisted cloth 
—about three feet long with a noose in one end. This is a 
garrotte. Properly applied, it produces a deadly, silent strangle. 

Slip the noose over the forefinger of the right hand so 
that the loop lies down across the palm toward the little 
finger. Close the right hand and pick up the free end of the 
cord with the left hand, so that the thumb and fingers are 
on the inner side of the cord and the end is even with the 
little finger. Approach the victim from the rear and, opening 
the right hand, throw the loop over his head with the left. 
Use the left hand to draw the noose through the right hand 
until it is nearly taut about the neck. Then close the right 
hand about the noose at the back of the victim's neck and 
twist as you would in applying a tourniquet. With your 
hand against the back of his neck and your right arm stiff, 
the victim is held at arm's length and is unable to free him- 
self from the strangling cord or to reach his attacker. A hard 
pull to the rear at this point will make the victim fall back- 
ward and cause his chin to fold down over the cord, thus 
adding his body weight to the pressure of the strangle. 

Other cord strangles can be effected with the noose, in the 
manner in which the cowboy uses his lariat. They are not 
nearly as reliable, however, because the user does not have 
the extra hand to twist and tighten the noose, as in the case 
of the garrotte. 

The Stick Strangle. This very efficient strangle can be done 
with a stick, cane, or similar object, 18 inches or more in 
length and roughly one inch in diameter. The stick should 
be gripped in the right hand 6 inches from the end, wi^h 
long end of the stick parallel to the forearm. Approaching 


the victim from the rear, witii the stick gripped correctly in 
the right hand, place your right foot against the inside of his 
right knee, to knock him off balance. Placing your right hand 
over his left shoulder, slip the long end of the stick under- 
neath his chin from the left side. With the left hand reach 
across, grasp the loose end and exert pressure to the rear. 

This strangle has been used in combat areas with definite 
effectiveness. With the stick across the throat against the wind- 
pipe, but little pressure is necessary for complete strangula- 
tion. By throwing the victim off balance and applying this 
strangle quickly, you leave no hope of escape. It is probably 
the fastest of all known strangles, because the windpipe is 
crushed instantly. 

The Cord Strangle. Another type of strangulation, as old as 
history in the Far East, is accomplished with any light cord 
or wire of good tensile strength, about i8 inches long. The 
thinner the cord or wire, the quicker will be the effectiveness. 
Tie a loop at each end of the cord, or tie small wooden blocks 
on the ends, so that a secure grip can be taken. Approaching 
the man from the rear, throw him off balance, as with the 
stick, with your right foot against the inside of his right knee. 
With a hand on each end of the cord (the cord held taut), 
bring the cord over the victim's head and back against his 
throat. Cross the hands at the rear of the neck and apply 
pressure both ways. Strangulation is quick and silent. The 
advantage of having one end of the cord in each hand and 
the cord held taut when putting it over the victim's head, 
is apparent when you consider that he may wear a hat or 
helmet, or the light conditions may be poor, thus preventing 
a noose or loop from being thrown over accurately. 

Chapter ij 




THE use of tear gas and other chemical agents should be 
considered as an effective weapon to be used, with dis- 
cretion, against the individual and collective enemies of law 
and order. Preservation of the peace with less bodily harm 
and violence to all concerned is the end result. 

The past decade has seen increasing use of tear gas (CN) 
and nauseating gas (KO or DM) by military and police units 
throughout the world. This method of maintaining "law and 
order" and protecting life afid property has many advantages 
over the ase of guns, bayonets, or brute force in general. 

Tear gas when properly used is the most effective means 
known to swiftly and temporarily incapacitate and break up 
a mob or capture and subdue dangerous criminals or insane 
persons. When employed in the correct manner, it is the most 
humane way possible to handle a dangerous situation with the 
least risk to law enforcement officers and minimizes the pos- 
sibilities of loss of life and property, and of bloodshed. 

Unfortunately, the proper use and value of tear gas and 
other chemical agents have never been fully explained or 
understood by many police and military agencies. There has 
always been, and remains, a certain amount of mystery and 
lack of full confidence in the use of this relatively modem 
humane weapon. 

Military personel and members of law enforcement agencies 
will find the following manuals to be informative and helpful 
in using irritant gases: Field Manual 19-15, Field Manual 21- 
II, and Technical Manual 8-285. These may be purchased 
from the Government Printing Office, Wasliington 25, D. C. 

Types of tear gas, means of projecting it, and techniques 



in its use, have improved much since the World War II 
period. Increasing world tension, nationalism, and racial un- 
rest, combined and motivated by doctrines and creeds such 
as world Communism, have now reached a dangerous stage. 
Directed mob violence is now one of the means most com- 
monly used to gain or destroy political power. Tear gas and 
other chemical agents, when properly used, in the right con- 
centration at the right time, are often the only means to con- 
trol an ugly situation without resorting to actual bloodshed. 
Many times the use of extreme force and deadly weapons 
only increases the violence potential. 

Tear gas has equal value when used to subdue, capture, or 
restrain criminals and insane persons. Discipline in penal in- 
stitutions and control of prison riots are usually largely de- 
pendent on the use of chemical agents. Tear gas, released by 
special "trip" devices, is now commonly used to protect banks 
and vital industrial plants. Plant police in many large factories 
are now equipped with tear gas munitions. 

To properly use tear gas, the individuals or agencies em- 
ploying it must understand its nature, limitations, and effects 
and after effects on the individual, as well as the correct 
tactics of employment. Once there is confidence and there 
has been success in its use, police will seek increasing oppor- 
tunities to use it. 

Tear gas and other chemical agents manufactured and used 
today are generally projected and liberated by three methods: 
Grenades, projectiles, and cartridges. 

hi nearly every case where the use of gas has failed to pro- 
duce the desired residts, it has been caused by using too little 
gas or because of a lack of training or proper equipment. 


Tear gas, other chemical agents, and equipment for their 
use are manufactured in the United States by two companies: 
Blvd., Wickliffe, Oliio and by FEDERAL LABORATO- 
RIES INC., Saltsburg, Pennsylvania. 

The products of both companies are well known and are 
used throughout the world. Both companies also manufacture 
their products under special contracts for the United States 
and foreign governments. 

Tear gas (CN-Chloracetophenone) is manufactured in two 
forms, liquid and crystalline. Both are used in grenades and 


projectiles. At the time of exposure of either type to air, the 
gas is released. 

The liquid, invisible type of tear gas is generally considered 
to be the most modern and effective. It is contained within 
the grenade, or projectile, in a hermetically scaled glass vial. 
At the time of the explosion of the grenade, or projectile, it 
vaporizes instantly and totally. 

The crystalline type tear gas (powder form) is released at 
the time of the explosion of the grenade, or projectile, by a 
burning process; the CN powder mixed with an inert material 
is activated by a special powder, as a fuel. The gas, during the 
burning process is more slowly liberated and is accompanied 
by a distinctive white smoke created by the burning process. 
Tear gas is also released by the dust dispersion method. Fine 
tear gas particles in the form of dust deposited as a thin coat- 
ing on some inert carrier material are blown into the air by 
the force of an explosion or by a blast of air or nitrogen from 
a pressure cylinder. 


Visible tear gas takes up to 60 seconds after the explosion 
of the grenade, or projectile, to be entirely dispersed from its 
carrier by the burning process. The white smoke, created by 
the burning process wliich liberates it, indicates the area of 
the gas cloud and coverage. 

Visible tear gas in combination with smoke sometimes has 
a beneficial initial psychological effect on rioters, by tending 
to discourage tiiem. It also enables the police or users of the 
gas to locate by means of the smoke cloud the concentration 
of gas released, so they can increase coverage and concen- 
ti'ation in a given area when necessary. If all of the police are 
not equipped witli masks it also indicates areas to be avoided, 

By its very nature of operation and liberation, visible gas 
has three definite disadvantages when the combustion or 
burning-type of gas release is used: 

(i) The smoke cloud containing the gas can be seen, so it 
is easy for individuals or mobs to avoid the gas concentra- 
tion as they as well as the users can see it. The burning type 
grenade or projectile usually needs 20 to 40 seconds to dispel 
its gas contents. This permits plenty of time to avoid or 
bypass it, even when it is thrown into the midst of the 
crowd. The projectile dispelling the gas, being on the ground 


with the smoke pouring out of it, is usually easily visible, 
day or night. 

(2) One of the worst disadvantages of this type of tear gas 
projection is that individuals in the mob have time to pick up 
the grenade and hurl it back at the police, or kick it aside, 
if it is too hot to handle. This has happened countless times 
in the past, in action against aggressive mobs. 

(3) The burning type grenade also provides a fire hazard. 
Because a burning process is necessary to liberate and dispel 
the gas, this must always be considered when these grenades 
or projectiles are used in areas, rooms, and buildings where 
there is flammable material such as grass, gasoline, paint, waste 
paper, etc. Injudicious use of this type of grenade and pro- 
jectile in the past has resulted in severe fires and personal 
injuries brought about by the fire hazard always present. 

During World War II, the fuse time on the standard U. S. 
Army fragmentation hand grenade had to be shortened. Even 
though the grenade had a 5- to 8-second explosion time after 
it left the thrower's hand, enemy troops often picked up the 
grenade and threw it back. The fuse time was shortened to 
3 seconds to eliminate this possibility. 

The burning type hand grenades heat up during the dis- 
charge period. Anyone trying to throw them back can be 
burned on the hands. This is only a partial deterrent. Many 
times during the hysteria of a mob action this does not 
discourage the rioters. In recent planned Communist in- 
spired riots, the participants have even come prepared in 
advance, wearing heavy gloves, to enable them to grasp 
and throw back the burning type gas grenade. 


Invisible tear gas, being in liquid form, is volatile and in- 
stantly dispersed at the time of the explosion and release from 
the grenade or projectile. Being liberated in one blast at the 
time the grenade explodes, the entire concentration covers the 
target area immediately, so that there is no time to run away 
from it or avoid it. 

Being invisible, this also has a much greater psychological 
effect especially if a heavy concentration is created. Some- 
thing that is unseen but felt always causes more hysteria and 
panic, as it is intangible. 

Becatise of the rapidity of the release of the gas, grenades 
and projectiles carrying the liquid type tear gas cannot be 
effectively thrown back. The time element is such that any 

u s r. or ciiiCMicAi. munitions 327 

grenade, thrown back by the riotei-s, is only an empty shell, 
having already ejected its contents. 

As there is no slow burning action necessary to liberate the 
gas, the fire hazard, when used around flammable material, is 
also eliminated. 

Early objections to the use of liquid type gas being placed 
in the grenade or projectile in a sealed glass container are 
now not valid. The manufacturers now use special cushioning 
devices and specially tempered tough glass ampules to elimi- 
nate premature breakage in handling, transit, or in action. 

In commercial advertising it is claimed that the burning or 
combustion-type gas grenades liberate more gas in relation to 
size and weight than do those of the blast type. This may 
be true but it is of little importance in a major mob action, 
especially when the necessary wind conditions are not present 
to aid in the dispersion of the gas. The important factor is 
that the mob members or other recipients of the gas attack 
must get a heavy concentration of gas instantaneously , in 
such a 7/ianner that they cannot avoid it. By actual scientific 
test the buriung type grenade may give off more gas by 
volume than the liquid type gas delivered by blast dispersion. 
However, the burning type grenade needs up to thirty-five 
seconds to liberate its contents. Meanwhile, the rioters can 
see the area covered by the gas cloud and can avoid it. They 
may even throw the grenade back or kick it aside. It would 
therefore appear that the greater gas content claimed for the 
combustion-type grenade has little practical effect on the 


CN is easily generated and is promptly effective. It pro- 
duces severe irritation to the eyes. The nasal passages and 
throat are also affected. Tears flow profusely. When a dense 
cloud of tear gas strikes a victim, the latter involuntarily 
closes his eyes and endeavors to keep them closed in an 
effort to eicape the irritation and discomfort. A feeling of 
helplessness and personal panic is created. 

AH tear gases are toxic to varying degrees. However, tear 
gas has no lasting damaging effect on the lungs or eyes in 
any concentration that will be met with in the field. Follow- 
ing exposure to the tear gas, there will be some discomfort, 
but this i;; of relatively short duration, except in those cases 
of exposure to very high concentrations for a prolonged 
period. The discomfort to the eyes will last from several 
minutes to several hours. In rare cases of extreme exposure 


by a high concentration for a prolonged period, the discom- 
fort to the eyes has lasted as long as 24 hours. 

Eyes should not be rubbed. Fresh air is the best cure. Treat- 
ment for persons exposed to tear gas usually consists of 
merely washing the eyes with a solution of boric acid or 
sodium bicarbonate. If the clothing is wet, the tear gas has a 
tendency to be absorbed by the cloth, therefore it has a more 
lasting effect. Such clothing should be removed. 

The main principle to practice and remember in using this 
humane means of controlling, subduing, or capturing mobs 
and individuals is that it should be used in heavy enough con- 
centrations at the beginning so that the initial impact is severe. 
If this is done, the individuals or mobs will be more easily 
controlled or dispersed at the outset. 

Although tear gas causes ?io pemiaiient damage to the eyes 
or lungs, lack of knowledge of this fact coupled with malici- 
ous propaganda (sponsored by subversive groups) as to the 
"deadly" and "permanent" ill effects of tear gas have in the 
past, unfortunately been successful in discouraging its use by 
forces of law and order. Trained agitators are usually persons 
who have previously been exposed to tear gas. They will 
minimize its effectiveness to their adherents, but even they 
will not be able to withstand the gas or control and direct 
mob action if the initial concentration of the gas is heavy 

Pure tear gas (CN) can be and has been combined with 
other chemical agents to increase its cffcctivenass. 

Experience has shown that, unless a very iieavy concentra- 
tion of pure CN gas is used, a determined or dedicated in- 
dividual can still do a lot of damage. He may be crying pro- 
fusely but he still has vision. He will always try to avoid 
visible areas of gas concentration. In those instances when he 
is subjected to an intense concentration, such as when trapped 
in a room or building, the concentratibn of pure tear gas 
will eventually subdue him. 

On the other hand, in the control of mobs and individuals 
operating in the open air, the actual effect of producing a 
lot of tears does not necessarily stop the action. This is 
especially true when the mob is made of, or led by, experi- 
enced agitators who continually whip up the emotions of 
the participants. A crying person can still do a lot of damage. 

During recent years CN gas has been successfully com- 
bined in liquid form with another tear-producing chemical, 
EBA (ethyl bromacccatc). EBA is a powerful eye, nose, 
throat, and skin irritant. Rather than producing tears pro- 
fusely and immediately, it prevents the tears from coming 


during the initial exposure. The eyelids stay tightly closed 
until the CN can produce some tears and relieve the effects 
of the EBA so that the eyes can open. With the eyelids 
tightly closed, a person or mob cannot do damage, and more 
individual panic is created. 

This combination of chemicals with its temporary blind- 
ing effect better serves the purpose. It results in incapaci- 
tating the mob or individual at the outset, providing the gas 
concentration is great enough. It has no more harmful after 
effects than the pure CN. 

Tear gas has little effect on horses. JVIounted police can be 
very effective in mob control and fortunately can operate 
without special masks for their mounts. 


The effects of tliis type gas are much more spectacular and 
severe than those of tear gas. 

Sickening gas has a continuing disabling effect that can 
last as long as 24 hours when the victim has been exposed 
to a severe, prolonged concentration. It should be used 
judiciously and only in extreme cases of emergency. Ad- 
verse publicity, political repercussions, and the effect of the 
gas on innocent bystanders must always be considered. This 
chemical agent should never be used in an unrestricted man- 
ner. In most cases, normal tear gas will perform the job. The 
decision to use nauseating type gas should be made well in 
advance, wl^en possible, and after due consideration has been 
given to the factors mentioned above. 

Tills gas was originally designated by the military and 
manufacturers as DM (diphenylaminechlorasine). It can be 
used in its pure state or combined with tear gas (CN-DM). 
It is released by both the burning process and in liquid form. 
Although called a gas when actually released by the burning 
process, it is an irritant smoke. The effects are produced by 
the action of the smoke particles on the respiratory system. 
DM irritates the nose and throat more violently than it does 
the eyes. 

This agent produces: first, sneezing and coughing; second, 
choking and gasping; then sickness in the stomach and un- 
controllable retching and vomiting, followed by violent head- 
aches. Severe cases will frequently collapse and faint. The 
prolonged nausea leaves the rioters weak and helpless with 
no desire for further participation. The reaction is so violent 
that the effects can last up to 24 hours. 


The delay time of the burning process of DM gas release 
along with the smoke generated, may enable some of the 
rioters to avoid the concentration. Previous comments re- 
garding the merits of visible and invisible tear gas apply 
equally in this case. 

The combination of the siclccning gas with a tear gas is to 
be recommended because it is always necessary for a certain 
time element to pass before the sickening gas takes effect. 
Consequently, tear gas with its initial impact slows up the 
initial individual or mob action until the more severe nause- 
ating type gas takes effect. Generally, all current DM (sick- 
ening) gas is mixed with CN (tear) gas by the manufacturer. 

Nauseating gas is also currently available and projected in 
liquid form. Its manufacturer designates it as KO gas. This 
is a combination of tear and nauseating gas which is especially 

After one minute of exposure to KO gas, the following 
effects begin to set in 2 or 3 minutes later. Great irritation is 
caused to the upper respiratory tract, the sensitive peripheral 
nerves, and the eyes. The irritation begins in the nose, as a 
tickling sensation, followed by sneezing, with a flow of 
viscous mucous, similar to that which accompanies a bad 
cold. The irritation then spreads down into the throat and 
coughing and choking set in until finally the air passages and 
the lungs are also affected. Headache, especially in the fore- 
head, increases in intensity until it becomes almost unbear- 
able. These symptoms are accompanied by an oppressive pain 
in the chest, shortness of breath, and nausea which soon 
causes retching and vomiting. The victim has an unsteady 
gait, a feeling of vertigo, weakness in the legs, and a trembling 
all over the body. These effects usually reach culmination 
in about 15 minutes after exposure to the KO gas and con- 
tinue until exposure ceases. After 15 minutes in uncontami- 
nated air, the symptoms begin to disappear and in from one 
to t\^'o hours recovery is nearly complete in the average case. 

Treatment for persons exposed to KO gas consists of: rest, 
fresh air, and removal of contaminated clothing. Wash the 
nose and throat with saturated solution of boric acid. Relief 
for the burning of the nose and throat is afforded by inlwling 
the following mixture: 

Alcohol 40% 

Chloroform 40% 

Ether 20% 

Ammonia 5 to 10 drops 


The ammonia will also give some relief from the nausea. 
Glycerine and menthol lozenges also help to allay the burning 
of the throat. Aspirin may be used to relieve the headache 
and other pains, and single dose of morphine will usually re- 
lieve the worst of the symptoms. No treatment other than 
symptomatic is required, since almost all victims will make 
complete recovery in the course of a day or two. 

It would be possible, under extremely high concentration 
conditions, to develop a near fatal effect on a victim of DM 
or KO gas. This situation is very unlikely to happen in nor- 
mal field use. Sickening gases are best used against mobs and 
rioters in open-air conditions. The effectiveness of tliis gas, 
which is very volatile under these circumstances, automatic- 
ally prevents the concentration from developing dangerously. 

Generally, the necessity should seldom arise for using the 
nauseating type gases against persons or groups confined in 
rooms, buildings, etc. If it is used, provision should be made 
in advance so that the victims can be taken out into the open 
air as rapidly as possible. Again a heavy concentration of 
tear gas will produce the same desired effect with less com- 

Another factor that must always be considered when using 
DM or KO gas, is the protective quality of the masks used 
by the police. Unfortunately, many masks in the hands of 
law enforcement officers today are out-moded and of types 
that will not give protection against nauseating gases. The 
nature and after effect of this gas is such that if there is any 
doubt or lack of confidence in the protective equipment 
issued to the users, there will be a very natural reluctance to 
use the gas. 

It is a simple matter to train units or individuals in the use 
of tear gas, where the after effects are mild after exposure 
to limited quantities such as used in training. It is not the 
same when nauseating type chemical agents are covered in 
training sessions. It is not generally advisable to expose 
trainees to effects of this gas. Its effects need only be de- 
scribed. At the same time the effectiveness and confidence 
in the protection provided by the masks to be used when 
it is employed against mobs and rioters must be emphasized. 

Smoke (HC) is very useful in riot control. It is generally 
projected by grenades or by slow burning candles. It is also 
loaded in projectiles in place of tear gas for use during visual 




HC smoke is non-lethal and when released forms a dense 
white cloud of great obscuring value. 

Smoke also is very useful in determining wind direction 
prior to release of CN or DM-KO concentrations. Naturally, 
smoke is best used for screening purposes when the pre- 
vailing wind is favorable. Once released, the air currents 
prevalent will dictate its value during a given mob action. 

The use of a smoke screen permits police or troops to con- 
ceal their final movements before making actual contact with 
the mob. Used properly, smoke enables police or troops to 
approach mobs and individuals in barricaded buildings so that 
gas munitions can be more safely and effectively employed. 

Photo Courtesy of Lake Erie Chemical Co. 

Lake Erie gas mask, Lecco No. 45, is of modern type affording pro- 
tection against tear gas and nauseating gas. It is packed in its own box 
for storage and carrying. This mask is light, compact and gives full 
protection when properly fitted and tlie wearer is trained in its use. 
it does not fog up, and enables good side vision. 


A heavy smoke concentration used against a moo also tends 
to separate the various individuals so they cannot maintain 
visual or physical contact with one another. When individual 
contact is lost the capacity for collective mob action, around 
which riots are born, is also destroyed. 

A large mob can often be split into sections by using smoke 
screens in the form of distinctive boundary lines. Once this 
is achieved and the mob is split into various sections without 
contact with one another, it can be more easily dispersed. 

Smoke, screening grenades or candles used in combination 
with tear gas are most effective. The psychological effect is 
quite great. Lack of visibility and profuse tears plus separa- 
tion from his companions normally will panic the^ individual 
rioter, especially if he has no physical ■way of avoiding such a 
gas-smoke concentration 

Gas-smoke concentrations are of particular value when 
there is no necessity for the police to enter the smoke and gas 
covered area. In this type of situation, police units can cover 
the edges of the smoke and gas area, and can pick up indi- 
vidual mob members as they finally emerge. 

Screening smoke and its use in combination with tear gas 
should not be confused with the type of smoke emitted by 
the burning type tear gas grenade. This smoke is generally 
not heavy enough to cut off visibility entirely as does HC, 
developed especially for this purpose. 

Many times rioters can be "suckered" into positions that 
will disorganize them even more rapidly than normally by use 
of a combination of smoke and invisible tear gas grenades. 
A concentration of smoke and tear gas is laid down directly 
on the rioters. As they begin to leave the smoke gas concen- 
tration by an escape route purposely left open for them, 
they can be met with a concentration of the invisible type 
tear gas. This strategy is very effective, particularly when it 
is desired to apprehend the individual rioters, their leaders, 

Available on special order from Lake Erie and other firms 
are large "smoke pots." These contain their own igniters and 
are capable of giving off large quantities of screening smoke. 
They are relatively inexpensive and the smoke is available in 
various colors such as orange, red, yellow, and blue. The use 
of these quantity-producing special smoke pots against rioters 
has a definite psychological effect, apart from the screening 
function. Instinctively, mob members are affected by the 
colored smoke. It is a new experience for many but more im- 


portant it leaves the uninitiated with the impression that they 
will become indehbly stained by contact. A'lore panic results. 
Civil police would be well advised to take advantage of this 
harmless but very useful tactical weapon. 


Chemical agent grenades arc commercially available in 
several distinct types. They can be loaded with either pure 
tear gas or nauseating gas or combinations of both, and smoke. 

Generally they are used by police when in close contact 
with rioters or individuals. 

Commercial grenades containing tear and nauseating gjis 
will vary in size, shape, and diameter. They will weigh from 
one to two pounds. None of them are of such type that they 
are inconvenient to throw or carry. All are designed for 
practical use and are the result of many years of manufactur- 
ing experience in meeting a need. 

These grenades contain a delay fuse that is activated when 
the striker of the ignition mechanism hits the shotshell type 
primer in the fuse body. The delay fuse bums for approxi- 
mately two seconds and then cither initiates gas dispersion by 
the combustion process or by means of an explosion that 
gives instant release of the gas contents. It is important that 
police and military understand that their tactical use of the 
grenade must be based on the distance the grenade will travel 
in the two-second interval during wliich the delay fuse is 
functioning. It is not the maximum distance that the grenade 
can be thrown that is important; claims of superiority of one 
grenade over another due to its lighter weight which enables 
it to be thrown further may therefore be discounted. By 
practice and training, men must be taught to throw the gren- 
ades so that they do not burst in the air above the heads of 
the rioters. This is especially true of the blast dispersion types, 
that are designed to be thrown directly amongst the rioters. 
(Combustion type grenades are NOT recommended for this 

The best manner to throw the grenade will depend on the 
individual. Any type of throw can be effectively used. Base- 
ball type throw, stiff arm, or underhand are all acceptable. 
The individual grenade thrower should be permitted to use 
the method easiest and the most accurate for him. For reasons 
mentioned above, the distance factor is not important and 
any normal individual can launch any of the various com- 




Left: The STRAIGHT ARM THROW is one advocated with the 
heavier type grenades to avoid possible injury to the thrower's arm 
or elbow joint in action and practice. As shown in the illustration, the 
throwing arm is kept straight and a sweeping motion over the head 
is used. The free arm is used to maintain balance and points in the 
direction of the target area. The grenade tlirower is just ready to 
launch the grenade. In this and tlic otiier illustrations it is assumed 
that he has just pulled the safety pin with his free hand. 

Center: The BASEBALL THROW is good for those men who can 
use it with accuracy. The man who has had baseball exjjcriencc usuallv 
uses this one best. The lighter gas grenades are more suited for this 
type of throw. 

Right: The UNDERHAND THROW is often the best for close 
range where it is desired to hit a specific target, such as a window. 
Persons who have never participated in baseball will usually find the 
underhand throw more accurate. 

In the case of gas grenades the maximum range of throw is not 
always the desirable one. Gas grenades are usually equipped with a 
two-second fuse. The range or the throw is therefore that which 
enables the grenade to explode at the time of impact. This causes the 
gas to rise up past the faces of the mob members and provides maxi- 
mum exposure. Longer throws are not advisable, as they cause the 
gas to disperse In the air above the mob and are more subject to air 
currents. A 30-yard throw is generally indicated with the arc or 
trajectory high enough to go over the heads of anyone standing close 
to the thrower. 

mercial grenades the distance necessary to take advantage 
of its full capabilities of gas dispersion. 

Advertising claims that one type grenade can be carried in 
more quantity than another, due to less weight, are also mean- 
ingless. To the writer's knowledge, there has never been any 
action yet where this was an important and limiting factor. 
Normally, grenades are carried into action cither in im- 

336 K I L L O II G E T IC I L L E D 

provised sacks or bags or in special belt holsters. Whether the 
grenade weighs one pound or two should not prevent the 
normal individual from carrying sufficient numbers to meet 
any known situation. 

While the blast dispersion type grenade cannot be thrown 
back by the rioters, it should be thrown in such a manner that 
it bursts on impact with the ground among or at the feet of 
the mob elements. In this manner, the gas will rise up past 
the faces of the rioters and full advantage is taken of all the 
contents of the grenade. A distance of 25 to 30 yards is nor- 
mally the recommended distance for a throw into the mob. 
This will take about t^vo seconds of travel through the air, 
and will result in the burst being timed properly with relation 
to the delay fuse element. There may be some slight variations 
due to make and model of grenade and this should be learned 
and compensated for in training. 

GETTING READY TO THROW. Grenades should be so placed 
in their pouches that tlicy can be taken out with the throwing hand, 
with the safety lever in the correct position between the thumb and 
forefinger. This enables faster launching and eliminates the "juggling" 
around in the hand to get the grenade in the proper throwing posi- 
tion. In the midst of action, anything that can be done to eliminate 
the human error factor is indicated. If the grenade is grasped in a 
faulty manner, many times it will be dropped by a nervous individual 
within his own unit, or allowed to explode in his hand. Grenades 
are normally thrown on order and are taken from their pouches 
and thrown in a "by the numbers" fashion. Grenades arc best not 
carried in the hand when in close contact with the mob. The safety 
pin is drawn only just prior to throwing. The possible exception to 
the rule of not carrying the grenade in the hand would be in those 
cases where the scene of action and throwing is not known or un- 
certain, such as in a dark alley or inside a building. 


GkEN/^DE CARRYING POUCHES. Note that each grenade is 
carried in a separate pouch. In this manner the individual can be 
equipped for action with any variation of grenades and types, as the 
situation demands. Normally, single blast gas grenades are carried in 
front. The heavier Jumper Repeater types are best carried in the rear. 
Special grenades such as those loaded with nauseating gas and smoke 
can also be best carried in the rear, to avoid errors during action 
when such special type loadings are used on command. 

It is essential to conduct intensive practice sessions in gre- 
nade throwing to improve accuracy and range of throwing. 
Dummies of grenades made in approximately the same size 
and weight as the live grenades actually stocked are very 
useful in training. Empty beer cans filled with sand or cement 
to the proper weight make good practice grenades. 

Circles can be outlined on the ground as simulated mob tar- 
gets. Skeleton door and window frames caa also be con- 
structed for the same purpose. Practice throwing of grenades 
at a simulated window frame placed above the ground level 
is recommended. Not only are grenades expensive, but misses 
when trying to throw them into a building can cause them 
to bounce back at the feet of the thrower. If used against 
armed, barricaded individuals, there is often a lack of oppor- 
tunity for a second try. Accuracy in grenade throwing is also 
important when gas guns and the more accurate longer 
range gas projectiles are not available. Underhand throws 
can also be used where the range is short and the target is 
a small one such as a small window. 

During the training period men should be made to prac- 
tice the proper method of handling the grenade with the 
safety lever being held down against the body of the grenade 
between the "V" of the thumb and the forefinger of the 
throwing hand. 

The motion of pulling the safety pin should always be 
simulated in practice at the time of throw. Untrained persons 
using grenades for the first time under tension, have been 
known to throw grenades without pulling the safety pin first. 
On other occasions live grenades have been dropped amongst 


the throwers due to lack of training and excitement brought 
about by the action itself. 

The practice of pulling the safety pin in advance and 
carrying the grenade in the hand for a prolonged period, 
prior to actual throwing, is not recommended. In this situation 
it is too easy for the grenade to be dropped or accidentally 
knocked from the hand during or prior to the action. 

United States manufactured grenades available today can, 
with few exceptions, be thrown directly into the mobs and 
crowds with little danger of causing serious injury. About 
the only hazard involved would be if an individual is struck 
by the grenade wliile it is in flight. At the time of the ex- 
plosion of the modern gas grenade, the body of the grenade 
stays intact. The gas pours out through numerous vent holes 
in the sides, top, and bottom, depending on the type. 

During training periods all trainees should be exposed 
to tear gas concentrations with and without masks. Small, 
special training tear gas ampules are commercially available 
for this purpose. A closed wall tent, placed in an open field, 
in which a quantity of gas has been released, is a simple but 
cfTcctivc way of training. Trainees can be exposed to tear gas, 
in the tent, using tliis system with and without masks for 
any desired period. 

In the above manner, the effect of tear gas is actually ex- 

Left: Applying gas mask— Step i. Note tliat the rubber face piece is 
turned bacl< fully and evenly on both sides so as to permit the mask 
to be placed on the face quickly with a minimum of risk of damage 
to the mnsk. 

Right: Applying mask— Step 2. Notice the chin being thrust well into 
the mask, preparatory to adjusting the bands on the head. 



Left: Applying mask— Step 3. After the chin has been thrust into the 
mask, the elastic head bands must be adjusted evenly so that a tight, 
uniform pressure on each band causes the face of the mask to fit 
tightly without too much pressure, making a perfect seal around all 
edges of the face piece. 

Uipiht: Applying mask— Step 4. When the mask is correctly fitted nil 
clastic bands will have cvcji tension. l''.a(.li man should have his own 
mask that has been adjusted to his own face and tested by hiui in gas 
training chambers, in which he can have full confidence. There 
should be no interchange of masks. AH adjustments to insure perfect 
operation should be made during the training period. After this phase 
the should be kept in the wearer's possession or marked for his 
personal use in action. 

perienced and any mystery as to its action and nature will 
be revealed. This in turn leads to greater confidence by the 
user in its use and effectiveness. 

The fire hazard presented by the burning type gas grenade 
(used by many police agencies) should be covered in train- 
ing, particularly if this is the type grenade which has been 
purchased by the department. 

Individual confidence must also be developed, during the 
training program, in protective masks against tear gas, nause- 
ating gas, etc. Normally, police using grenades will, or should 
be, wearing masks. The proper care of the mask, drill in 
putting it on rapidly, and practice in wearing it over pro- 
longed periods, should all be covered in the training program. 

The modern commercial type gas mask is generally light in 
weight, gives good visibility and, when properly fitted to 
the individual wearer who is trained in its use, will give com- 
plete protection. 

For obvious reasons, training in the use of grenades and 


1. I. «) K U K r K I L 1, E D 

masks sliould be simultaneous. Grenades can and have been 
used, out of necessity, by police without protective masks. 
However, the situation can usually be foreseen in advance 
to eliminate this possibility. 

Lake Erie Model #34. This grenade discharges its gas in- 
stantaneously in a single blast in less than two seconds after 
throwing. The gas is invisible and is liberated so rapidly 
that there is no time for lacking the grenade aside or a 
throwback. There is no fire hazard. It is available loaded 
with pure tear gas, nauseating gas, or combinations. It does 
not rupture or explode and can be thrown directly into the 
mob. The invisible gas cloud liberated is about twenty feet 
in diameter. There is no fragmentation. 
Lake Erie Jumper Repeater. This instantaneous grenade, with- 


»UST riTE, fIRBti*' 

[tear gas] ,j 


Eric- arnnkal 


Phuto Courtesy of Lake Erie Chemical Co. 

Left: the Lake Erie Jumper-Repeater grenade containing invisible 
tear gas which is discharged in three heavy blasts during a four-second 
period as the device bounces amongsc the rioters. Right: the smaller 
Lake Erie Model 34 grenade which discharges its contents of invis- 
ible gas in a single blast two seconds after throwing. 


Photo Courtesy of Federil Laboratories, Inc. 

Federal Triple Chaser hand grenade. This grenade breaks into 
three sections (as illustrated) two seconds after being thrown. Each 
section travels in a different direction, functioning as an individual 
grenade and covering a' wide area quickly with visible gas. 

out rupturing the grenade body, discharges in rapid succes- 
sion three heavy blasts of gas. As each blast occurs, the de- 
vice jumps ten or twelve feet in a different and unpredictable 
direction. The first blast or gas discharge occurs two seconds 
after the grenade leaves the hand (this represents between 
40 and 50 feet of travel). The two succeeding blasts occur 
at one second intervals. The total discharge of all gas in the 
grenade is completed in four seconds. There is no oppor- 
tunity or time for a throwback. The invisible gas released 
is in a very heavy concentration. The manufacturer states 
that the total gas discharged is approximately 35 percent more 
than the Army Fast Candle or the standard size burning type 
grenade. No fire hazard is present. It is available in smoke. 
It can be thrown directly into a mob. Each blast of invisible 
gas is about ten feet in diameter. 

Federal Spedeheat. This is a burning type grenade that 
begins its action at the time thrown. The entire cqntent of 
gas is discharged in about 35 seconds. This grenade is non- 
explosive and becomes extremely hot during the burning 
period. This makes a throwback difficult. The grenade dis- 
charges a heavy visible gas smoke concentration through the 
openings in the top, bottom and sides. A fire hazard is present. 
It is available in tear gas or nauseating gas. The grenade body 

34^ K 1 L I, OR GF. T KILLED 

does not rupture. Due to the throwback hazard, the manu- 
facturer recommends that it be used some distance from the 
mob with a favorable prevailing wind. It is not recommended 
to be thrown directly into the mob. The diameter of the tear 
gas burst can easily be observed by the smolce cloud that 
accompanies its release. 

Federal Triple Chaser. This non-explosive grenade separates 
into three gas producing sections in about two seconds after 
being thrown. Each section travels in a different direction, 
functioning as an individual grenade. A good volume of 
visible gas is thus discharged in three places practically 
simultaneously. The sections travel with a sizzling, hissing 
sound bi-ought about by the burning and moving action. 
This has a definite p.sychological effect. In this particular 
grenade the hazard of throwback is minimized and a heavy 
visible concentration of gas is delivered over a larger than 
normal area. This grenade is available with pure tear gas or 
with sickening gas. The individual sections do not rupture 
and it can be thrown directly amongst the rioters. 

The Federal Triple Chaser and the Lake Eric Jumper Re- 
peater type grenades arc best cniiiloycd among rioters, ant! 
in situations where the mob members are rather widely 
dispersed. Densely packed masses of rioters are best attacked 
by using blast type grenades such as the Lake Erie Model 34 
that can be thrown directly into their mob or by using the 
Federal Spedchcat grenade in conjunction with a favoralilc 

A blast dispersion type grenade that throws off a cloud 
of tear gas dust is now produced by Federal Laboratories. 
Their Model 121 has an aluminum case that rips open but 
does not throw any dangerous loose fragments. This grenade, 
according to the manufacturer, does not create any fire 
hazard. Users are warned; however, not to permit the grenade 
to go off accidentally in the hand as serious injury can re- 
sult. An earlier blast type grenade listed by Federal was their 
Model 120 which had a fiber body that disintegrated at the 
time it released its charge of tear gas dust. This grenade is not 
now manufactured as apparently there was danger to the user 
from fragmentation. 

In years past Lake Erie also produced a bursting type 
grenade called the Green Band. It was very effective but due 
to fragmentation of the metal case at the time of gas release, 
it also has been discontinued. At the present time all Lake 
Erie grenades are of the instant l)Inst dispersion type but their 


Steel grenade bodies remain intact and there is no fragmenta- 
tion. Gas is dispersed instantly through holes in the grenade 
body but there is no danger due to flying metal fragments. 

Smoke Grenades (Candles). Both Federal and Lake Erie pro- 
duce a large grenade for use in smoke screens and air current 
testing. Tiie smoke (FIC) is oily white and very thick. This 
type smoke is generally considered to be non-irritant and 
non-toxic but a long exposure to a heavy concentration can 
result in irritation and discomfort. 

For a heavy, prolonged smoke screen, it is recommended 
tliat burning candles be used. They burn continuously for 
several minutes. By placing the candles to take advantage of 
the wind, streets and other critical areas can be more com- 
pletely blocked and obscured for longer periods. 

Shoulder Gas Guns and Projectiles. The development of the 
37mm gas gun (I'/z" caliber) along with accurate short and 
long range projectiles has given law enforcement another 
very potent weapon to use against barricaded criminals, in- 
sane persons, and mobs. 

These guns, and ammunition for them, are manufactured 
by both Lake Erie and Federal. They arc shoulder fired and 
C(iuipped with sights that, after practice, enable their accurate 
use at ranges well out of physical contact with dangerous 
mobs or individuals. 

Photo Courtesy of Federal Laboratories, Inc. 

FEDERAL 37mm gas gun for' use with long and short range gas pro- 
jectiles against persons and mobs with barricade type shells. 

Photo Courtesy of Lake Erie Chemical Co. 



Training is necessary in their use and firing to develop 
accuracy, as it is with any other type of firearm. Special in- 
dividuals or units sldlled in the use of this equipment will 
"pay off" in saving lives and property and counteract all other 
negative effects of individual and mob violence. Practice 
projectiles are available from the manufacturers for training. 

Tear gas and nauseating gas projectiles and combinations 
can now be launched against targets up to 350 yards distant. 
Accurate shooting with tail-fin projectiles enable consistent 
hits up to 75 yards on ordinary window-sized targets after 

Lake Erie 37mm shells are usable in the gun manufactured 
by Federal and vice versa. Sight adjustments are necessary 
when using the barricade shells in guns of the opposite make. 

Short-Range Gas Shells. These 37mm shells are quite effective 
against rioters at close quarters. They are excellent for pro- 
tection of gates, entrances, or narrow approaches to buildings. 
The gas is blasted directly from the muzzle of the gun with 
eflfective ranges up to 35 feet (in still air). A cloud of about 
15 feet in diameter is released containing a heavy concen- 
tration of gas. 

It is recommended that masks be used in this type of gas 
projection. If masks are not available care should be taken not 
to fire against an adverse wind. Due to eye danger from 
flying particles of wadding from the shells, the gun should 
be aimed at the feet of the persons toward whom the gas is 
directed. Tear and sickening gas are loaded. 

Long-Rangc Gas Shells. This type has proven most effective 
in controlling or dispersing mobs beyond the effective range 
of hand-thrown missiles. They are best used against large 
mobs and are not intended to be fired directly at individuals 
as is the short-range type. 

With the long-range shell it is possible to lay down gas 
barrages on the windward side of a mob or in the rear if 
wind conditions make us^ of hand grenades impracticable. 
If the gas concentration is heavy enough, all physical contact 
with the rioters can many times be avoided. Both tear and 
sickening gas can be loaded in these projectiles. The gun is 
usually elevated from 30 to '60 degrees for this type projec- 
tion. Some guns have adjustable sights that have been de- 
veloped to determine definite ranges, but again training must 
be done to achieve efficient use of the long-range gas projec- 
tile. The various manufacturers supply practice projectiles 
and others containing smoke for training purposes. 





The versatility of tliis new arm and its ajiplication to police use 
has been increased greatly due to the fact that Lake Erie has produced 
special grenades and missiles enabling its use in riot control with tear 
gas, KO, and smoke. 

Above: With the special gas grenade now manufactured, it is pos- 
sible to hurl a charge of tear gas approximately 400 feet when the 
gun is held at a jo degree angle. 

Below: A finned barricade projectile can be fired with accuracy at 
a window at ranges up to 75 yards. It will penetrate a one-inch thick 
pine board. 



Left: Types of leather carrying cases for 37mm gas gun projectiles. 
The policeman can carry a number of projectiles comfortably in this 
manner. On one side in front long-range projectiles can be carried 
and short-range on the other. In back, barricade shells, smoke, and 
nauseating gas can be carried. 

Right: Firing position used for shooting short-range gas shells at 
close range directly into the front of the mob. This is also the position 
for firing special finned projectiles into windows against barricaded 
criminals or rioters. 

The Federal long-range gas shell has a three-second time 
fuse. It burns expelling visible gas for between 20 and 30 
seconds after the fuse has activated. The lack and throw- 
back hazard during the burning period is present. The fire 
hazard must also be considered. Range claimed by the manu- 
facturer is 325 yards. 

The Lake Erie Company manufactures a projectile of the 
liquid gas type. The claimed range is 450 feet. All the gas 
is expelled in a single blast. The casing of the projectile tears 
open rather than shatters. Invisible gas is liberated over a 20- 
foot circle. This projectile has a six-second time fuse. When 
fired at a 30-degree angle the time fuse will explode the gas 
charge at about the time the projectile hits the ground. Lake 
Erie claims that, due to the type of gas used and the con- 
tainer in which it is carried, their shell liberates three times 
more gas than the standard long-range burning type projec- 

This type of projectile is designed for projecting tear or 
sickening gas into barricades, defended rooms or buildings, 



Left: Firing position when firing a long-range gas projectile in 
front of, back of, or into the mob. The angle of the piece will dictate 
the range. Practice with specially designed practice ammunition will 
enable the shooter to hit his objective with sufficient accuracy for 
tactical use. Note that the weight of the shooter is on the forward leg. 

Right: Loading the gas gun is nonnally done from the port arms 
positions and all loading is done by the numbers, by conunand. 
Normally, tlic gas guns arc not carried loaded, but arc charged with 
the appropriate tj'pe of projectiles on command. In some cases, where 
the action has been pre-detcrmincd and the time clement will be short, 

firior loading instructions can be given, but for obvious safety factors 
oading is best done just prior to discliarge of the piece. Cocking of the 
gun is done just prior to firing. 

industrial plants, prisons held by rioters, or against barricaded 
criminals or insane persons. 

These projectiles are equipped with tail fins that spring 
into position when the projectile leaves the gun muzzle. 
These tail fins (like an arrow) keep the projectile from 
tumbling and keep it pointed toward the target. Good ac- 
curacy at window-sized targets from the smooth bore 37mm 
guns at ranges up to 100 yards is possible, after practice. 

This type projectile is not designed or intended for direct 
use against crowds and persons, since its velocity and pene- 
tration potential is such that death or serious injury can 

The barricade type projectile that releases its charge of gas 
on impact, can be used against mobs and riotei-s by firing it 
so as to hit a wall or building above or near the rioters, to 
release the gas charge. 

This type of projectile is available in a number of loadings. 
Tear gas and nauseating gas are the most common charges. 


On special order WP (Incendiary) practice smoke, practice 
inert, fragmentation, and liigh explosive loadings can be ob- 

Because of the varied loadings available, law enforcement 
units now Iiave, through use of their 37mm gas guns, a type of 
firepower for extreme situations that is similar to the military. 

The Lake Erie Company manufactures its Tru-Fute bar- 
ricade shell for this specific type of law enforcement. This 
shell has a stated maximum range of 350 yards and an accurate 

(A J 

Photo Courtesy of Lake Erie Chemical Co. 

Left: Lake Erie long range Tru-Flicc tear gas shell with projectile. 
This projectile is designed for use against criminals or insane persons 
barricaded in rooms or buildings. On leaving the muzzle, tail fins 
spring into position, permitting accurate shooting at window-sized 
targets up to 100 yards. Right: Lake Erie long range riot shell for 
use in laying down gas barrages, from a distance, against mobs. 

Because of criticism of its IVlodel 230 and numerous throwbacks. 
Federal has recently introduced a new blast type barricade shell that 
explodes on impact and disperses a cloud of tear gas dust. The new 
shell Model 232, should better serve the purpose and it is claimed that 
the fire hazard is also eliminated. 

U S |-. (> I (J II E M I <J A L MUNITIONS 349 

range of loo yards. It delivers its gas charge, on impact, at 
the end of the flight, in one blast. An impact fuse that is 
activated after the projectile is in flight, sets off the gas- 
detonating charge. The body of tiic projectile rips open and 
allows the gas to be instantly dispersed. The impact fuse is 
not overly sensitive, so that the projectile can penetrate win- 
dow glass and light board partitions before the gas is released. 
There is no fire hazard, or fragmentation.. 

Federal manufactures its #230 FLrrK-RixE projectile for the 
same purpose. Claimed range is up to 325 yards. Good ac- 
curacy is claimed up to 100 yards. The Federal projectile 
carries a time fuse that automatically ignites the grenade to 
start the burning process, liberating the gas at a flight point 
about 50 yards from the gun muzzle. 

This projectile continues to burn and expel its gas for 
about 30 seconds after it is activated. The projectile body 
stays intact and will penetrate window glass and light board 
partitions due to its velocity. The burning process of gas re- 
lease makes the projectile very hot to handle and minimizes 
the possibility of a throw back. The fire hazard is present. 

Many police officers annually arc wounded or even lose 
their lives when attcm|ning to liislodgc desperate armed 
criminals or insane persons from barricaded rooms and 
buildings. This is one of the most hazardous aspects of law 
enforcement. The 37mm gas gun and special barricade shells 
provide a solution. 

Newspaper files anti police department records are replete 
with reports, good and bad, concerning this particular phase 
of law enforcement. The two newspaper articles below are 
very indicative of the possibilities. 


Springfield, Mo., Jan. 2— Sheriff Marcel Hendrix and five other 
officers were slain late today when they atteinpted to capture Harry 
Young, 2;, and several companions' in a farm house five miles west 
of here, and late tonight the killers were believed to have made their 
escape into tije Ozark Mountains. 

After a siege of several hours a vew force of officers and citizens 
stortned the house, only to find Youitg, -who was wanted for the 
slaying of a city ?narshal at Republic, Mo., and his companions had 

Young and his pals escaped from the house after greeting the officers 
with a hail of viachine gun lead that killed five outright and fatally 
wounded a sixth. 

Then started a veiigeaiice-maddened search through the hill country. 
To the officials and guardsmen were added fanners, armed with shot- 


guns, who traveled in groups and talked quietly of a "lynching party." 
The dead are: Deputy Sheriff Wiley, Mashbum, Green County; 

Sheriff Marcel Hendrix, Green County; 
Detective Chief Tony Olver, Springfield; 
City Detective Ollie Crosswhite, Springfield;. 
City Detective Disney Meadows, Springfield; 
Patrohnan Charles Houser, Springfield. 

—Cleveland Plain Dealer 


Drink-Crazed Soldier Captured 

After Augusta Squad Used Tear Gas Gun 

MILLEN, GA. April 36— (Special). After killing his own father 
and wounding a night policeman, David Humphreys, 28, a drink-crazed 
ex-soldier, barricaded himself in a rooTn at Hotel Autery early today 
and for four hours defied officers to "come and get me." 

Millen officers sought unsuccessfully to rout him frmn his fortress, 
i;2 which he had two shotguns, a case of aimnunition and a half gallon 
of corn whiskey. 

Officers Employ Tear Gas Gun 
The slayer refused to budge and threatened with death any one 
who approached. Then, for the first time in the history of dealing with 
criminals in this section, a new taeapon was brought into play on 
behalf of the law. A short gun, of wide bore, gave a blast which 
alarmed the neighborhood; a large projectile hurtled throtigh the 
window pane i?ito the room where the slayer was holding out; a gas 
arose from the floor; in a few seconds, the cries of defiance had 
changed to one of "Come and help me out." Humphreys, the fight taken 
from tmn, staggered out of the rootn, hands over head, into the arms of 
Lieutenant Walter H. Holly, of Augusta, who had fired the gas pro- 
jectile into the romn. An incident which without the new weapon 
would have been a bloody battle was settled without further bloodshed. 

—Augusta Georgia Herald 

Compiled statistics show that over 90% of barricade cases 
occur in the second story of a house or building. Trajectory 
and ballistics for barricade gas missiles are developed with 
this in mind. Training targets should be constructed at vary- 
ing heights up to 20 feet above the ground so as to develop 
better accuracy and realism. 

Parachute Flares. Illuminating parachute flares are also manu- 
factured in 37mm to be used in the gas rifle. These cart- 
ridges shoot a brilliant flare into the air to an altitude of 
about 225 feet. The period of illumination is about 40 seconds 
and lights up an area such as would be covered by a circle 
600 feet in diameter. 

The brightness of the illuniiniiring dare is s\ich thnt, during 


night action, individuals, mob elements, and police disposi- 
tions, are easil7 located in the lighted area. It is advisable 
to plan to be at some liigh point above smoke, gas, etc., such 
as the top of a building, at the time the flare is released, so 
that all advantage can be taken of the brief observation period 
furnished by the flare. 

Chemical Projectors and Billies. There are now available on 
the market a number of hand tear-gas projecting devices. 
The better types are especially manufactured by Federal and 
Lake Erie for use by police, plant and prison guards, and 
night watclimen. These devices are effective in direct pro- 
portion to the size of the shell and the amount of gas pro- 
jected in relation to the range used. 

In addition, the general public can buy small imported .22 
caliber automatic pistols shooting very small amounts of tear 
gas plus a wide variety of tear gas fountain pens in calibers 
from .38 to 410-gauge. The actual effectiveness of the con- 
centration of tear gas released from these devices is variable 
and questionable. 

Gas projecting billies and prison riot sticks such as manu- 
factured by Lake Eric and Federal have a definite value as 
they are multi-purpose weapons. They carry enough gas to 
be effective against one or several individuals who are closely 
grouped together. Discharge of the gas cartridge can be fol- 
lowed up with use of the billy or riot stick for strildng pur- 
poses. The user has the advantage of utilizing offensive tactics 
while the element of surprise and immediate effects of tiie 
explosion, plus the gas, temporarily disconcert the recipient. 
The officer can utilize the short period after the release of the 
gas to use his billy as a weapon, draw a fireami, retreat, or 
close a door or gate. 

In those cases where an officer is alone and in doubt about 
the intent of an individual or group who approaches him, he 
can utilize the gas in the billy either as a threat or by firing 
to improve his position and thereby assume the initiative be- 
fore coming into bodily contact. As the gas is basically harm- 
less no permanent damaging after effects result, therefore, 
when in doubt, he should not hesitate in its use. Should it 
develop that the parties on whom it has been used had no 
actual hostile intent, still no real harm has been done. 

It must always be remembered that gas billies, pens, etc., are 
"one-shot" devices. A positive immediate follow-up action 
must be taken as soon as the gas is fired. 

352 K I I. I, OK OET K I I, L K U 

Where possible this strategy should have been decided on 
in advance. The officer should not just stand immobile and 
expect the victims of the gas to be and remain completely 




Top: Lake Erie 12 gauge police billy that carries a spare gas shell 
in handle. Middle: Detective gas billy manufactured by Lake Erie in 
20 gauge. Bottom: Caliber .38 tear gas fountain pen of a type com- 
monly sold commercially for individual protection. 

Generally speaking the 20 gauge tear gas shell such as used in the 
Lake Erie Detective Gas billy is the smallest caliber gas projectile 
that can be expected to give positive results from this type of hand- 
carried weapon. The billy itself is approximately six inches in length 
and can be comfortably carried almost as easily as the smaller .38 
caliber fountain pen type. It discharges five times more gas than the 
.38 caliber shell. In addition the round knob on the end of the billy 
provides a potent striking weapon for a follow-up against the adversary 
after the gas discharge has been made. 

The .38 caliber and smaller sized cartridges are so limited in their 
gas carrying capacity that too much reliance must not be placed 
on their effectiveness against dangerous persons. 

usr. OF c II f; M [ c A I. munitions 353 

helpless. In some cases determined individuals can and will 
still attack, use firearms, etc., in spite of having received a gas 
discharge. The officer must take advantage of the surprise and 
the immediate effect of the gas to assume the offensive, re- 
treat, or whatever else is indicated under the circumstances. 

Gas billies and riot sticlts as projectors have little use in 
mob control. In this case, officers ccjuipped with standard 
riot sticks reinforced by grenade throwing units or individ- 
uals in their rear, can best handle large groups of rioters. 

Gas guns and billies which must be used at close range 
to be effective should always be pointed at the middle or 
chest of the victim at time of discharge. Otherwise, particles 
of sealing compound from the end of the shell and wads may 
injure the eyes. 

At the time of the discharge the element of surprise along 
with the noise of the explosion usually causes the recipient 
involuntarily to open his eyes and gasp, thereby automatically 
absorbing a good dose of gas. 

On the other hand, if the blast is expected, an experienced 
individual will immediately start moving, with his eyes closed 
to avoid the gas cloud. 

If the officer is confronted with a small group of individuals 
who are close together, he should fire the gas without any 
provocation, if he sees the group beginning to spread apart 
or to reach for what may be concealed weapons. After firing 
the gas discharge the officer sliould move rapidly from his 
firing point so as to disguise his physical position and to con- 
fuse his enemies while they are still under or avoiding the 
effects of the gas cloud. 

Lake Erie manufactures billies and riot sticks for use with 
a [2-guage shell that blasts a five-foot cloud of gas approxi- 
mately 15 feet. Provision is made in their products to carry 
a spare shell in the handle and a special safety device presents 
accidental discharge. 

Federal gas billies utilize a ten-gauge shell. One model pro- 
jects a gas cloud of larger size at about the same range as the 
Lake Erie. This company also manufactures a special billy 
that fires through a choked opening a three-second con- 
tinuous gas discharge. This permits moving the billy from 
side to side to achieve a spraying effect. A special safety 
device prevents accidental discharge. 

Twelve-gauge shells available in tear and sickening gas are 
also manufactured by Lake Erie for use in stajidard com- 
viercial type shotguns. This provides the private citizen with 



a means of gas projection at no more than the cost of the 
cartridge. Police units equipped with riot guns also can utilize 
this type shell to advantage. Unfortunately, few police units 
or individuals realize that this type of munition is available for 
use in the standard sporting type arm. 

Lake Erie has also introduced in recent years a very effec- 
tive double action twelve-gauge, tear gas revolver. This hand 
weapon fires five cartridges as rapidly as the trigger can be 
pulled. It is possible for an individual officer to lay down a 
respectable barrage of gas with this weapon. The concentra- 
tion of gas developed coupled with the psychological effect 
of the explosion of the individual shells on the victims, make 
it a very useful weapon. It is best used against small groups 

Photo Courtesy of Lake Erie Chemical Co. 

The Lake Erie five-shoe 12-gauge, double-action, tear-gas revolver, 
model 512. This is a very effective weapon for use by the individual 
officer in laying down a ma.ximum gas concentration. Ilie five separate 
charges can be fired in a tliree-second period. This weapon is espe- 
cially useful against small groups of rioters and in capturing criminals 
or insane persons in confined areas. Due to the recoil factor it can 
many times be more advantageously fired by using a two-handed grip. 
A five-foot diameter cloud of gas is projected by cacli shell at ranges 
from ten to fifteen feet. 



Photo Courtesy of Federal Laboratoriei, Inc. 

This is a very useful device which will shoot tear-gas dust into 
rooms through small openings where there is no possibility of project- 
ing tear gas to subdue the occupants in any otlier manner. Keyholes, 
craclcs under doors, etc. can be utilized as ports of entry. 

in street and prison riots or in capturing criminals or insane 
persons when they are cornered in rooms. 

Federal and other manufacturers also market a complete 
line of tear gas projecting devices designed to protect safes 
and vaults. These devices are usually placed inside the safe, 
etc., and are activated when the safe is forcibly ope?ied. 

Other gas devices are available for use in protecting banks 
from armed robbery, industrial installations, etc. They are 
activated automatically or by convenient and strategically 
located hand and foot controls which can be set off without 
danger to the individual. 

Cost of Gas Munitions and Equipment. The seemingly high in- 
itial cost of gas equipment many times discourages its pur- 
chase or inclusion in the police budget. This is particularly 
true in departments where it has never been used with suc- 
cess, previously, and the members and officials are untrained 
in its use and potential. 


Most modern police cicpartments now maintain inventories 
of gas equipment and train in its use. Many times gas muni- 
tions on hand and in reserve are not enough to handle any 
large and long-sustained mob action. Reliance is generally 
placed on being able to get additional munitions from the 
manufacturers quickly, or on a loan basis from other police 

Gas munitions, like raw camera film, have a stated shelf 
life which is usually three years from date of loading. This is 
usually stamped on the grenade or projectile at the time of 
manufacture. This is' only an approximate figure but should 
be used as a basis for purchase and consumption. Much de- 
pends on the storage conditions. Humidity, extremes in tem- 
perature, and other factors affect the actual "shelf life" of gas 
munitions. The manufacturers do not know under what 
climatic conditions their products will be used and therefore 
give a dating for approximate guidance of the purchaser that 
is within all known safety limits. The procedure in modern 
police departments that have purchased their initial inventory, 
is to replace on a yearly basis those gas munitions that have 
been expended. If any materiel is "outdated" or soon to be, it 
is used in training. In case of any action the munitions with 
the oldest "dating" are used first. 

Generally, liquid type tear gas munitions will last longer in 
storage due to the fact that the gas content is hermetically 
scaled in glass containers. In extreme humid or hot condi- 
tions, munitions loaded with powdered or crystalline type 
tear gas, are more vulnerable to deterioration. Moisture enters 
into the grenade body and starts deterioration of the CN crys- 
tals. This in turn starts an oxidation or rust action on the 
inside of the grenade case, which is usually of steel. This 
process cannot be avoided over a period of time because the 
body of the grenade itself is perforated and the holes for emis- 
sion of the gas are covered with adhesive tape that seals off 
the grenade contents for a limited time only. 

Commercial type shotshell primers are used in the fuse as 
the detonator. These primers are copper jacketed and are 
well sealed against action of the elements. However, the 
delay element or fuze, that is ignited by the explosion of the 
primer, is the most susceptible to moisture penetration. Failure 
of "outdated" grenades and projectiles to expel their con- 
tents is many times due to the malfunction of this element. 

Taking into consideration the above comments, serious 
thought should be given by responsible officials to the actual 

U S li o !■• i; 11 1'. M 1 i; A I- M U N 1 r 1 O N s 


economy of gas munitions and equipment. 

The savings in life, property, and casualties must be placed 
on the opposite end of the scale from the initial cost. The 
increased efficiency and high morale of department mem- 
bers equipped and trained in the use of gas munitions must 
also be considered. To dismiss, or to fail to buy, gas equip- 
ment for reasons of econoni}' is a very shortsighted and ill- 
advised action. 

Dollar value of the life of an individual officer cannot be 
determined. On the other hand, the expenditure of a few 

Plioto Couilcsy of Lake Erie Cliemical Co. 


Weight of complete outfit, 51 pounds. Carrying case- dimensions: 
length, 32 inches; height, 15 Indies; width, 5K inches. 

The outfit includes: i Tru-Flitc jymm Super Long Range Gas 
gun; 4 Tru-Flicc Super Long Range Tear Gas Barricade shells; 4 
Standard Long Range Tear Gas Projectile Riot shells; 4 Short Range 
Tear Gas shells; Illuminating Parachute flares; 4 Model 34 Tear Gas 
grenades; and i leatherette carrying case. 

A kit such as the above costs approximately J275.00. Its contents 
are especially selected to enable a flexible all-around use of tear gas 
in small actions and emergency conditions. 

Every police and sheriff's department, no matter how small, as 
well as plant guards and other organized protective units, can afford 
and should have this type of equipment. They are designed for 
rapid easy transport and many departments have these kits permanendy 
assigned to each roving vehicle. 

hundred dollars worth of Jumper Repeater or Triple Chaser 
hand grenades to break up a large and dangerous mob, that 


if unchecked would have caused possible loss of life and 
property and damages running into thousands of dollars, 
would seem to be a definite practice of economy. 

The principal thing to remember is, that gas equipment 
must be on hand along with personnel trained in its use. It 
cannot always be anticipated in advance when emergencies 
will appear. 


It is important that civilian police and others have knowl- 
edge of gas equipment in current use by the U. S. Armed 
Forces. Under emergency conditions this equipment may be 
made available to civilian police units or it may be used in 
support of civil law enforcement agencies by National Guard 
or Army units in certain situations. 

Generally, commercial equipment such as 37mm gas guns 
and the variety of gas grenades and projectiles offered give 
more flexibility to civil police units in mob actions of moderate 
size. In very large operations where thousands of demon- 
strators are involved, the Army equipment such as mass gas 
dispensers is many times more applicable. 

In i960 the Army announced a new irritant gas agent for 
riot control, designated as CS this gas is crystalline in nature 
but is soluble in certain liquids. It is stable under ordinary 
conditions of storage. 

CS causes copious tears, a burning sensation in the eyes, 
cougliing and difficult breathing, a stinging action on moist 
sidn areas, sinus and nasal drip, involuntary closing of the eyes 
and nausea in high concentrations. It has a pungent pepper- 
like odor and is accompanied by a white cloud during re- 
lease. Its lasting effects are not harmful and most disappear 
after 5 to 15 minutes in fresh air. CS is also used by the 
Army for training purposes to simulate more toxic types of 
gases. Its nature and psychological effects are stronger and 
more varied than those of ordinary tear gas (CN). Projection, 
handling, and decontamination procedure of CS demands 
thorough training under the supervision of skilled officers. 

CS is also used in bulk form for mass projections from 
planes, helicopters, special portable tank units like those of 
a flame thrower, and special mounted blowers such as are used 
in crop dusting. Grenades of the combustion and instantaneous 
bursting type are also loaded with it. 

The U. S. Army also still issues CN hand and rifle grenades 
and smoke candles for riot control operations. 

From examination of all available data it would seem that 

V s i; () i- c II r. .M I c: \ i, munitions 359 

die CS gas, due ro its spcci:il cliaractcristics, is noc ideally- 
adapted ro use l)y civil police, even if it were made com- 
mercially available. 

The U. S. Aiiny CN tear gas grenades in current use arc 
of conibiisrion and baseliall fragmentation types. Special 
rifle grenade launchers and adapters are issued. The U. S. 
Army does not i.ssuc the commercial type 37mni gas gun and 

It is interesting to note what the most recent U. S. Army 
manual (FM 19-15, Sept 1958) recommends regarding tac- 
tical use and limitations of its CN grenades. The hand grenade 
M7A1 uses the combustion or burning system of release of 
tear gas. It takes from 20 to 60 seconds to dispel its contents, 
with the characteristic white smoke, which indicates the area 
covered by the gas. The following statements are quoted: 
"Riot control gases of the combustion type are not thrown 
into the mob because they may be thrown back. . . . The burn- 
ing type grenade should not be used where combustibles are 
present because of the intense heat generated by the grenade 
and the danger of starting a fire." 

The baseball type hand grenade M25A1, containing tear 
gas is constructed with a frangible plastic case that shatters 
into small fragments when the grenade bursts. Finely pul- 
verized powdered tear gas is dispensed over the impact area 
in from i J4 to 3 seconds after leaving the hand of the 
thrower. Dispersion is caused by an internal explosive element 
like a blasting cap. The manual says "The average distance 
that the baseball grenade may be thrown before bursting 
is 35 to 50 yards. Grenades should be lobbed into the air so 
that the burst will occur several feet over the heads of the 
members of the mob on the up-wind side and should never 
be thrown directly into the faces of the individuals in the 
moh, as permanent blindness may restilt from ruptured eye- 
balls torn by plastic fragments of the cases." 

There are several other points pertinent to use of this base- 
ball type of grenade that should also be noted, (i) To use 
the grenade as directed, by throwing so it bursts over the 
heads of the rioters, is a very difficult thing to do under stress 
of combat action. Usually in combat, the tendency is to throw 
the grenade directly into the mob elements. To be able to 
judge correctly the bursting time so that it will occur as 
recommended, is extremely difficult and not practical in mob 
action. Even the listed fuse time is too variable. Much training 
is necessary. (2) If the grenade is used as recommended, and 


it bursts over the heads of the mob, a great deal of gas will 
be wasted in a windy condition. The gas cloud will be global 
in shape and the wind will carry away the gas that is not 
blasted directly downward over the rioters. (3) There is defi- 
nitely also another dangerous safety factor when using the 
blast type, frangible case grenade. At times in the excitement 
of mob action, the tiirower will pull the safety pin and release 
the safety lever accidentally or unconsciously. When this 
happens and the grenade explodes in the thrower's hand the 
serious results can well be imagined. (4) Misuse of this type 
of grenade so that a mob member will be blinded is almost 
as bad as causing a fatality. Publicity and public reaction can 
be very adverse. 


An unruly mob or riot can be caused by anything; labor, 
religion, politics, or the price of beans. Gas munitions are used 
to dispel riots, not to settle disputes. Practical experience now 
proves that chemical agents control these situations much 
better than bullets. The policy of all law enforcement should 
be to control riots by first, the presence of police or troops; 
secondly, the use of chemical munitions; and lastly, by resort- 
ing to gun fire. The objective to be achieved through the 
use of the gas is to create panic, confusion, and dispersion of 
the mob. 

In the employment of gas munitions it is basic that they be 
projected in quantity so that there is a sufficient concentration 
to discourage and destroy concerted action of the mob. In 
the long run it is much more economical to use more muni- 
tions at the outset than to have to repeat launcliing lesser 
quantities several times to achieve the same result. The ma- 
jority of the rioters must individually feel the pain or dis- 
comfort of the gas fumes if they are to be effective. A few 
grenades thrown into the fringes of a violent mob will have 
little real or lasting effect. The center, rear, and flanks must 
feel the effects also. 

Advantage of favorable prevailing wind is always taken 
when possible but the fact that the wind is unfavorable must 
not limit the projection of gas munitions. Long-range gas guns 
and instantaneous dispersion blast type grenades are available. 
Therefore strategy and tactics in employment of gas muni- 
tions must not be entirely developed around the prevailing 
wind concept. JVIost mob actions take place in cities where 
there are buildings which can block off air currents or 
diminish them to a point where effective tactical use of gas in 


combination witii a favorable wind cannot always be made. 

The combustion type grenade is particularly dependent on 
favorable wind conditions. Tactics recommended for use by 
the manufacturer are always based around this key factor. In 
a condition of light or no wind, the combustion type grenade 
will liberate its contents so slowly that a great deal of effec- 
tiveness is lost. Blast type grenades give instant dispersion 
without depending on the wind factor, and get a rapid con- 
centration into the faces of the rioters. 

Hand grenades and gas guns with shore and long-range 
projectiles can all be employed. The principle most advocated 
is to keep up the pressure and flow of gas against the mob. 
It should be remembered that in the case of large mobs an 
avenue of escape must always be left open through which 
the rioters can flee. 

Don't fire a few gas grenades and visibly retreat to await 
results. Avoid if possible, hand-to-hand contact by concen- 
trated use of chemical agents. The less actual physical force 
used in restraining the, mob the more lasting will be the 
resultant peace. 

Tear gas and other chemical agents are humane weapons 
to be used to preserve law and order. Communist and other 
type agitators who use riots as a means to power will always 
directly and indirectly try to destroy the effectiveness of 
chemical munitions by minimizing their usefulness and by 
malicious propaganda as to the "deadly qualities" when em- 
ployed. In Communist dominated countries, such as East 
Germany, tear gas is also used, but the overwhelming tendency 
is to use the less expensive bullets from rifles and machine 
guns to achieve their purpose. 

Another very important factor in favor of the use of 
chemical munitions in mob control, is that it will not injure 
the so called "interested bystander," as bullets can. Every 
scene of violence, real or potential, always draws its share of 
curious spectators. Physical damage to this type of person 
usually results in bad publicity, law suits, etc. Here again, 
in an indirect way, chemical munitions aid law enforcement 
in carrying out its mission. 

Police elements used in mob control should wear masks, 
especially those in close contact. Protective masks are as an 
important a part of the equipment as the gas itself. The use 
of gas grenades involves close contact where variable wind 
conditions can always expose the thrower as well as the target. 
Another interesting side effect is the psychological impact 


K I I, 

OR G K T K I [. r, K D 

World Wide photo 

The above illustration was taken from a press release covering a 
demonstration of teachers in Lima, Peru in October it/n. According 
to the Associated Press news story, the demonstration was broken iij> 
by the police, utilizing tear gas ami night sticks. 

The photo clearly shows that tear gas grenades of the combustion 
type were used. A burning grenade with its distinct accompanying 
cloud of smoke generated during the burning process can be seen 
in die center. Individuals on the left have received a dose of the 
gas. Those on the right can be seen running away from the grenade 
and its cloud of gas, thereby avoiding the fumes. This is one of the 
disadvantages of using the combustion ty|>c grenade. It is also interest- 
ing to note that the cloud of gas being released in the smoke is not 
being dispersed but is moving straight up, indicating a Jack of wind. 
This is visual proof of the recommendation that combustion type 
grenades are best used with a favorable wind, so as to disperse the 
gas among the demonstrators. If, instead, an instant dispersion-blast 
type grenade had been used with invisible gas, a much more effective 
concentration that the demonstrators could not see or avoid, would 
have been the result. 

caused by the weird appearance of the gas-mask wearing, 
grenade-throwing police elements. 

Determined rioters will many times try to improvise pro- 
tection against gas. This may take the form of goggles such 
as worn by skin divers, handkerchiefs across the nose, or 
impregnated cotton stuffed up the nostrils. These expedients 
will only delay the action and will not stand up under a heavy 
concentration of gas. 

For further information on mob control, see chapters 14, 
15, and 16. 

Chapter 14 




A WIDESPREAD public disturbance which is not im- 
mediately suppressed but instead is permitted to grow, 
becomes a threat to the effective functioning of legally or- 
ganized government. Violent and uncontrolled mob action 
destroys public morale and confidence in police and military 
forces. Loss of life, property, and other deleterious side effects 
always accompany mob violence. 

Causes o£ Disturbances. The causes of such disturbances are 
varied. Social, economic, and political conditions have a 
marked bearing, as does the failure of existing authority. 

Social. Racial and religious clashes and differences have 
always been a major cause of disturbances. Community activi- 
ties wliich draw together large numbers of people to celebrate 
a specific act, or a sporting event, have some times degenerated 
into serious civil disturbances when tension exists. 

Economic. Extreme poverty, poor housing conditions, lack 
of food, differences between labor and management, devalu- 
ation of currencies, high cost of hving, and allied economic 
factors will cause civil unrest. 

Political. Efforts to gain or to destroy political power out- 
side of lawful means is now a conunon motivating factor of 
mob violence. 

Absence or Failure of Constimted Authority. The failure 
of civil police or military authority to cope with a mob crisis 
due to indecision, inability, or absence from the scene, can 
ignite further action. In the absence of legal restraint, the 
mob members begin to feel that they can act with impunity 
and can impose their will, however capricious may be their 


364 KILL OU G li r KILLEU 


A crowd is not a mob. It is a gathering of people for either 
a casual or intentional purpose that is legal under traditional 
rights of assembly. Members of such a crowd think and act 
as individuals and are without any definite organization or 
united purpose. However, under stimulation of an act of 
violence, or under the manipulation of professional skilled 
agitators, this same crowd can turn into a violent mob. When 
the crowd changes into a mob its purpose or objective be- 
comes a unified thing. Its members lose their identity as in- 
dividuals and merge into a cruel, primitive body, which has 
lost civilized restraints and suddenly has no respect for law 
and order nor for those law enforcement forces that resist it. 

Influences Affecting Mobs. Hate and reve?ige, brought by 
such incidents as racial tension, lynching, or inflammatory 
political issues at local or national levels, provide strong mo- 

Numbers a?id anonymity. The individual loses his self- 
consciousness. His normal moral restraints break down. At the 
same time he gains a sense of strength and security due to 
the presence of other people acting in concert with liim. 
Almost instinctively present within him is the feeling that he 
has lost his identity as an individual and therefore will not 
be personally blamed for his actions. 

Suggestion and agitation. Under the influence of the pro- 
fessional agitator, a dominant personality, or a "crackpot" 
who a.ssumes the mantle of leadership, the mob member reacts 
to exhortation and suggestions without giving any rational 
thought to consequences. There is no follow-through in the 
thinldng processes. 

Imitation and contagion. There is a primitive urge to do 
what others are doing and "to get into the act." A mob tends 
to increase in numbers automatically. The communication of 
ideas and influence from one member of the mob' to another 
is quick and contagious. 

Newness and novelty. Subconsciously an individual wel- 
comes anything new which breaks his normal routine. Any 
novel and strange circumstance, such as joining a demonstra- 
tion, will many times be welcomed enthusiastically. If the 
individual has had no previous experience and is lacking in 
restraint, he will easily pass from the crowd to the mob phase, 
wholly neglecting his usual pattern of reasoning. 

Repressed desires. Those desires that have been repressed 
or unsatisfied are many times released in a mob action. The 
individual loses himself among the other mob members and 


now may have an opportunity to do things he has always 
wanted to do but did not dare do alone. 

Mob Types. There are at least three types of mobs: aggres- 
sive, escape, and acquisitive. The aggressive type mob at- 
taclis and terrorizes. Mobs activated by agitation, racial con- 
flicts, lynching, desire to overthrow existing governments, 
and prison riots fall in this category. 

The escape type mob is motivated by panic. Its members 
are trying to escape from some feared or existing situation by 
physical flight. Terror and lack of reasoning are present. 
Escape is sought from the presence of some man-made or 
natural disaster such as an explosion, flood, or earthquake. 
Characteristic activating factors are the breakdown of com- 
munications, transportation, utilities and blockadb of normal 
means of exit. 

The acquisitive mob has as its principal incentive the pur- 
pose of acquiring some specific thing. A mob action bent on 
securing arms, equipment, or food would fall in this category. 

The Heavily Armed and Organized Mob. The types of mobs 
just indicated can most of tiie time be dealt with by normal 
or reinforced civil police units. However, when mob mem- 
bers appear anned with firearms, in quantity, of the high 
power or military type, police tactics must be changed or 
revised. The use of extreme force is indicated and this must 
be done using heavily armed combat troops or military police 
units. A mob armed with submachine guns, light machine 
rifles, l)a7.ookas, demolition equipment etc., must be dominated 
with similar and superior weapons. This type of an action is 
normally countered by use of Regular Army or National 
Guard combat or military police units. 

Civil police are not nomially equipped or trained to coun- 
teract this type of mob, which degenerates into armed in- 

U. S. Army Field Manual FM 19-15 adequately covers this 
type of action. No clear definition can be made as to exactly 
when to apply military force to reinforce or replace a con- 
ventional civil police force. Each situation will differ and local 
and national conditions will dictate at what point military 
force must be used to replace, supplement, or reinforce the 
civil police. 


There is a distinct divergence of ideas as to the type, 

tactics, and general concept of mob control as it is employed 

throughout the world. Values placed on human life, types of 


equipment available, historic precedents, anti general police 
concepts as to the dangers of the mob, vary. 

This does not mean that the correct and best mob control 
measures are always employed by the police. It does mean 
that each force has to face up to its own situation and deal 
with the mob as best it can, based on its own experience and 
the judgment of its officials. 

Unfortunately, too little has been written about this in- 
creasingly important phase of maintaining law and order. An 
ominous note is the growing use of mob agitators and sub- 
versives in various countries as a covert phase of cold war. 

It cannot be said that the tactics employed in Caracas, Vene- 
zuela are tlie same as those which should be used in a some- 
what similar situation in Cleveland, Oliio. 

The purpose of this chapter is to outline a number of gener- 
al principles and basic precepts and to project some new ideas 
which can be adapted by a military or police force to its own 
situation to enable it successfully to cope with mob violence. 

As previously indicated, the point where control of a given 
mob situation should pass from civil to military authorit}' 
depends on the individual situation. In the U. S. the civil 
police of city, county, or state are first in direct control and 
have the prime responsibility for civil disturbances. When the 
civil police force fails to control a serious riot situation, the 
procedure has been, and still is, to call for military units 
either from the National Guard or the Regular armed forces. 
Recent disturbances in Little Rock, Arkansas are a case in 

In many countries in the world the professional army and 
the police force are identical. In some countries (such as the 
Republic of Panama) no army exists as such, and there is 
only a national police force. In Latin countries, the army 
generally acts as the nadonal police force even though tlie 
various municipalities may have local police elements which 
are civilian in nature and organization. Generally, municipal 
police forces in Latin countries do not have either the num- 
bers, training, inclination, or equipment to cope with large, 
violent mobs. Exceptions to this are not many, but do exist. 
Mexico City, for example, maintains a large permanent special 
riot group, wliich is part of the city police force. This group 
has enough incidence of action to justify its permanent exis- 
tence, and cost. 

It is therefore suggested that the tactics and techniques to 
be outlined hereafter, be not coasidered as definite, rigid, 

CON run I. 1)1' I) 1 ST II u n A N c K. s 367 

fixed pattei-ns in the control of civil disturbances, but as guide 
lines to aid in siiaping the best solution to meet the local 

Riot Control in the U.S. by the Civil Police. In the United States 
riots of any size and scope are, or at least have been, re- 
latively infrequent during recent years. There are reasons 
for tliis, which do not necessarily apply in other countries. 
The police force and the individual policeman are regarded 
by the general public with respect, not fear. The great ma- 
jority of the American public, like the British, considers its 
civil police forces as guardians of law and order and a pro- 
fessional body of men whose sworn duty is to keep the peace 
and protect the individual citizen and his riglits under the law. 

Consequently, when riots occur in the U. S. they are usually 
short lived and spontaneous in nature which can be quelled 
without resort to extreme force. Apart from the racial issue 
there are no real issues of basic conflict. The public main- 
tains a respect for forces of law and order and does not 
regard its police as an oppressive force. 

For this reason our police forces, with their higli-type 
personnel, good equipment, and training arc able to handle 
most civil disturbances with a minimum of bloodshed and 
violence. Tear gas as a means of mob control is well-known 
and has been employed successfully to break up most domestic 
mob actions in the U. S. 

There have been very few large, violent, mob actions that 
have been professionally organized and directed. On those 
rare occasions where the National Guard or Regular Anny 
units have been called out in support of civil police, the 
mere display of force by the troops has generally been suf- 
ficient to prevent mob action. 

In addition to this, the average police department which 
is faced with the possibility of a mob forming in its area 
normally maintains a good intelligence operation, and can 
usually break up any pending action by taking into prior 
custody the leaders and agitators; or by a prompt show of 
force disperse the mob in its early formative stage. 

Larger state and city police forces usually have previously 
prepared civil disturbance and disaster plans ready for emer- 
gencies. These are covered in training programs and are relied 
upon to meet a riot situation on those rare occasions when 
one threatens to occur. These plans are usually part of the 
civil defense effort and arc coordinated with all interested 
government agencies. 


It is not economically possible, nor is it presently tactically 
necessary, for U. S. civil police to maintain on permanent as- 
signment special riot police units. In some departments selected 
officers are given special training in riot control, use of tear 
gas munitions, and riot formations. These officers lead the 
riot squads or groups when the need arises. The bulk of the 
members of the civil police making up the actual riot force 
are drawn from "off duty" elements, from men on other 
routine assignments, and from other areas where they are on 
duty but calm prevails. 

Larger departments that have had to control disturbances in 
the past and have a mob potential will maintain what is called 
a permanent "gas squad," which may vary in size from five 
to fifty men. This squad trains together at given times, 
and receives special instruction in all phases of mob control. 
This type of operational planning is very good because, when 
the emergency arises, its members can be assembled together 
from their respective regular duty assignments, thus provid- 
ing the department with a more competent trained unit 
available for this special duty. 

At times, especially in the southern part of the U. S., local 
civil disturbances of varying sizes have taken place due to 
racial problems. It is interesting to note, that, even though 
emotional feelings have been high, these disturbances have 
been handled by local police with a minimum number of 
casualties. In most cases there has been no bloodshed, due to 
the physical presence of the law enforcement units in strength, 
the occasional use of tear gas munitions, and the good judg- 
ment of both the police and even the leaders of the demon- 
strations. This is further proof of the statement that the U. S. 
public, when not subjected to professional agitation with in- 
ternational motivation, is an orderly and law-respecting one. 

There has been one recent mob experience in the United 
States where the hand of the professional agitator was strik- 
ingly evident. In May i960 the Congressional Committee on 
Un-American activities held hearings in San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. These hearings and the police guarding them were 
the target of planned Communist-inspired demonstrations in 
which many college students took part. This was a relatively 
new experience in the U. S. law enforcement field but it 
followed closely the classic mob pattern that is now occur- 
ring in Latin America. The entire incident was well covered 
by news cameramen and reporters. The House Committee 
later published its conclusion and findings on the incident 


and Federal police agencies such as the FBI also took notice 
of the nature and origin of the manifestation. A film has since 
been made ("Operation Abolition") that is being exhibited 
throughout the country. The film has been the subject of 
controversy but it is of value for training purposes to law 
enforcement agencies due to the coverage made, regardless 
of political overtones. 

While the public attitude toward police in the U. S. is one 
of respect, the same cannot be said of some other parts of the 
world. Elspecially in those areas where much illiteracy and 
poverty exist, police and even the military are frequently 
regarded as the instrument of oppressive forces. 

It is also a fact that we are living in an era of great social 
change and upheaval brought about by extreme nationalism 
and a desire of the poorer segments of the population for 
better living conditions and opportunity for advancement. 
The greater the unrest, the greater has been the Communist 
effort to foment agitation and disturbance. 

Althougji wc hope that, in the domestic U. S., calm will 
continue to prevail, the world situation is such that we arc 
no longer isolated from our neighbors and are therefore not 
immune to alien influences. The threat (and certainly the 
aftermath) of nuclear war could greatly disrupt civilian calm 
and order. During times of tension the professional agitator 
will seek to foment unrest and disorder. For this reason the 
police of this country had better look ahead to the possibility 
of more troubled times and prepare for use of mob control 
techniques which previously have not seemed necessary to 
our internal security and situation. 

The Role of the U.S. Army and National Guard in Mob Control. 
Rarely, during the past decade, has the U. S. Army been 
called upon to control a civil disturbance. Usually the Na- 
tional Guard, under orders of the state governor, is called 
out in the rare case when troops have been needed to support 
or replace civil police unable to control a serious civil dis- 

Regular Army units are generally called into action only 
as a result of a national emergency or a situation where a 
civil disturbance in a given area presents a serious threat to 
the security of the nation or vital installations and operations 
which the federal government must protect in the common 
interest. It will be remembered that Regular U. S. Amiy para- 
troop units were ordered to duty in Little Rock, Arkansas 
for a time, to insure the maintenance of law and order. 


U. S. Army Field Manual 19-15 covers legal considerations, 
and policies and procedures regarding the control of domestic 
disturbances. When national interest is at stake, the national 
Government may employ Army units to maintain or restore 
order. When this occurs the decision as to the degree of force 
to be used must be made by the Army commander. The man- 
ual covers this aspect completely and it is recommended that 
every civil police organization of any size, vi'ith a riot poten- 
tial, be familiar with it. The tactics outlined are basic and 
sound for military units but they are not necessarily those 
which are best adapted to use by the civil police because, 
once troops are committed, tiie desire to avoid casualties 
among rioting elements may be impossible to realize. The 
Army by its nature, training, doctrine, and equipment differs 
in its basic concept of riot control. Any and all necessary 
force will be used when it is finally committed to action. 

Because of the numerous and sometimes complicated legal 
restrictions on the use of military personnel in riot control, 
it is recommended that all officers in command of Regular 
or Reserve units of platoon size or larger acquaint themselves 
with the contents of the following Army Regulations: 500-50, 
500-60, and 500-70. These, and FM 19-15, should be kept 
available at all times in the unit files. 

Chapter 15 




THIS might well be called the era of the Communist 
professional mob. We are at present in a period of "di- 
rected" mob violence. The manipulation and exploitation of 
this mob violence, and physical mass pressure, is a non-secret 
weapon which tiic Communists are employing on a world- 
wide basis with far reaching results. They are using this in- 
strument of cold warfare for purposes of Red diplomacy. 
The Kremlin, using trained Soviet agents and agitators, by 
this means is trying to force the hand of governments and to 
achieve victory preferably without the necessity of firing a 
single shot or loss of a single soldier. 

There is no lack of evidence of this serious phase of the 
cold war. The disturbances in Bogota, Colombia in April 
1948 were Communist-inspired and were directed against the 
American delegation headed by General George ^'Iarshall. 
The purpose was the torpedoing of the Inter-American con- 
ference, which had been called to plan resistance to the threat 
of international communism. This riot, which cost hundreds 
of lives and millions of dollars in property damage and almost 
upset the Colombian government, was the first of many in 
this hemisphere in the last decade that have been Communist- 
organized and directed. In May 1958, Vice President Richard 
Nixon was the center of Communist-inspired riots in Caracas, 
Venezuela. These organized manifestations caused the Vice 
President and his party humiliation and could have cost his 
life. Another riot of serious proportions was organized and 
directed against the American Embassy, in iVIarch 1959, in 
La Paz, Bolivia. During May and June of i960, riots were 
staged and organized in Tokyo, Japan that forced President 


J 72 K I 1. I. () R fi K r K 1 1. I. r. D 

Eisenhower to cancel liis proposed visit. The riots were so 
violent and of such nature that the Japanese Government did 
not feel it could guarantee his personal safety. At the time 
this is being written (Fcl)ruary 1962) Caracas, Vcne/.uela has 
just undergone another series of riots organized and led by 
Communists. It was 72 hours before the manifestations and 
terrorism could be brought under control by the government 
and at least 40 lives were lost. A Communist student, when 
interviewed by a newspaper man, stated that the Communist.s 
had expected and hoped that the government would have 
reacted wore forcefully, in its suppression of the manifesta- 
tions, so that more "martyrs" could have been created. 

Public incidents arc used or fabricated to spark riots. In the 
case of the above-mentioned riots in Caracas, a transport strike 
was the basis for the beginning of the mob action, which 
could have .set off a full-fledged revolt against the govern- 
ment. It has become standard Communist practice, in the 
course of mob incitation, to develop a situation that will 
produce a "martyr" in whose memory mob emotions can be 
centered anti raised tf) fever pitch. This was especially the in Bogota in 1948 and in Japan in i960. 

Elsewhere in the world, similar tactics have recently been, 
or are being, employed. It is to be expected that mob manip- 
ulation will be a continuing form of Communist strategy 
due to its frequent success in the past. The overall strategy 
is one of armed revolution and subversion, supported and 
fostered from outside the target nation. Guerrilla warfare is 
coordinated with sabotage, espionage, terrorism, and mob 
violence. In actual fact, violence in a planned mob action 
can be characterized as just another form of guerrilla war- 
fare, although waged in urban areas. 

Communist minorities with party members strategically 
located in places of power and influence in the press, com- 
munication networks, labor movements, universities, and in 
po.sitions of trust in local and federal government have been 
known to instigate mob violence to overthrow the existing 

The discrediting and destruction of regular police and 
military forces whose responsibility is the maintenance of law 
and order, is a prime objective. When police and military 
forces are divided, destroyed, or rendered incapable of action 
against the directed mob, the Comnmnists can move rapidly 
into power. After power has been seized, the new govern- 
ment acts rapidly to disband and destroy the professional 

C M i\l U N r S T TACTICS AND S T K A I' i: G Y 37 j 

military and police forces. Records, files, and all other collected 
evidence of Communist activity are destroyed. Cuba under 
Castro is a classic example of this tactic. 

Recent U. S. Congressional hearings have finthcr pointed 
up this new threat which must he met and dominated by the 
legitimate forces of law and order. On June 13, 1961 the 
U. S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee held a secret 
hearing. Mr. Lyman B. Kirkpatrick, a high official of the 
Central Intelligence Agency, gave testimony. The secrecy 
classification has since been lifted and Mr. Kirkpatrick's testi- 
mony is now a matter of public record. It is entitled "A Com- 
munist Plot Against the Free World Police." This valuable 
and interesting testimony can now be secured by sending 
fifteen cents to the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 

The police and military organizations of the free world 
are foremost guardians of our democratic institutions and 
freedom. Therefore, they are prime targets of the Com- 
munists. The better the police force, the more the Com- 
munists desire to destroy it. All types of tactics arc \iscd to 
discredit the police, who may sudilenly (inil themselves the 
target of vicious and organized opposition. A natural antipathy 
exists between police and Comnuinists. The police arc always 
among the first to become aware that the Communist party 
(regardless of its local name and affiliations) is not a "home- 
grown" political movement, but that it is an instrument and 
part of an international conspiracy bent on destruction of 
democratic institutions. 

Not only must police be properly trained and equipped, 
but they also must have knowledge of the techniques and 
tactics that may be used against them. Communists \\ill do 
everything possible to slander, discredit, or prevent the de- 
velopment of a strong police force. This will var\' from 
attacks in the press and outright subversion in the force it- 
self to a publicity campaign aimed at the reduction of ap- 
propriations of funds for police payrolls and equipment. 

Police and military officials must have a basic knowledge of 
Communist tactics with relation to mob disorders so as to 
be able to foresee potential danger spots, better direct their 
own intelligence operations, and to train tlieir own units 
adequately in mob control and riot duty. 



These tactics and strategy are based on teachings given to 
Soviet agents and selected Coinniunist party members in 
various countries. Schools for this purpose have been and are 
now being conducted in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Cuba, 
and other "iron curtain" countries. Some of these centers for 
training the professional revolutionist in the science of creat- 
ing civil disturbances and civil war have been in operation for 
many years. This training activity has recently been stepped 
up to meet the demands of the current world situation. Those 
forces in the democracies responsible for law and order 
should understand what they are up against. The tactics mn>' 
be summarized as shown below: 

(i) Generally, there will be no overt action by known 
Communists. AH agitation will be done behind the scenes, 
using uninformed and excitable teenagers, students, illiterates, 
and others to form the body of the mob. 

(2) Unfavorable local economic situations will be exploited. 
As a rule the Communists wait for some situation or suit- 
able local issue to arise so they can provoke mob excitement. 
If no issue exists they create one, preferably one including 
a martyr. 

(3) In order to minimize police and other suppressive 
action, the Communists will often ally themselves openly with 
otlicr groui)s with political power and thus seek to form a 
united front. At tlic same time they will continue mob agita- 
tion and incitation in a clandestine manner. It should be re- 
membered that in most cases the Communist party will not 
be flying its true name and colors. Its local party or organiza- 
tional name will not be any indication of its true nature and 
affiliation. In fact, the organization will probably be under 
some name with a claimed purpose which would indicate to 
the more gullible the exact opposite of its true nature. 

(4) As a matter of policy, the Communists do not deplore 
bloodshed and violence. The concept is that martyrs and 
violence will excite the mob to even greater violence. 

(5) A planned mob action will usually be thoroughly 
worked out in advance. There will be preliminary mass meet- 
ings, printed leaflets distributed, radio broadcasts, provocative 
cartoons and newspaper articles, and even assassinations. Local 


police counter-riot tactics will be studied and plans made to 
circumvent them. 

(6) The immediate targets of mob action will be police 
stations with their vital records, radio stations, newspapers, 
utilities, and communications. In foreign countries. Com- 
munist-dominated labor unions connected with these prime 
targets will usually be focal points for great preliminary 
agitation and activity. Later these same union members will 
be called to join the mob, even though the action may have 
been initiated by a separate movement such as a student 

(7) If the Communist party is operating openly, it may 
officially disclaim all responsibility for mob violence. At the 
same time the party members will normally be the channel 
through which agitators are furnished, and funds and prop- 
aganda material provided, along with whatever else may 
be needed to incite a mob. In some cases, if the situation so 
indicates, the local Communist party will be kept entirely 
apart from any direct activity and association with the mob 
activity. In this fashion the party serves as a decoy while the 
principal operations will be centered around or through some 
other local or national political movement. The Castro take- 
over in Cuba is a case in point. 

(8) It is standard practice for Communist-trained and led 
mobs to be armed with non-military weapons such as stones, 
clubs, and homemade bombs of gasoline or other flammable 
licjuids. The armament may be supplemented by sporting 
firearms and crude explosive devices. Looting of local com- 
mercial outlets to secure arms and explosives may be part of 
the preliminary action phase. If any arms are actually supplied 
to the rioters prior to the action, they will probably be of 
commercial sporting types. They will probably not be makes 
and types that can definitely be traced to Communist sources. 
On some occasions arms supplied will be those of the army 
or police who must confront the mob. Planned raids on mili- 
tary and police arsenals are made in advance for this purpose. 
Arms may even be obtained by subversion within police ranks 
through ample use of funds or other means. Effort is made 
to obtain arms without prior police or public knowledge. 

Communists Using Mob Violence as an Instrument of Cold War 
Consider Themselves To Have the Following Advantages: 

(i) Police or army units of any given country are likely 


to become demoralized wlien called upon to attack their own 
people, especially young students, women, and veterans. 

(2) Rioters can be armed with homemade weapons that 
can be secured without outside aid. 

(3) Communists will use people and elements of the country 
under attack for destruction of the government. There is no 
need to use Soviet soldiers. 

(4) Mob violence has a tendency to grow and gather 
momentum due to its very nature. If the mob is allowed to 
grow and is not checked at tlie outset, its strength will in- 
crease automatically and it will draw many types of non- 
affiliated elements to itself. 

(5) If the government is weak and hesitates to restrain 
the demonstrators, the Communists will make increasing de- 
mands. When violence does occur, either provoked by the 
initiative of the mob or by government forces, the govern- 
ment will be blamed. The issue can then be used for national 
and international propaganda. 

(6) Communists arc trained to select and use the most 
provocative and incendiary types of propaganda slogans. 
Simple ones are easy to understand by the masses of the 
people and they need not reveal any Communist connection. 

(7) Democracies operate at a disadvantage, especially when 
under attack, as they are dedicated to the principle of safe- 
guarding human life and liberty. This makes the democracy 
vulnerable under mob attack, as it will use every means to 
avoid bloodshed. In contrast, a Communist country does not 
hesitate to use unlimited and mass killings, as 
was done in Hungary. 

Communist Mob Management Techniques. An example in Iraq 
of effective mob management by a very small number of 
Communists, and a description of the control techniques they 
used, in the words of Mr. Gene Methvin, of Washington, 
D. C, follows.* 

"The Communist Party of Iraq in the militant period of 
1948-50 used well-designed mob management techniques. Al- 
though a tiny minority, the Communists, by carefully dis- 
guising the Communist direction of their demonstrations, were 

*An extract, used by permission of the autlior. Mr. Gene Methvin. from an 
article in Omus, No. 2 Summer I96I. Forcipn Policy Research Institute. University 
of Pennsylvania (cnpyrifiht © I96I by the 'rruslfes of the University of Pciitisyl- 
vania). a condensjiion ol which appeared in the M;itLli l')(t.\ issue of T/^ir AUIihjry 
Retittif, U.S. Army f ,'upm,'tt-.t aiul tj'.'M-i;t! Sl.:!i (>'Ih:j;e. l-oil l,L-.ivLn-.\uttIi, Kinsas. 


able to give an impression of great size and support. The 
techniques used were fairly representative. They consisted 
of the following: 

"External coiinnand. This was composed of demonstration 
commanders well-removed from the activity, stationed whence 
the entire 'battlefield' could be observed; if a moving demon- 
stration, it would stay apart from the crowd. 

"bitemal command. This was the Communist cadre within 
the crowd. They were responsible for directing the demon- 
stration, under the external command's orders. Great impor- 
tance was attached to protecting tiie leader of this unit. 

"Bravadoes. Tiiis group acted as a loose bodyguard sur- 
rounding the internal command, protecting the leader from 
police, and screening his escape if necessary. A line of these 
guards would flank processions and protect banner carriers 
as well. 

"Messengers. 'Jhcy stayed close to leaders, carrying orders 
l)etwccn internal and external commands. Generally, they 
would wheel their bicycles along the sidewalks, keeping 
abreast of, but removed from, the demonstration. 

"Shock guards. These men were armed with stout staves 
and accompanied the Communist faction, but marched along 
the sidewalk where they were screened by spectators. They 
would dash into the mainstream of mob action only as rein- 
forcements if the Communists were attacked by police. 
Their sudden and violent descent on the battle. was designed 
to provide sufficient diversion to enable an orderly retreat of 
the main body of Communist demonstrators who, upon signal 
from the external command, would melt quickly into the 
ranks of spectators, leaving the milling bystanders, unwitting 
excitement seekers, and fellow travelers to the police. 

"Banner carriers. The slogans used by this group and the 
'clieering section' were adapted to suit the prevailing mood. 
At first they displayed banners with slogans expressing gen- 
eral grievances, but as the demonstration gained momentum 
and frenzy drove out reason so that real issues lost meaning, 
the slogans were exchanged for direct Communist propaganda. 

"In any Communist demonstration anywhere, key agitators 
can often be found keeping close to certain conspicuous 
banners. The carrier may be a sincere non-Communist pro- 
testor, entirely innocent of his true role as an important part 


of the internal command's communications network. By as- 
signing key men to stay near specified banners, the command 
knows their location at all times and can dispatch messengers 
to them witii instructions for stepping up the tempo, shift- 
ing slogans, or inciting violence. 

" 'Cheering sections.^ Specially briefed demonstrators were 
carefully rehearsed on the slogans they were to chant and the 
order in which the cries were to be raised. 

"Using these tactics, a group of 200 to 300 party members 
could create a demonstration in which as many as 10,000 
would take part. 

"Still another cflicient mass action was organized in Buenos 
Aires on 3 April 1959 to turn a demonstration against elec- 
tricity rates into a bloody riot. To inhibit countermeasures 
by the police, or at least to embarrass them, women and chil- 
dren were recruited to help set fire to automobiles. Supervis- 
ing the vandalism were the party's top leaders. Sixteen cars 
were overturned and burned, and 30 persons were wounded 
and 144 arrcstcti— sonic of whom admitted they participated 
under party orders." 

Communist Mob Training Manual. The Communist training 
manual on creation of mob violence and destruction of police 
opposition sets forth four specific objectives, as listed below: 

(i) Make investigations and report on the activities of all 
police and security services. 

(2) Make every effort to penetrate police and security 
services, so that they can be better repressed and coun- 

(3) Infiltrate police organizations to find out how much 
they know of Communist activities, to steal documents, and 
to destroy records and files that may be of value to the or- 
ganizations concerned. 

(4) Undermine police authority and prestige, weaken po- 
lice efficiency, create the impression that the police are basi- 
cally a repressive force, that the officers are incompetent and 
in pay of a foreign power, and that the police are not true 
representatives of the people. 

The Communist handbook contains some very simple 
sketches and elementary drawings illustrating how the mob, 
under leadership of its trained agitators, can be maneuvered 


CO crush police opposicioa and otherwise bypass the police 
in order to carry out its purpose. A few selected illustrations 
of Communist mob operations from this handbook arc shown. 




i i 





Fig. I. Shows the mob advancing toward 

its objective. It is faced witli only a few 

policemen, who will attempt to block off the 




Fig. 2. Shows how the police have deployed 
into two lines to oppose the mob, and have 
advanced to meet it before it enters the in- 
tersection. At contact, selected mob members 
ill front engage police units in combat, per- 
mitting the rest of the mob to surge out 
around the flanks into the intersection and 
continue toward the objective. 

Fig. 3. Shows that the police meeting the 
mob have formed into the classic phalanx or 
wedge formation for mutual protection. Again 
the formation has advanced to meet the mob 
before it breaks into the intersection. 

Fig. 4. Shows the police phalanx being en- 
gaged by selected hard core mob members 
and the beginning of an envelopment action. 
This action will result in the police unit be- 
ing surrounded while the mob moves on to 
its target. 


ic I r, I. OK G !•: r k r l l f. d 



Tl fr 


p. ^jp. , 

i CUiilL^J 

^^ ffiMM^ft 

i r:,:.,„jr!Eii] 


I''ig. 5. Shows a mob 
moving forward which has 
not yet met any police re- 
sistance. Diirinjr this porioil 
scouts arc sent out ami in- 
telligence organized so the 
mob kaders will know 
where and what kind of 
police resistance can be ex- 
pected. Here the mob has 
not made any provision for 
protection or counter 
police action, so is vulner- 
able to police action. See 
fig- 6. 

Fig. 6. Demonstrates how 
the police would take 
counter action against a 
poorly planned and unpre- 
pared mob action. This 
shows police units blocking 
the advance and having re- 
serve units in adjoining 
streets that can move in any 
direction to penetrate the 
mob and force its dispersal. 


. ^ 



rzzil Irr-inl 



"~" 1 


=?1 ' 




■'— ^ 







•< — 


1 ■ 


Fig. 7. Demonstrates how 
the mob should advance in- 
to action against planned 
police resistance. "Action 
units," specially armed and 
trained, protect front, 
flanks, and rear of the mob 
against the police. 

^^r ^tWfT*****^*tt^M^™^ Vr 

■^r I nt 1 1 n I -i 1 — nTj I £u 

. «. 


\ -.„„. 


* IHilii'lllllBHW^ ^ 




mil r'^ 

Fig. 8. Another tactical 
formation of mob approach, 
advancing along parallel 
lines in segments, each be- 
ing preceded by an "action 
unit." This formation gives 
great flexibility for envelop- 
ment tactics and forces the 
police to extend over a 
wide area. 

<; o M M u N I s r r a c i- i t; s a n t) s r u a r r (; y 


Kig. 9. This is the mili- 
tary type envelopment tcch- 
nicjLic. The central- mnh 
Cdhiniii meets nml surrounils 
tlic police ujiits from the 
front ami at the same time 
the two colnmns on the 
parallel streets flank the 
piilice lines guarding the 

Fig. 10. This is another 
tcchnii|ue to meet the same 
police formation as in fig. 
9. In this case the single 
mob column breaks into 
three segments, one moving 
to the ri^ht, the other to 
the left, in order to flardc 
the p<ilite lines. 










T lrT~rr;v,.-.j| +j 

- ■-<.< 






-— -*• 




' ■ """ 

^■— —"—'•— ^ 

I'ig. I [. In case of police 
roadblock, the mob column 
splits into four groups that 
enables a coordinated attack 
on the police elements from 
all sides. 


"9 ■ V 9>- 


Fig. 12. A plan to pro- 
tect a public square where 
a meeting or demonstration 
is being organized. "Action 
units" are stationed at all 
points of entrance to the 
action area. These action 
units will divert the police, 
delay police entrance into 
the square, and protect and 
permit the crowd to build 
up to where it can be in- 
cited to mob action. 

;82 K I L L O K G ET K I L LED 


This is a very flexible subject, as the scope of mob action 
is limited only by its motivating factors; the arms, supplies 
and other materials available; the number and type of the 
individual mob elements; and whether or not trained agitators 
are present to direct the action. 

The location of the action also plays an important part, as 
the activities of the mob itself and its capabilities for violence 
will be limited by the space available for movement and 
maneuver. The size of the city square, direction and width 
of the streets entering into it, and the location and type of 
buildings will also affect the course of action, in the same 
manner as does terrain on the battlefield. Temperature and 
other climatic factors have influence. For instance, cold, rainy 
weather has a slowing down effect on mob activities, move- 
ment, and organization. 

The tactics employed against the police will also indicate, 
to the trained observer, the nature of the mob leadership and 
degree of professional oi'ganizadon present. Evidence of ad- 
vance preparation would be previously prepared handbills and 
posters, possession of weapons of types and quantities not nor- 
mally available to mob members, and simultaneous yet co- 
ordinated incitation by agitators strategically located through- 
out the mob. 

Abuse. Police elements can be subjected to both verbal 
and written abuse. Taunts, ridicule, jeers, and obscene re- 
marks and shouts are to be expected. Derogatory pamphlets 
or handbills may be distributed to the crowd and to bystand- 
ers before and during the action. Propaganda may be sent to 
the police units themselves or distributed in a clandestine man- 
ner before and during the disturbance. Posters may be carried 
depicting police brutality, or •demanding vengeance for past 
acts. Sound trucks or agitators using hand-powered transistor- 
type megaphones may be used to direct the mob and to heap 
abuse on the police units in an attempt to demoralize them. 
Slogans and derogatory material may be painted on the side- 
walks, buildings, vehicles, and other likely places. 

Noise. A large mob action is always noisy. The shouts, 
cries, and chants of the mob members are usually supple- 
mented by the use of fireworks, noise makers, sirens, and 
whistles. Very effective use has been made of chants or the 
shouting of slogans in a definite rhythm pattern, sometimes 
aided by whistles and drums. Tliis type of crowd incitement 


is very effective when well organized and directed. Rioters 
sing songs of an inflammatory nature, and chant slogans. They 
readily respond to man's instinctive attraction to jungle drums 
and primitive rhythm as exemplified in a war dance. These 
tactics have the effect of increasing the aggressiveness of the 
mob, especially when there are large numbers involved. Po- 
lice may become demoralized if they have not been trained 
in what to expect. 

Thrown Objects. Every conceivable object has been thrown 
at police units in mob actions. Listed are a few of the more 
common: Garbage, animal and human droppings, rotten fruits 
and vegetables, eggs, bricks, rocks, paving stones, bottles, cans 
filled with dirt, plastic bags and balloons filled with liquid 
ammonia or chlorox, bags of pepper, containers full of stain 
(also dye and acids), birdshot, tacks, firecrackers, jagged 
pieces of scrap metal, improvised fire and explosive bombs, 
powdered glass, chunks of window glass, chimney soot, coal 
and coal dust, plates, triple-pronged fish hooks, tin-can lids, 
links of chain, short lengths of barbed wire, or any other 
similar object. 

Primitive type catapult devices, slings, sling shots, and 
similar devices using old inner tubes have been used to hurl 
objects from within the mob at police who are out of range 
of hand-tlirown objects. Thrown objects can not only be 
expected from the mob in immediate contact but also from 
members on roofs, inside windows, and on buildings adjacent 
to the action. 

Hand Weapons. Mob members may be armed with hand 
weapons secured from local sources such as looted hardware 
stores. The following have been encountered in action: wood- 
en clubs, pieces of pipe, pointed sticlfs or improvised spears, 
short lengths of concrete reinforcing steel, wooden clubs with 
lengths of chain or barbed wire tied to the end, baseball bats, 
golf clubs, hockey sticks, hoe handles, hammers, machetes, 
hand sickles, shovels with edges sharpened, pitchforks, axes, 
all types of knives, handguns, mattocks, ice picks, bows and 
arrows, and air pistols and rifles. 

If the mob is a spontaneous one, hand weapons will nor- 
mally be fewer in number and less dangerous in nature. The 
longer the mob has to organize and prepare, the more arma- 
ment must be expected. Police officials, by using their intelli- 
gence services and observation facilities, must always consider 
the degree of mob armament when planning a suppressing 


Shoulder Weapons. A mixture of sporting-type firearms may 
be encountered, if the opportunity has been present to secure 
them by looting or to assemble them in the prior planning 
phase. Normally, a well-disciplined mob led by trained agi- 
tators will not desire to employ too many firearms. Sniping 
tactics will be employed rather than mass use of these weap- 
ons. Heavy use of firearms will result in counter firepower 
from the police, who may be replaced by heavier-armed mili- 
tary units if the situation deteriorates. The mob, of course, 
would prefer to combat the lighter armed and less deadly civil 
police units. 

Isolated sniping can normally be expected in a large action. 
For this purpose .22 caliber arms are very effective, as the 
report is not loud and the location of tiie sniper is more diffi- 
cult to determine. Expert riflemen with scope-sighted rifles 
can also be expected in a mob in a well-organized and serious 
operation. These men usually have instructions to "pick off" 
the key police officials directing the counter mob action. This 
is one reason that a police unit, trained for riot action, must 
have its own counter snipers available. 

Use of Fire and Explosives. Mobs under professional direc- 
tion often blow up or set fire to buildings and vehicles in 
order to create more confusion, increase the excitement of 
their own mob elements, and to try to create a diversion by 
drawing the attention of the police from the main scene of 

If the mob is moving forward, it may contain within itself 
special groups or individuals who are equipped to start fires 
as the action progresses. Other special groups may be desig- 
nated to go in advance of the fire-setters and rip open doors, 
windows, and gates with heavy crow bars, so that access 
can be secured to the interior of buildings. These same tactics 
of breaking open doors also make it easier for the inevitable 
looters to operate that follow in the wake of the mob. 

Normally fire hydrants will be destroyed in conjunction 
with a deliberate torch action. Areas between the police and 
the mob may be flooded with gasoline and set off to prevent 
police contact. Flaming torches may be utilized at night for 
mob illumination purposes and also to further arouse primi- 
tive emotions. Gasoline-soaked waste is often used along with 
other gasoline-saturated, flammable objects such as cusliions 
and pillows hurled at police elements from roof tops and 
windows. Fronts of buildings can be drenched with gasoline 
and set fire. 


The "molotov" cocktail is a favorite mub weapon. This is 
usually a glass bottle filled with gasoline and corked. Around 
the neck of the bottle will be tied a piece of gasoline-soaked 
rag. The rag is sec on fire and the bottle thrown at sonic 
object against which it will shatter on impact, liy using a 
shotgun with a blank shell, a crude but effective long-range 
launcher for the "molotov" cocktail can be devised. In place 
of a cork, a long, round stick is used as the bottle stopper. 

The butt of the gun is placed on the ground and the stick 
placed in the muzzle of the gun against the blank shell. The 
bomb is ignited and the trigger of the gun pulled. The gas 
ciiargc of the blank siicU against the end of the stick will 
drive the fire bomb a consideral)le distance. A little experi- 
mentation as to the proper angle of the piece will develop 
a fairly efficient, long-range launcher. 

Gasoline stations and gas and gasoline-storage tanks are all 
prime targets for mob action and sabotage, prior to or in 
conjunction with mob action. Fire not only has a tactical use 
by the mob but it also is very effective in inciting jiriniitivc 
emotions among the mob members thereby increasing the 
violence potential. 

Utilizing commercial sources for explosives, secured either 
in advance or during looting, a trained mob will use the de- 
struction of key buildings as a diversion action to draw the 
police. Booby traps and bombs placed in heavily-populated 
buildings will be part of the action. Explosives can be more 
easily concealed, and timing devices readily improvised. Con- 
sequently, this tactic must always be expected against planned 
targets such as utilities and communications prior to the actual 
disturbance. Planned explosions blamed on other parties are 
always a good way to fabricate martyrs. 

Attacks On Small Groups and Vehicles. Many times a mob 
is incited to violence by a directed action against some small, 
specific group of individuals or their property. In this manner 
hatred can be aroused that may result in beatings, and killing 
or burning. Racial minorities arc often the object of such an 
attack. This type of tactic can be used as a diversion or as a 
target to set off explosive violence that can later be directed 
at the principal target. 

Vehicles such as trolleys, buses, and privately-owned cars 
or trucks that are unfortunate enough to be parked in the 
action area are always potential targets. Trolleys and buses 
are derailed or turned over and set on fire. Flaming news- 


papers are forced into gas tanks, or cars can be drenched witli 
gasoline first and then set on fire. 

Buses and other vehicles can be commandeered by the 
rioters. They can be set on fire, or driven under their own 
power, in tlic direction of tiic police lines, the driver jumping 
out before contact. The same tactics with or witliout drivers 
can be used to break blockades or damage buildings. At times 
these vehicles are loaded with explosives. 

Tires of parked cars may be slashed and upholstery ripped 
open and windows broken. Many times large tacks to damage 
tires are scattered in the streets along routes police vehicles 
will use to approach the mob. 

On occasion trucks, buses, and similar vehicles have been 
stalled, or accidents created tiiat will block off streets and 
prevent police elements from entering areas or leaving their 

Looiing. It is a standard tactic to organize or to encourage 
looting. In this manner, the uneducated, non-dedicated mob 
elements will be attr.ictcd. Promises of easily acquired wealth, 
either in the form of material goods or money, is always a 
sure way to attract mob members. 

Liquor stores, hardware stores, banks, gun stores, jewelry 
stores, and food stores are all prime targets. In conjunction 
with the general looting by the uninitiated, the professionals 
will concentrate on police stations, newspaper offices, tele- 
phone, radio and television and telegraph stations, govern- 
ment buildings, and banks. 

Communications and Utilities. These are prime targets of any 
large, well-organized mob action. This does not mean that 
the mob itself will first attack them. Many times planned sabo- 
tage will take place in conjunction with or prior to a mob 

Cutting off electric power and telephone facilities is one 
of the first moves to be expected in support of any organized 
mob action. 

Demonstrations. A demonstration is described as an assem- 
blage of persons exhibiting sympathy against authority or 
with some political, economic, or social condition or move- 

Public demonstrations frequently are the planned forerun- 
ners to mob violence. Due to skillful leadership and knowl- 
edge of mob psychology, a seemingly harmless or peaceful 
demonstration can in minutes be turned into a howling de- 


structivc mob. Police are often taken b}- surprise in such 
instances and find themselves unprepared to meet the sudden 
change in the situation. 

Sometimes a scries of demonstrations will be called by the 
organiz-crs before the scene is set for actual concerted mob 
action, or enough strength of numbers and confidence is de- 
veloped to touch things off. 

The parading of the bodies of so-called martyrs in their 
coffins in the streets as victims of claimed government or 
police brutality and the parades of groups of women dressed 
in black as pretended widows of the dead, and of so-called 
martyrs, are examples of this type of demonstration activity. 

A crowd of persons may gather as a result of some event 
that arouses interest and curiosity. The crowd can be turned 
into a mob if it can be held together long enough and the 
thinking of the individuals ignited by agitators into mob 
action. On the other hand, the planned demonstration is al- 
ready far advanced along the path to mob violence as the 
participants are already drawn to the scene by the united 
thinking and interest. 

Much attention must be given by police elements to the 
planned demonstration. Continuous surveillance must be main- 
tained and good intelligence accumulated before, during, and 
after demonstrations. 

The Planned or Fabricated Incident. When elements bent on 
civil disturbances lack an excuse for one, they will manufac- 
ture an incident around which to develop and prepare the 
mob action. Tiiis will vary from planned assassinations to the 
blowing up of monuments and buildings. The means is not 
important if the results are obtained. 

Tiie planned assassination of the popular figure. Dr. Jorge 
Gaitcan, in Bogota, Colombia in April 1948, was used to set 
off destructive mob violence; it cost millions of dollars in 
damage. The popular Latin slang expression, "bogotazo" is 
now commonly used to describe a destructive, planned, mob 

Miscellaneous Mob Tactics. It is no\v common practice to 
make full use of unarmed women and children in mob actions. 
They are usually placed in front of the mob in direct contact 
with the police elements. Wounded and incapacitated war 
veterans are similarly used. Agitation continues behind the 
protective screen of women and children and at the indicated 
time, they are pushed against the police lines by those in the 
center and rear. 


Many times tlie rioters in front of tiie police will also be 
waving the national flag and singing national antlienis. 

Such tactics make it very difficult for police to break up 
the mob by use of physical force; tear gas munitions are 
usually the best solution. 

In June i960 when President Eisenhower was visiting Okin- 
awa, Communist-inspired riots and demonstrations took place. 
U.S. Marines were ordered to fix bayonets and clear away the 
crowd. Young Okinawan college girls are reported to have 
unljuttoned their blouses, bared their breasts, and dared the 
.Marines to advance against their naked bosoms. 

Rioters often take advantage of a hillside or an incline by 
rolling vehicles, old auto tires and wheels, or barrels at the 
police line. 

Domestic animals can be driven in front of the mob against 
police. On some occasions delayed-action explosive charges 
have even been tied to animals wluch were driven toward 
the police lines. 

When mounted police are used against a trained mob, its 
members may try to hamstring tiie horses by cutting tlicir 
leg tendons. 

Combustion or burning-type gas grenades and 37mm pro- 
jectiles are, due to their use over many years, well known to 
the experienced agitator. Specific persons will be designated 
to pick them up and throw tiicm back. Instructions are also 
given to the uioh members to kick these munitions aside and 
to avoid the white smoke cloud created during the burning 
process that liberates the gas, and discloses the area covered. 
Thus being forewarned, they can avoid any visible gas con- 
centration that does not completely saturate the entire scene 
and to continue aggressive action against the police. In many 
recent actions, selected mob members have entered action 
wearing cotton work gloves that enable them to pick up and 
throw back combustion-type tear gas grenades and projectiles 
without burning their hands on the hot body of the grenade. 
The fact that this type of grenade heats up is only a partial 
deterrent to throwback. 

Chapter i6 


ALTHOUGI-I tliis text continues to be of great value to 
the combat soldier and tbe law-enforcement officer in 
any type of individual liand-to-hand combat, armed or un- 
armed, it has recently been greatly enlarged so as to be of 
specific assistance also in the training of police and military 
units in riot duty. The incidence of riots is increasing through- 
out the world in this epoch of social unrest and upheaval. 
American law enforcement agencies have not yet had to face 
the type of major, directed, inob violence that is now fre- 
quently occurring in some other nations. Let us hope that 
our own domestic tranquility continues, and as a measure of 
insuring that this hope may become reality, let us train and 
equip our defense forces, both military and police, so that 
they will not be caught unprepared if suddenly called upon 
to quell mob violence. 

Some of the material in this chapter will not seem to apply 
directly to our current domestic situation, but rather to be 
"slanted" toward problems of mob control arising more fre- 
quently outside our borders. The material is included as useful 
background information to help each individual law enforce- 
ment agency develop its own training and techniques in mob 
control to meet any eventuality in its local situation. 


In many countries throughout the world the army is ac- 
tually the national police force and is maintained principally 
to keep domestic order. This is especially true in Latin- 
American nations, in the Middle East, and the Orient. 

In such a situation a combination of the best techniques 
of the military and of civil police can best be employed by 
the army-police force to dominate a riot situation. The cost 



of maintenance of a permanent standby riot control unit to 
keep conditions stable need not be prohibitive. Due to the 
potential or actual incidence of disturbances, such a force 
may even be considered necessary to keep the government 
in power. Whether civilian or military as to uniform and 
nomenclature, the basic purpose of such a unit is to control 
and dominate any mass manifestations that would menace local 
and national authority. 

The maintenance of such a professional unit to handle mob 
violence would seem to be an urgent need in countries which 
may have to face planned, professionally-led, Communist- 
inspired mobs. In the past, the failure of the civil police, where 
they existed, resulted in calling on the regular troops. Usually 
the mere presence of regular troops was sufficient to control 
the situation. But the professional leadership of some of to- 
day's mobs is less impressed by a show of force. When the 
presence of troops fails to halt an aggressive mob, and gas 
attack proves inadequate, the final alternative is to order the 
troops to fire. Commanding officers cannot expect their men 
to stand up in a passive manner to the tactics, abuse, and 
threats of a professional mob, even when orders have been 
given 7iot to fire. This is particularly true in countries where 
the troops themselves are illiterate or poorly educated and 
lacking in discipline. The troops may believe that they must 
fire to dominate the situation. They are quite likely to use 
their firepower to protect ti\emsclves and the dignity of their 
unit and uniform. No final alternative remains but the use 
of force. Yet, especially when regular troops are used against 
civilians of their own nation and locality, the situation plays 
into the hands of the Communists, who will be quick to 
criticize as more martyrs are created. 

Another aspect of mob control in countries that are not 
highly developed, and where there is little public discipline, 
is that most local and civil police forces and their members 
do not want any part of a violent counter-mob action. When 
faced with a "home-grown" mob, they have numerous per- 
sonal, political, and other reasons for being reluctant to ag- 
gressively suppress it. They all realize that they have to live 
there after the incident is over. The fact that students, women, 
children, and war veterans are used in the formation of the 
mob also makes the position of law enforcement personnel 
all the more untenable, as the individual policeman may he 
forced to use strong measures or extreme force against neigh- 
bors, friends, and even relatives. 


These handicaps may be largely avoided by organizing and 
training an adequately-equipped special riot police force to 
control threatened mob action. The purpose of this group 
is to avoid, when possible, the heavy casualties tiiat may occur 
when military infantry tactics and armament are used, but at 
the same time to be able to use whatever force is necessary 
to control the situation. 

What is needed is a para-military police organization that 
contains within itself all the armament, training, and discipline 
necessary to dominate the mob by application of only the 
"necessary force." This idea is not entirely new but it has 
been little used to date. The unit must include only specially 
selected officers and men, and its training must be thorough. 
All members must understand that the mission is to dominate 



LEFT: The formidable appearance of an entire unit of riot police 
wearing masks is very effective in discouraging mob elements. The 
"Man from Mars" aspect with its psychological impact on the mob 
may discourage the uneducated, less aggressive type rioter without 
need of force. 

CENTER: Policeman equipped with gas mask of the latest type, 
which protects him against the effects of tear and nauseating gases 
and at the same time gives him maximum visibility and carrying com- 
fort. The mask is carried in a locally-made special pouch. All masks 
should be cle;u"ly labeled so that each man wears his own, which he 
has previously tested and adjusted to his own head and face. 

RIGHT: A riot policeman equipped with baton and carrying tear 
gas grenades in special holsters. With the baton he has a potent and 
offensive weapon. Knowledge in its use also creates great self-con- 
fidence. He can be equipped with gas and smoke grenades. If desired 
he may carry a pistol. The baton-grenade members of the squad 
(grenadiers) arc also responsible for the protection of the members 
who carry the gas-launching guns. 

39^ KILL OR G i: r killed 

a mob with a miniinuiii of casualties yet at tlie same time be 
ready and able to change quickly and efficiently to more 
(or less) drastic tactics depending on the temper and action 
of the mob. It is really an "in-between" force that because 
of its flexibility, can adapt to any given mob action. 


Tiic organization of the unit is based on the squad as the 
smallest operating tactical clement. Individual soldiers or 
police are not trained or encouraged to operate individually 
in mob control. 

All tactics are such that the same formations, movements, 
and actions against the mob can be used by a squad, a platoon, 
a company, or a battalion. 

The squad and larger units carry the weapons and fire- 
power designated, which are to be used only on order of the 
leadqr. Thus the commander may prescribe that some soldiers 
be armed with a caliber .45 automatic pistol, some with gas 
grenades or gas guns, others with a caliber .30 carbine. If riot 
sticks are also to be used, the carbine may be slung across 
the back. The squad leader may be armed with a submachine 
gun, riot gun, or sniper's rifle. 

Members of the squad are divided into two groups, a front 
rank and a rear rank. The front rank is to be ready for con- 
tact with mob elements and will usually carry tear gas 
grenades and the baton, or riot stick. These men are used 
to attack the mob with the sticks, to launch or throw gas 
grenades, and also to protect the rear rank, consisting of 
three squad members carrying special gas guns. 

In the platoon formation there are usually two squads in 
line armed with riot sticks and grenades. The gas guns are in 
the rear. The reserve squad is armed with carbines and other 
special weapons, according to the situation. 

All action in wliich launching of gases is ordered, either 
by grenade or gun, is done on command. There is no in- 
discriminate use of the gas munitions. Use of the baton and 
changes in tactical formations are only on command of the 
commander of the unit, who stays behind the line of con- 
tact with the mob in order better to observe and control the 
action. The commander maintains his reserve under his im- 
mediate control. He is the only one that can authorize the 
use of firearms. In this manner the responsibility can be placed 
directly on the officer, in case firearms are used with conse- 
quent casualties. 



COLT ARMALITE AR-15 Cal. .223 Rifle 

This is a new combat rifle that is recommended by the factory 
for both police and military use. It weighs less than seven pounds 
with a loaded 20-round magazine. It is recommended for use at ranges 
up to 500 yards. The high velocity of the small diameter bullet gives 
it extraordinary penetration. Firing can be either semi- or full auto- 
matic. Grenades can be launched from the rifle and a scope can be 
mounted on the carrying handle for sniping. The rifle has penetrating 
power against metal objects such as car bodies and engine blocks, 
that is superior to any other arm in its class. Those departments that 
have use for its special characteristics will find it a welcome addition 
to the arsenal. 


Formatioas in mob control are generally based on standard 
infantry fonnations. Police and troops with knowledge and 
training in normal drill formations will have no difficulty in 
adapting to the small variations needed for more efficient 
mob and riot control. 

There are four basic formations that are used for riot con- 
trol. These are the column, the skirmish line, the wedge, and 
the diagonal formations. 

The column formation generally is used for approach to 
the riot area. When coming into the view of the rioters for 
the first time and in approaching them, this formation should 
always be moving in double time. This fast tempo of march 
is very impressive, psychologically, to the mob members. In 
fact, all changes of formation in front of the mob are best 
performed in the faster tempo. This is not only for the visual 
effect but also for tactical reasons when formations must be 
changed rapidly in close contact. All practice should be con- 
ducted likewise at double time. 

The line of skinnishers is for use when confronting the 
mob, to advance against it, for a display of force, or to block 
off an area. This is the usual formation when the unit is in 
line confronting the mob but not in action or contact. From 
this formation gas can be launched and the wedge or other 
formation can be assumed rapidly. 


This formation is used when confronting the mob, or advancing 
against it. It is also used in a display of force. In this illustration, 
grenadiers with batons are in the front rank. Three squad members 
with 37mm gas guns are in the second file. The squad leader is in 
the rear and is armed with a submachine gun. The men with the 37mm 
gas guns can be placed in the front rank during a display of force, or 
can advance and fire short-range shells into the mob from positions 
between the grenadiers. They also can fire long-range shells into the 
mob from tlie position shown. Men in the front rank, when not in 
niol) contact, can on command kneel while long-range shells arc be- 
ing fired. In this formation, the 37nim guns are protected by the 
grenadiers. They can also be considered as a reserve to fill in the 
line, if necessary. 

The wedge forr/iatioii is used in clearing screets and splitting 
tiie mob. It is an offensive formation. In case of change of 
direction or of withdrawal, tlie formation can be converted 
into a triangle or diamond by using the reserve to fill in the 

The diagonal ("right echelon" or "left echelon") forma- 
tion is assumed ifrom the line of skirmishers or from the 
wedge. Its principal use is in movement against the mob 
when it is desired for the entire unit or elements of it to 
drive the mob members in a given direction, such as down 
a particular street. 

All of these formations can be used by squad, platoon, 
company, or battalion. They are basic. Descriptions in de- 
tail with the commands on how they can be formed are 
available in any standard U.S. infantry manual on formations, 
including FiVI 19-15 previously recommended as a reference 

Rules for Use of Formations. ( i ) The formation must be 
such that it can be maintained and tiie line held in the face 
of direct mob action and physical contact. The guiding prin- 
ciple is that movement in the action, whctlicr it be (offensive. 

1> 11 O !•• E S S 1 O N A L RIOT C O N 1' It U L L" N 1 1 


y-— ■■-■ ■• ,;• ■-- - 

Grcimdicrs form the "V," with -.i siiiiiul Icailcr arnicil witli an auto- 
iiiaric \vca|)<>ii in rear of die point n\an. Tlircc men with 37mni gas 
guns arc in column in rear of the si]uaii leader, acting under his 
orders as a reserve. 

The diagonal can be formed from cither left or right. It is useful 
when it is desired to move the mob members in any given direction, 
such as into a side street. The diagonal formation must be practiced 
so that it can be assumed rapidly in the midst of any action and from 
any other basic formation. In this case the man on either end can arc 
as a pivot in case a wheeling action is ordered. 

39^) K I r. I, () K a v. r k i l \. v. u 


This is an offensive formation used for splitting up mob elements, 
and advancing and clearing streets. In the illustration two squads 
carrying batons, grenades, and 37mm gas guns make up the front 
or "V" of the formation. Squad Icailcrs are behind armed witli sub- 
machine guns. Directly to the rear of tlic point is the officer in com- 
mand, witli a radio man on his left. The third squad is in reserve 
in the rear of tlic ofliccr. It is armed with automatic weapons, extra 
37nun gas guns, and special rifles for sniping, etc. It also can carry 
extra munitions and special equipment. The third squad is used to 
reinforce the line, protect the rear and flanks, for counter sniping, and 
any other special use brought about by the circumstances. It operates 
under the direct command of the officer. It can be in column or 
dispersed as shown. This basic formation can be used in units of 
company and battalion size with equal effectiveness. The line of skir- 
mishers, diagonal, or any type wheeling movement can be assumed 
from this formation, on command. 

defensive, or .static, is always to be inidertaken as a unit. This 
is true whether the unit is a squad, platoon, company, or 
battalion. Individual members of the police units must never 
be permitted to operate separately, both for reasons of safet}- 
and efficiency. The strength of the police unit is the strength 
of its combat formations, much more than the individual 
prowess of the men. 

(2) Each formation should have a reserve, whicli will 
serve under the officer in command as he dictates, to meet tlie 
demands of the situation. Members of this reserve can be 
used as messengers, to reinforce the line, replace wounded, 
perform special firing mi.ssions, handle prisoners, or perform 
other essential tasks. It is never advisable to commit all the 
unit reserve to the action, if this can possibly be avoided. 

P R o F r s s I () N A I. u I n r c o n r r« o i. u n i r 397 

(3) The officer commanding the unit during action must 
always be in the rear of the line of contact. This is necessary 
so that the leader can be in a position to observe the action, 
send messages, give orders, and otherwise control tiic action. 
Tlie leader's exact position behind his unit during the action 
is not fixed; it is the position from which he can best perform 
his mi.ssion of control. 

(4) The choice of formation and tactics used must always 
be .such that no members of the mob can get in its rear. If a 
situation develops that makes this a strong probability, the 
formation should withdraw. 

(5) It is never advisable to conmiit a small formation too 
deeply into a mob or crowd; otherwise the unit may lose 
maneuverability and control and its avenue of retreat cut off. 

(6) If the unit formation is small and the crowd or mob 
very large, contact should be avoided and the mob handled 
from a distance, taking advantage of the use of smoke, long- 
range gas guns, and other tactical means. 

(7) If a retreat becomes necessary because of an unfore- 
seen cimngc in the situation, tiiis retreat should always be 
made /;; foniiatioii, slowly so as not to give any indication 
of panic, and with the face of the men toiuard the mob. An_\' 
situation that will indicate panic on the part of the police 
units will only encourage the mob and make it more aggres- 
sive. Even the members of the mob will initially respect the 
uniform worn by the unit, and the unit formation and disci- 
pline must be maintained to keep this respect. 

(8) Changes in formations and movements are always made 
quickly. Surprise is to be achieved wherever po-ssiblc. The 
offensive is always to be maintained once an action has begun. 

(9) Should any m(jb member lay hands on a member of 
the unit and try to capture him or witiidraw him from the 
formation, other members must instantly converge on the 
adversary and overwhelm him with blows from the baton or 
other weapon. 

(10) In addition to disciplined formations, the uniforms of 
men and officers must lie neat in appearance. This helps de- 
velop the impression that the mob is not dealing with in- 
dividuals but with a unit. Any offense against an individual 
policemen must be considered as an offense against the entire 

Basic Principles in Dealing with a Mob. In initiating opera- 
tions against a civil disturbance \\'here the potential of mob 

398 KILL OR GET K I I, I. F. D 

violence exists, the police commander should employ the 
following measures and, if possible, in the following sequence: 

(i) Make a show of strength to demonstrate to tiic mob 
by means of military appearance of his unit, clianges in forma- 
tion, and display of armament, that the unit is there for a 
serious purpose and is able to use all necessary force to dis- 
perse the mob. (This is done without any threats and is in 
fact by implication.) 



III tliis simulatcil inol) scene tlic riot unit is shown facing the iiiol) 
but not in contact with it. This is the period when display of arma- 
ment, fixing of bayonets, mounting of gas masks, changes in for- 
mations, and drill movements are employed. This will many times be 
very effective in dispersing the crowd or mob in its early formative 
stage. This phase is followed up by a warning to the crowd to dis- 
perse peacefully. 

(2) Make a proclamation to the crowd to disperse, giving a 
time limit. Sound trucks, hand megaphones, or other avail- 
able means to deliver the demand to disperse in a peaceful 
manner, are to be employed. In some cases leaders of the 
agitation can be called to the presence of the commanding 
officer for this purpose. This will depend on the motivation 
and the attitude of the crowd and how close it is to the 
mob stage. 

(3) If, after waiting a reasonable time, the mob does not 
voluntarily disperse, resort to an offensive riot-control forma- 
tion and move against the crowd or mob using batons to dis- 
perse it. This procedure will depend on the attitude of the 
mob members and many times is best employed at the stage 
before the crowd members have arrived at unified purpose 
or objective. 



This is the second phase after a display of force and if jjossiblc, 
is made prior to any contact. In the ilhistration, the riot unit leader 
is warnin(5 the crowd to tlispcisc ami is giving it a time limit Ijcfore 
proceeding with "necessary force" against it. The hand-carried, transis- 
tor-type megaphone is indisj)ensal)le for this piirpose. 'Ihc odicer 
advances until he is near the mob in order to give it tiie order to dis- 
perse. Note that he is accompanied by members of the unit who act 
as flank guards. When he and his men return to the unit they normally 
walk backward, always facing the mob. Psychologically as well as 
practically it is never advisable to turn the back to a mob, especially 
when there is a potential for violence. 

(4) Lay down a concentration of tear gas. Tliis to be 
followed by nauseating gas, if indicated. Smoke also can be 
used at any time in combination with the gases. The gas 
barrage is normally followed up by an aggressive attack on 
the mob elements, or the attack can be made at the same 
rime the heavy concentration of gas is delivered. Normally 
the attack is made after a short interval has passed, to see 
if the gas alone was sufficient to disperse the gathering. 
Usually gas should be followed up by use of batons with the 
unit wearing gas masks. 

(5) As a last resort, order firearms to be used. This is best 
done by first ordering a limited number of expert marksmen 
to fire. These marksmen should be from the reserve unit. If 
they are not sufficient to break up the mob, full firepower 
of the entire unit must be used. Full firepower would mean 
the continued use of all chemical agents as well as firearms. 

The above sequence of action may not be practical)le if 

400 K r L f, () K c I'-, r kill k u 

die mob action is already under way when the unit arrives; 
in such case steps i, 2, and 3 may have to be omitted. 

The decision as to use of sickening gas in place of or with 
rear gas is entirely up to the judgment of the ofHcer in com- 
mand, based on his analysis of the temper of the mob. 
Logically it would be the last step before use of firearms. 

It is assumed in this discussion that the riot control unit 
has strength and armament to dominate the situation. If it 
does not but attempts and fails to do so, a more chaotic 
situation results. Mobs must be dealt with from strength and 
any possible situation that might give the rioters the upper- 
hand, even temporarily, should be avoided. 

If strength is not available the mob cannot be dominated; 
it can only be attacked from a distance with the hope that 
long-range use of gas munitions will disperse or delay it 
until sufficient forces are accumulated. 

All operations in mob control and dispersion should in- 
variably be preceded by study or prior intelligence from all 
sources, including consultations with local law enforcement 
officers or units already on the scene. All standard military 
procedures to arrive at an intelligent estimate of the situa- 
tion before contact should be employed. Arrangements for 
liaison with other units, conununications, medical service, 
reinforcements, etc., should be completed before physical 
contact with the mob is made or the unit is committed to the 


The following precepts and ideas must be adapted by the 
individual riot force to meet its own situation. All will not 
apply. Type, size, and motivation of the mob; location; 
quantity of gas munitions available; number of men in the 
riot control unit; reserves and weapons available; and other 
pertinent factors will all affect planning and tactics. Each 
situation will be different. The following ideas and comments 
are offered, accordingly. 

(i) Never try to bluff a mob. Don't threaten to do things 
that you cannot do or enforce. Should your bluff be "called," 
the mob thereafter becomes more lawless and dangerous. A 
threat is always antagonizing and may be accepted as a dare. 
Be able to back up what you say or don't say it. 

(2) Do not attempt to do more than you can reasonably 

I' RO K K SS I O N A L RIOT C () N I' R I. L^ N I r 40I 

expect to accomplish with the forces you have available. If 
the mob is too large, split it up, use gas munitions in quantity, 
and create delay while awaiting reinforcements. 

(3) In extreme emergency situations make an advance de- 
cision to use firearms as a last resort. Let the mob know it 
and put no restrictions on your men and their use of firearms 
at the proper time and signal, once the action has begun. Do 
not resort to firearms under panic conditions just because you 
happen to run out of gas munitions or don't have gas in 
sufficient quantity for the job. It is much better to plan to 
use live ammunition from the outset and tell the mob so, 
rather than commit yourself to a policy of gradual attrition 
of your men and gas equipment ending up using bullets as a 
desperation measure. 

(4) If your forces are badly outnumbered and faced with 
a potentially dangerous, but still inactive, mob, stall for time 
until reinforcements can be secured. Don't out too much 
reliance on the old axiom "one riot, one ranger" wlien deal- 
ing with a large potentially violent crowd which badly out- 
numbers your forces, fire power, and chemical agent capa- 
bilities. If violence breaks out you should have planned in 
advance your position, and stand in an area where you can 
make the best use of your limited forces, taking advantage 
of terrain, narrow streets, and buildings. 

(5) Keep your men under tight discipline and control 
when facing a mob. Do not let members of the mob aggravate 
your men into premature action by "name calling." Begin 
any offensive action on your own orders. Do not let 
mob members set things oflF by "baiting" individual members 
of your forces. The reasons and need for this should be 
clearly covered during the training program and reiterated, if 
possible, just before any mob contact or action. 

(6) Training in the use of riot sticks is always desirable. 
Many times a crowd can be kept from becoming an unruly 
i?iob by their use or threat. Back up your stick men by gas 
and grenade throwing units in the event the use of the riot 
clubs alone can not handle the situation. Develop, during 
training, a signal for orderly withdrawal of your stick men at 
the time grenades and other munitions are projected over their 
heads into the crowd. Do not have your stick men withdraw 
by turning and running. This gives the mob the idea that the 
forces of law and order are in a state of panic, which in- 


K r r, L O It GET K I L L K, D 

Above: Using the baton to extend the line to block off given areas. 
Each man extends his baton and it is grasped by the tip by the 
adjacent squad member with bis free hand. 'I'his is a good formation 
to use wlicn tlicrc is no pliysicai contact talting place with die mob 
and the situation is passive. 

Below. An interlocked arm formation that presents an unbreakable 
front to the mob. This formation can be used to block off a narrow 
street or doorway. It can be maintained against a passive mob that is 
merely pushing against die line. 

In both of these formations note that the squad leader is in tiie 
rear with his automatic weapon. The 37mm gas guns are also in re- 
serve to be used in any sudden change of the situation. Short or long- 
range shells can be fired into the mob cither from the line or from 
the rear. 

creases mob aggressiveness. The stick men in their with- 
drawal, after gas munitions have been launched, should do 
it in fonnatioji, walking backwards, always facing the hostile 
elements. If your stick men in the front rank are without 
masks, have a reserve group of stick men (if possible) with 
masks, to step into the line when the gas munitions are 

(7) When in close contact with apparently unarmed mobs, 
you must anticipate that bricks, stones, clubs, or other missiles 
will be thrown or used against your men. Protective helmets 
are a nuist. The light, tough, fiber glass protective Iielnicts 


used by miners and structural steel workers are ideal. Tliey 
can usually be secured at low cost and many times can be 
the difference between aggressive action and retreat. The fear 
of injury to the liead, eyes, and face from thrown missiles 
or blows is always present. When these helmets are worn this 
danger is greatly minimized with a resulting increased self- 
confidence. Protective helmets can also be painted in distinc- 
tive colors to enable better identification and control of your 
own forces during periods of poor visibility, such as use of 
smoke, gas and night action. 

(8) iVIake provision for first aid and medical treatment for 
your own men prior to any mob contact or action. It is very 
important that your men know that they will be taken care 
of if and when they become casualties. Arrangements should 
be made for special ambulances, to be held in reserve. Do not 
pennit those persons or medical units assigned to this task to 
be diverted by attending injured rioters. Have separate units 
for tliis purpose, if desired. 

(9) You should always, where prior planning and man- 
power permit, keep a reserve of men, gas, and equipment to 
commit to the action in an emergency. This reserve should 
be used to replace injured men and reinforce weak areas. 
When the mob is breaking up, it can then be committed to 
special tasks, such as to pick uj) mob leaders. 

(10) Commanding officials should always be at a vantage 
point where they can see the entire action. Binoculars used 
from buildings or roof tops, etc. are very useful. Two-way 
radio contact with subordinates on the scene is always es- 
sential in a large action. This contact must also be maintained 
with the reserve unit, medical aid groups, etc. Do not make 
the mistake, if you are the leader, of "plunging into the fray," 
with your men. You then lose control of the action as you 
cannot sec what is going on. Cover this point and the rea- 
sons for it thoroughly in training. 

(11) Tactical squad or company formations for use in 
riot control such as the flying wedge or other offensive 
and protective formations should be practiced in training. 
Signals for offensive action, retreat, and formation changes, 
should be developed. Hand signals, whistle blasts, commands 
from megaphones, and flares are all available for this purpose. 
Colored flares are particularly useful at night and in a day- 
time action when the noise and smoke of a large action make 
other means impractical. The commanding officer should also 
always arrange to have assigned and accompany liim, indi- 



viduals for use as messengers. He can utilize members of the 
reserve if the manpower situation is critical. Remember, that 
in a serious situation, headquarters office personnel can be used 
in noncombatant jobs such as first aid and as messengers so 
as to release the regular forces. 

(12) Special tactics and formations should be developed in 
training to enable physical penetration of the mob body by 
the reserve unit or other groups in order to seize leaders or 
agitators or rescue injured or outnumbered personnel. A riot- 
stick wielding wedge formation is usually advocated with the 
reserve and leader inside. 




In this simulated mob action, the upper illustration shows the unit 
beginning to advance after it has just assumed the wedge formation 
from the previous line of skirmishers. At this point gas would normally 
have been launched into the mob from the long-range gas guns, or gas 
grenades thrown taking advantage of favorable winds. iVIasks would 
be donned and the batons would be used to further disperse the mob. 
In the lower illustration it will be noted how the wedge formation 
has closed or tightened up as it gets closer to the mob. Note how the 
reserve has bunched up so that it is close to the unit leader and im- 
mediately available in support of the line. 


(13) Grenades can be used very effectively to break up 
a loosely dispersed crowd before it becomes a ?nob by pene- 
trating it with a siren-blowing vehicle from which the gren- 
ades can be thrown by hand and dispersed over a wide area. 

(14) Hand-thrown grenades can be and have been used 
effectively through skylights, down chimneys, through door 
transoms and from roofs or rooms in buildings overlooking 
the rioters, especially when police are without masks. 

(15) If the area in which the mob is going to concentrate 
is known in advance, grenades can many times be placed in 
concealed places in advance, to be activated from a distance 
by trip wires when the time is ripe. 

(id) When necessary to enter and disjiersc rioters in large 
rooms, halls, etc., police should enter the door and their 
formation should then move along the walls, ejecting a small 
part of the crowd at a time. 

(17) The use of fire department members and their high 
pressure water hoses should always be considered in handling 
a large mob action. Especially if the forces available are 
limited and gas munitions are short. In some cases self- 
contained hose, tank-truck units are very useful when placed 
at strategic spots. Rioters can also be sprayed with a specially 
colored or tinted water to enable identification and capture 
later after the mob is dispersed. 

(18) During the past few years the helicopter, with its 
obvious advantages, has become a very valuable piece of 
military and police equipment. If available, helicopters should 
be utilized to hover above the center of large mobs both to 
drop tear gas grenades, to more effectively make use of 
the powerful hand electric type megaphones for mob control, 
and for observation purposes. 

(19) Generally, troops or police on riot duty should never 
have specific instructions as to the limit of force that they 
may use. The commander of the military-police unit should 
be instructed to use the necessary amount of force to subdue 
the mob and control the situation. 

(20) The mob control unit should contain within itself the 
entire range of amis necessary to control the situation. This 
will vary from batons, to gas munitions, to automatic-type 
firearms. When he must, tlie commander should use them all 
if the situation requires such action. 

(21) It is useless to carry firearms without ammunition or 
under instructions not to use them. If the mob ever finds this 
out, there will be immediate disruption of the moral? of the 


riot unit and loss of control of the situation. 

(22) In a police action against the mob, it is best for the 
commander to have the firepower of the unit (small arms 
such as rifles, carbines, sub-machine guns, etc.) in the reserve 
part of the formation. This gives him better control anil 
enables him to make more efficient use of these arms wlien 
necessary. "VViicn the men in the front against the mob, who 
may be armed only with batons and grenades, know they 
are backed up by firearms, they will perform with more 
aggressiveness and confidence. 

(23) The least violent and courageous members of the mob 
will be found in the rear, where there will also be spectators. 
It is often a good tactic to launch a surprise attack by gas 
against these rear elements. Normally, such attacks will cause 
panic and these rear elements will disperse more easily. Fear 
is highly contagious. If a part of the mob takes flight, the 
remainder will tend to be thrown into panic and confusion. 
The sight of members fleeing can also demoralize the more 
determined mob members. 

(24) Escape routes must always be available when using 
gas to disperse crowds or mobs. It is obvious that the mob 
members, in order to get away, must have free avenues of 
escape against gas concentrations. 

(25) When it is apparent that mob members in front in 
contact with the police cannot retreat, because of pressure 
from the rear mob elements, the pressure on the front is re- 
tained while the rear and center of the mob is attacked with 

(26) Chemical smoke projected by use of grenades or 
candles has great tactical value. Smoke can be used to block 
off or deny mob a.ssembly areas, to disperse crowds by 
splitting them up into sections, to provide cover for closer 
approach to the mob or persons barricaded in buildings, and 
to conceal tactical movements. It can be used inside buildings 
to force their evacuation. In combination with tear gas, 
smoke is even more effective in creating a panic condition. 

(27) Extreme discipline must be maintained before and 
during the action to gain and keep respect of the mob mem- 
bers and spectators. A well-disciplined, silent, well-armed 
unit with every member intent on the mission of controlling 
the mob, creates the impression of a powerful, competent 

(28) Blank cartridges should never be used against a mob 
and should never be issued for riot duty. Their only possible 


use is in training. Volleys of "live" ammunition normally 
should not be fired over heads of rioters. 

(29) When confronting a mob for the first time, steps 
should be taken so that the mob members can see and know 
that firearms are available for use. A show of strength by 
formation and exhibition of weapons before an action is 
always advisable. If there is nothing to use to give the im- 
pression of complete dominance of the situation by numbers, 
weapons, or formation, all close contact with the mob must 
be avoided. 

(30) When firearms are used against the mob, they are 
best aimed low so as to hold down the mortality rate and 
also avoid liitting innocent persons who may be in the rear 
of the mob as spectators. 

(31) It is the responsibility of the leader to see that the 
unit has protection from snipers, or persons firing from 
windows, roofs, or trees. He should protect his men from 
this kind of attack. If the situation is such that he cannot, by 
his own means or with help from other units, cover the 
dangerous areas througli which lie may be moving, he must 
change plans and routes of approach. 

(32) First-aid training and equipment must be made avail- 
able to the members of the mob-control unit. In an action, 
cuts and bruises and lacerations are to be expected. Mob mem- 
bers will hurl rocks, bottles, and other types of missiles at 
police. The unit should contain, within itself, first-aid kits 
for prompt treatment of wounds. It will also be advisable to 
carry, in addition to the normal medical first-aid supplies,- 
some sort of eye-wash preparation. If the police operate with- 
out eye protection, they must expect to suffer this sort of 

(33) Gas is used in conjunction with the prevailing wind. 
If the wind is against the mob, a cloud can be ejected that 
will carry the gas into it from the front. If the wind is against 
the police elements, the gas must be projected by gas guns 
or otiier means to the rear of the mob so that it will be 
carried into the mob. Generally, gas grenades and projectiles 
that are not dependent on wind and of the type that can not 
be thrown back, are best. 

(34) The burning type of gas grenade (that releases gas 
by the combustion principle) should not be used where 
combustibles are stored or where there is any other type of 
fire hazard. The intense heat created by the burning process 
that liberates the gas, can start serious fires. When veiiicles 


are turned over by mobs, spilled gasoline from tanks can be 
ignited by burning-type grenades or projectiles.' 

(35) Gas grenades of the combustion type should not be 
thrown directly into the mob. Due to the fact that they need 
to burn for from twenty-five to thirty-five seconds in order 
to expel their gas, there is plenty of time for the mob mem- 
bers to throw them back at the police, kick them aside, or 
avoid the gas concentration by skirting the edges of the light 
cloud of smoke that is expelled with the tear gas during the 
burning process of gas liberation. 

(36) When only grenades are available and it is necessary 
to cover the entire mob with a gas concentration, have per- 
sons in civilian clothes enter the mob and assume previously 
determined locations in it. At a given time have these in- 
dividuals drop tear-gas grenades among the crowd and begin 
to run towards previously selected exits. These men can 
shout and incite panic by yelling "Gas, let's get out of here," 
etc. When mob members see people running and in panic, 
the panic spreads. This maneuver is very effective, especially 
when the gas grenades are of the invisible type so that the 




Provision must be made for protecting the eyes of police members in 
close contact with the mob members. On riot duty, police may have 
almost anything thrown at them by the mob such as stones, sand, dust, 
offal, pepper in paper bags, plastic bags with liquid ammonia, rotten 
vegetables, pieces of iron, and every other imaginable object. The 
plastic goggles shown are the commercially available type tliat are 
normally used in factories and machine shops to protect the worker's 
eyes. They are inexpensive and non-breakable. Each riot policeman 
should carry in his pocket an eye-protective device for use when 

1' n c) 1 r. s s 1 I) N A L R [ o r c o n i it o i. u n i r j^nc) 

mob cannot discover or avoid the source of gas emission. 

(37) iMany times a crowd or potential mob will disperse 
on first contact with gas. !f the unit is in sufficient strength, 
patrols should he sent out to prevent the crowd from form- 
ing again. These same patrols can pick up agitators and hard- 
core mob members. 

(38) A mob directed by professional agitators may seem 
to disperse at first and then try to reform. The more aggres- 
sive members of the professional agitators may try to create 
a diversion by setting fire to buildings or vehicles in the 
vicinity of the combat area. It is important that tiie com- 
mander of tiie police unit does not allow his men or unit to 
be "suckercd" into breaking up his formation by such mob 

(39) An effort should always be made to previously 
identify the leaders of the mob or the professional agitators. 
If they can be taken from the mob by use of formations and 
tactics at the very early beginning, this is the best procedure, 
provided the unit is not endangered or does not iiave to 
penetrate too deeply into the mob. An organized mob will 


The IRON CLAW is a very useful device for mob control. It is 
especially valuable wiien it is necessary to extract a leader or agitator 
from the mob and take him into custody rapidly and without a 


probably have a number of agitators simultaneously operat- 
ing at different locations in the mob body. Apprehension of 
agitators and leaders before the mob has even formed is a 
basic tactic. 

(40) Pictures of a given mob action, either still or motion 
pictures, are often very useful. The pictures can be used later 
to identify agitators, to study tactics, and sometimes can be 
useful in public relations. The fact that mob members know 
pictures are being taken will also dampen the enthusiasm of 
those who want to retain their anonymity. 

(41) Every disorderly assemblage should first be dealt with 
as a crowd until the point is reached when orders to disperse 
are disobeyed and actual physical resistance, such as throw- 
ing missiles, is encountered. At this time offensive action 
should be taken. Do not react passively to any attack and 
subject your troops to physical injury while deciding what 
tactic to employ. Have your plans made out in advance and 
if possible explain them to all the men so they can anticipate 
the time, manner, and circumstances when offensive action 
will take place. 

(42) Always use the element of surprise when possible. If 
sufficient elements are available and the location of action is 
favorable, hit the mob simultaneously from the rear and 
flanks. If the mob has been confronted in its front by police 
elements for some time during a static period, send units to 
hit it from unexpected quarters in conjunction with a frontal 
assault. This applies to the launching of gas munitions as well 
as offensive movement of baton-wielding formations. 

(43) In a situation where riot troops arrive when the mob 
is already in action against an objective that cannot be reached 
in order to give it protection, use gas and smoke in quantity 
from flanks and rear. Utilize roof tops as a means of approach 
and to launch gas. Try by physical means to split the mob 
from the rear and create panic in rear mob elements. Nor- 
mally, the least violent mob members will be on the flanks and 
rear. Peel them away in order to get at the hard core of the 

(44) If it can be anticipated where a mob action will take 
place, close all possible businesses in the area and order people 
to stay inside the buildings. Be sure that liquor stores, bars, 
gun stores, and hardware stores are closed. 

(45) Do not split your unit into a number of small de- 
tachments and try to quell minor diversionary disorders at 


scattered points. Concentrate on the n:ain body of tlic mob, 
maintaining sufficient strength to handle it. 

(46) Don't send small bodies of troops into areas where 
they can be surrounded. You will then be forced to rescue 
them and thus fail to concentrate on the main mob element. 
Protect your flanks and rear. Do not permit the mob to 
envelop your unit. Maneuverability must be maintained. 

(47) If you can hit the crowd before the agitators have 
changed it into a mob, do so. It is basic for any well-trained 
riot unit to pick up leaders and agitators if known, in advance 
of any action. This cannot always be done but good intel- 
ligence as to identification of leaders and agitators and of 
the purpose of the mob always "pays off^." 

(48) Alen instinctively protect their groin, stomach, and 
eyes. The baton or shoulder weapon in the hands of a trained 
man will enable him to enter physical contact without much 
fear of endangering vulnerable body areas. With respect 
to the eyes, plastic, adjustable-type safety goggles are rec- 
ommended for issue. 

(49) Gas masks of the modern type do not fog up and 
permit good side vision. Be sure your men have confidence 
in them and are not reluctant to wear them. Your men should 
be subjected to tear gas in training with and without masks. 
Train the unit to don masks while in formation, and work 
out a system where units in raserve can don masks and re- 
place those in the line. Men should be accustomed to wear- 
ing maslcs over prolonged periods of time while performing 
all combat functions such as use of riot sticks and firing 

(50) The psychological effect of the police advancing 
against the mob while wearing masks is very great, particularly 
if rioting groups are made up of illiterate elements. Many 
times a surprise initial appearance of the unit wearing masks 
is enough to discourage the rioters. Normally masks are not 
available to rioters and this is a great police advantage. Rioters 
may try to improvise masks but they really cannot secure 
much protection. Tear gas enters the nostrils, mouth, and 
eyes, and affects the nasal passages; all cannot be protected at 
the same time by an improvised means. 

(51) It is advisable that each squad or similar unit of the 
riot group have its own motor vehicle so that it is independent 
of other transportation. This gets the unit into action faster, 
is better for discipline, and increases maneuverability. 

(52) Provision should always be made for a specific vehicle 


for carrying additional special equipment for use under the 
commanding officer's orders. Such items include flares, axes, 
cables, rope, reserve gas supplies, fire extinguishers, chains, 
searchlights, crowbars, wire cutters, tow cables, hacksaws, 
extra tires, and extra gas supplies and arms. It is many times 
advisable to keep one vehicle always loaded with special 
equipment and ready for action. 

(53) Gloves are a must on riot control where physical con- 
tact is always possible. They give protection against flying 
missiles and clubs. In addition they can add to smartness in 
the appearance of the unit. The combination of white gloves, 
white helmet, white riot sticks, white shoe laces, etc., is very 
effective from the standpoint of unit discipline, morale, and 
in impressing the mob. 

(54) The problem of the sniper who is operating in con- 
junction with the mob against police elements can be a very 
serious one. A skilled rifleman operating from a concealed 
position of advantage can "pin down" police elements and kill 
or wound officials and troops. This can be expected in any 
large, serious, well-organized riot operation. It is absolutely 
imperative that special riot groups have expert riflemen, pre- 
ferably scope-equipped, assigned to counter this action. Usu- 
ally these riflemen would be members of the reserve unit and 
operate directly under orders of the officer in command. 

(55) Riot type 12-gauge shotguns, if available, are very use- 
ful weapons in riot control. Their wide pattern at close ranges 
and the psychological efi^ect of the large bore pointed toward 
the mob make them ideal close contact weapons. The standard 
00 buckshot load will create casualties and is ideal for night 
work. Shells loaded with tear gas can also be used in these 
weapons. On some occasions very fine shot (#8, 9) has been 
used at long ranges to effectually stop violent mob members. 
The fine bird shot at a distance does little harm, except in 
case of the eyes, but will penetrate the skin and cause a 
wound that will need medical attention. On one occasion, to 
the author's knowledge, rock salt has been used against rioters 
in specially loaded shells with good results. 

(56) Shields made of bullet-proof steel or fiber glass have 
a definite place in the "special equipment" of any professional 
riot group. They are very necessary to counter sniper action. 
See chapter 9, "Raids and Room Combat." 

(57) When rioters are barricaded in a building, it is best 
to clear it from the top down. Escape routes such as ground 
floor and basement exits and roofs of adjacent buildings must 


be watched. Heavy concentrations of tear gas and smoke 
are very useful in this situation. 

(58) Vehicles used to carry riot squad members and equip- 
ment to the scene of action must be parked in places away 
from the action. Normally, a driver and assistant should stay 
with the vehicle to protect it; they should be armed accord- 
ingly. These same vehicles can also be equipped with radios 
to maintain communication. 

(59) The use of mines, booby-trap devices, and explosive 
charges to prevent police from performing their function in 
mob control, can be expected, especially in a large, well- 
planned and directed action. A general knowledge of such 
tactics is advisable. If possible, designated elements in the riot 
control unit should receive some training in this field. These 
same men can also be trained in using explosives to clear 
mob-installed blockades. The increasing use by Communists 
of guerrilla warfare, and their training in the use and im- 
provisation of such explosive devices, make this an impor- 
tant consideration. Good prior intelligence will generally cic- 
termine if use of explosives will be a mob tactic. 

(60) The use of a tear gas concentration, chemical smoke, 
or a combination of both, is highly recommended to block n 
street or deny an area that is the target of a moving mob 
or on the route to the target. 

(6i)The use of chemical munitions against the mob near 
hospitals and schools always presents a problem. Although 
tear gas is not harmful, bad publicity and panic conditions 
can result. Except in extreme cases, an -attempt should be 
made to meet the mob in another location or else arrange for 
evacuation of persons in temporary danger. 

(62) In training a special unit for mob control, the practice 
"alert" should frequently be ordered. This is especially im- 
portant when elements of the riot squad are not maintained 
together as a unit. 

(63) The transistor-type, hand-carried megaphone as \\ell 
as the small walkie-talkie two-way radio, are now very im- 
portant parts of mob control equipment. Those using standard 
flaslilight batteries arc recommended. 

(64) Vehicles loaded with riot troops are used in controlling 
large mob operations. Room for maneuverability is obviously 
a must. Formations such as the wedge, using vehicles as its 
elements, are possible. Again, U. S. Army Manual 19-15 covers 
this type of operation. 

(6^) The factories manufacturing the 37mm long-range 


riot projectiles recommend that these projectiles be fired from 
the riot gun in such a manner that the projectiles fall behind, 
into, or in front of the mob. They normally are fired with 
the gun held at a 30 to 40 degree angle and the projectile 
falls into the target area accordingly, there being no velocity 
beyond that of gravity at the time of impact. Actual com- 
bat experience against mobs has resulted in recommendations 
that some types of projectiles be fired directly at the mob or 
by bouncing the shell along the ground in the direction of the 
mob so as to lovi^er the velocity. When these projectiles are 
fired either directly into the mob or via the bouncing method, 
the chances of a casualty are present even though the velocity 
of the projectiles themselves is only a few hundred feet per 
second. This technique is and can be used, if recognition is 
given to the fact that minor casualties may be inflicted. It 
can be particularly useful when: (a) the mob is beyond 
grenade-throwing range and there are adverse wind condi- 
tions; (b) no other means of projecting gas is available; and 
(c) physical contact with the mob needs to be avoided. 

(66) Small pocket-size colored smoke grenades designed 
for signaling and spotting air drops are now in use by U. S. 
Army airborne troops. They can be obtained on special 
order from commercial sources and have a possible use in 
large mob actions. Police members disguised as rioters could 
be used to set them off in mob areas where hard core agita- 
tion is greatest, in order to bring down gas concentrations, or 
to indicate locations of key leaders and agitators for possible 
apprehension tactics. They can also be used to signal to other 
units the beginning of various actions or phases against the 

Visual signals by use of flare pistols are also very useful in 
coordinating action against large mobs. These flares are com- 
mercially available from police and marine equipment supply 

Railway-type flares in yellow and red of the type called 
"fusees" have a practical application also. These flares contain 
self-igniters and have a spike in one end that can be driven 
into a wooden wall. Red is best for signaling a danger area 
or location of a road block. Yellow flares will provide emer- 
gency night illumination of operational areas. These flares 
are inexpensive and will burn for approximately thirty 
minutes in all kinds of adverse weather including rain, wind, 
and snow. 

(67) Simple booby traps utilizing tear gas grenades can be 


rigged indoors or inside buildings where rioters may want to 
enter or assemble. Any type of trip device tliat enables the 
safety ring to be withdrawn by a movement siicli as opening a 
door, can be devised. Instantaneous blast-type grenades arc 
best for tills purpose. 

(68) Emergency electric lighting facilities are a must for 
night action. In the past, car and truck spotlights have been 
used but again valuable vehicles lose maneuverability and are 
exposed to mob action and sniper fire. Portable long-range 
spotlights powered with dry cell or rechargeable batteries 
are now available. Individual mob members are more aggres- 
sive in night action under the protective cover of darkness. 
It is to be expected that power lines and m\jnicipal lighting 
facilities will be cut off by any well-planned mob action and 
provision must be on hand to light up the scene. 

(69) Experience during the past decade has proven that 
a small organized cadre of trained agitators can maneuver and 
direct the action of a mob numbering thousands. When the 
mob action meets witii police or military resistance that can- 
not be overcome, these professional agitators leave tiie mob 
body and flee to safety or otiicr predetermined rallying points. 
For this and other obvious reasons, it is vital to identify 
these individuals, who many times have not been operating 
openly prior to the action. Naturally, commanders of mob 
actions both within and without the mob body should be 
subject to apprehension orders of the highest priority be- 
fore, during, and after any riot incident. Police agents dressed 
in appropriate clothing etc. should be placed in the mob 
body for this purpose or for purposes of collecting evidence 
and identification. 

Transistor type miniature tape recorders and transceiver 
two-way radio sets that can be readily concealed on the per- 
son are extremely useful in this type of operation. 

Powerful binoculars with built-in cameras that can take 
photos of subjects thousands of feet away and various other 
camera-telescope combinations are now being used in the 
surveillance field. Their application in riot control situations 
should not be overlooked. Likewise, miniature cameras such 
as the Minox have a definite use. 

(70) A number of interesting new developments are now 
undergoing testing that should be of considerable use to law 
enforcement agencies and the military in the control of civil 
disturbances. Some may soon be commercially a%'ailable, such 
as the following: 


(a) A device used by sportsmen for throwing empty beer 
caas into the air for target practice. The power of a blank 
cartridge is used to launch the can into the air. An adaptation 
is now under study to enable this same inexpensive device 
to be utilized to throw tear gas grenades over long distances. 

(b) As a result of the recent interest in combatting guer- 
rilla warfare, an invisible spray is being developed that stains 
clothing and the skin. It cannot be washed off. Later examina- 
tion of mob suspects through a special lens would result in 
infallible identification of participants. 

(c) An electric riot stick that is battery-powered and im- 
parts a strong shock of static electricity. The stick is of 
nomial size. A spark from the tip will penetrate clothing of 
the recipient and does not have to contact the skin area to 
shock the person. The practical and psychological effects 
of this weapon can be imagined. The static electric shock is 
harmless but very effective. 


Achilles tendon, as vulnerable spot, 

Adam's apple, attnclc to the, 305 
Aimed shooting, 104, lOS 
Arm jerk, 56 

Arm lock: 

Come-along. 62, 63 

Defense, knife, 90 

In disarming, 212 
Arm release, 57 

Army, U.S.. mob control role. 369 
Assassin's trick, 81, 82 

Attack : 

In automobile, disarming In, 217 

Methods of, 49 

Rear, breaking, 52 

Tactics, in raid, 247, 253, 255, 265 

Types of, 49 
Attacker out of reach, disarming 

when, 218 
Automatic (See Pistol) 

Back, as vulnerable spot, 9 


In throws, 30 

Mental, 11, 12 

Physical, 11, 12, 13, 14 

Walking, 13 
Barricade, shooting around a, 139 
Barrows brothers raid. 244-246 
Basic informations, riot control, 393 


Attack with, 300-309 

Blows with the, 300 

Defense, using, 315 

Electric, 416 

Orlp of the long, 298 

Grip of the short, 298-299 

Mob control, 303, 401. 402 

On-guard position with, 304 
Bear hug. rear, breaking, 52 
Belt, In lieu of handcuffs, 243 
Biceps blow, 27 
Biting, 11 


Blow with, 317 

Types of, 317-319 

Use of, 317-320 
Block knife defense. 92 
Bobbing targets, 275-288 
Body areas, vulnerable: 

To knife attack, 77 

To unarmed attack, 7 
Body holds, breaking, 52 
Bones, serLsitlve, 10 
Brass knuckles, 318 
Breast gripping or biting the, 11 

Penetration and capabilities of, 263 
Stopping power of various calibers 
of, 263 

Bullet-proof vest. 269-272 

Carrying position (pistol, revolver), 

Causes, civil disturbances. 363 
Chain, used with handcuffs, 240 
Chair, defense knife attack, 86 
Chemicals, 323-362 

Dust projector, 355 

Effect of, 327-329 

Oas billies, 351 

Gas guns, 343 

Gas masks, 332, 338, 339 

Grenades. 334, 337, 340 

Invisible tear gas, 326 

Mobs, 363, 364 

Nauseating gas, 329 
Treatment lor, 330 

Parachute flares, 350 

Projectiles, 346 

Riot sticks, 298, 303 

Screening smoke, 331 

Sources, 324, 333 

Tear gas, 325-326 

Use of, 323 

Visible tear gas, 325 


As vulnerable spot, 9 

Attack under, with baton, 306 

Blow to the, 12 

Jab, 22, 23 

Jab and trip, 40, 41 
Chokes, 34-39 
Civil disturbances, control, 363 

(See also Riot control) 
Clam shell holster: 

Description of, 169 

Proteotlon afforded by, 173 

Safety factors In, 173 
Close-combat shooting, 104 
Close-in searching of prisoner, 224 

Clothing : 

Come-along, 65 

In restraining prisoners, 224, 225 
Club, use of hand gun as a, 146 
Coat, In restraining prisoner, 224 
Collar bone blow: 

Unarmed, 26 

With baton, 301 
Colt firearms, 130, 151, 164, 165, 170, 

Column search, 227, 228 
(Tombat lightweights, 149 


Unarmed, 58 

With baton, 310, 312 

Combat : 

Course training, 277-286, 291-297 
Ranges. 273, 275, 279 
Simulating, In training, 278 
Training, principles, 104 




Combat shooting: 

Ae contrasted with target shoot- 
ing, 106 
Attitude In. 141 
Training In, 123. 133. 136 
Training suggestions for, 136 
Combat sling carry, 187, 188 

Management techniques, mobs, 376 
Manual, mob training, 378-381 
Mob tactics, 378-381 
Mobs, why in Cold War. 375 
Tactics, mob violence. 371, 374 


In the field. 292-296 

Of knife, 82 
Control, mobs, 365, 389 

Control, riots, professional units, 
Convulsive grip, 108 
Cord strangle, 322 


In the field, 294 

When firing pistol, 142-144 


Choke, 34, 35 

Come-along, 65 
Cross-draw, hand gun, 174 


In knife attack, 72, 73 

In pistol shooting, 106 
Crowd escape, 58 


Deadly weapons, 226, 227 
Deception, as a field technique, 295 
Defense, in a room, 268 
Defensive shooting, fallacy of, 103 
Derringers, 163 


Against shoulder weapons, 206. 216 

Basic principles of, 193 

Importance of, 190 

Methods of, 200-220 

Position for, 195 

Techniques, 200-220 

Training procedures In, 195 
Disorders, Communist tactics, 374 
Disturbances, causes of, 363 
Domestic disturbances, control, 363 

(See also Klot Control) 
Doors, shooting through, 268 
Draw, quick (See Quick draw) 
Ehimmy targets, 141 
Dust projector, 3SS 


Ear concussion blow, 46, 47 
Edge of hand blow, 23, 24 
ERect of chemicals, 32.7, 329 

Elbow : 

As a weapon, 28, 29 
Breaking the. 46 


As vulnerable spot. 8 
Gouge, 51 

Falls, 15 

FBI pistol course, 276 


As weapons, 15 

Movement of. In pistol shooting, 
Field craft, elementary: 

Importance of knowing, 291 

Typical problem In, 291 
Finger strangle, 36 

Firing positions: 

Alternate position, 119, 184 

Close combat, shoulder weapons, 
180, 181 

Of feet and body, 185 

With pistol, 106, 110-125 
Flying mare, 31, 32 
Foot, kicking with the, 15-21 

Forearm : 

Block, 94 

Come-along, 64 

Lock, 64 
Forward crouch, pistol, 106 
Free hand, use of. pistol. 147 
Frisking for weapons. 222-328 

Frontal : 

Attack with knife, 78 
Hold, breaking, 52 
Strangle, 39 

Frontal disarming: 
Hand gun, 201-203 
Shoulder weapon, 206-208 

Garrotte, 321 
Oass billies, 351 
Gas guns, 343 
Gouge, finger or eye, 8 
Grenades, 334 

Groin ; 
Blow to the, 7 
Release blow to, 52 



Blows with the, 23-27 

Edge of the, 23 

In the back attack, disarming In 

a, 200 
Position of, as weapons, 23, 24 

Handcuffs : 
Adjustable, 230 
Fastened to belt, 238 
Position of hands in, 231 
Rules for using, 232 
Smith & Wesson, 232 
Swivel type, 2S4 
To secure prisoner to post, 231 
Types of, 200 
Use of, 229-241 
Used behind back, 236 
Used behind leg, 235 
Used on three men, 237 
Used to secure prisoner to coup- 
ling, 236 

I N D liX 


Used to secure prisoner to solid 
objects, 237 

Hand gun: 

As close quarter weapons, 99 

Combait use of, 97 

History of use of, 97 

Types of, lor concealed positions, 
Hands-on-head, lor prisoner, 223 
Head, as weapon, 20 
Head hold come-along. 65 
Hip shooting, pistol, 121, 122 
Hip throw, 30, 31 
Hog tie, of prisoner, 241 

Holsters : 

Position of wearing, 176 

Types of, 167, 169, 172 
House of Horrors, 280, 286 

Influences, mobs, 364 

Instinctive pointing: 
With hand gun, 124 
With shoulder weapon. 181 

Interlocking handcuff, 234 

Iron claw. 318, 409 

Japanese strangle, 36, 37 

As vulnerable spot. 10 

Attack under, with baton, 305 
Jlu Jltsu, 1. 2, 6 
Joints, as vulnerable spots, 10 

CTlioke, 34 

Discussion of, 2-4 



As vulnerable spot, 9 

Blow to the, 25 
Knees, as weapons, 29 
Knee kick: 

In knife defense, 87 

Without arms, 18 
Knee rest position, pistol, 137 

Attack, 72-76 

Concealment, 82 

Parry and arm lock, 90 

Throwing, 76 

Wrist block, 96 

Knife defense: 

Kinds of, 85 

Precautions in, 8S 
Knife, the fighting: 

Diagram of, 69 

Grip on, 70-73 

Types of, 68-70 

Brass, 318 
Hand, 28 


Blow to the, with baton, 308 
Hook, 33 


Come-along. 66 

Tearing a. 11 
Looking gunman in the eye. 197 

Maximum force, 14 

McDanlel, 180 

Midsection of body, attack to. with 

baton. 305 
Miscellaneous weapons and tech- 
niques, 298-322. 
Mobs, 360, 363, 365 

(See also Riot Control) 
Control, principles, 385 
Control, role. Army and Nat'l 

Quard, 369 
Control, professional units. 389 
Formation. Communist, 374 
Heavily armed, organized, 365 
How formed, 364 
Influences affecting, 364 
Management. Communist tech- 
niques. 376 
Principles for dealing with. 397 
Taotlcs and suggestions. 400 
Training. Communists, 378-381 
Types. 365 

Violence. Communist tactics. 371 
Violence, Connmunlst uses, 375 
What to expect, 382 
Abuse, 382 
Attack, small groups, vehicles. 

Communications and Utilities. 

Demonstrations. ,186 
Hand Weapons, 383 
Looting, 386 

Miscellaneous mob tactics, 387 
Noise, 382 
Planned or fabricated Incidents, 

Shoulder weapons. 384 
Thrown objects. 383 
Use. Are. explosives, 384 
Momentum, 14 
Mouth hold, as a release, 56 
Movemenrt, anticipating In disarm- 
ing, 196 

Moving forward, disarming when, 218 
Myres Detective Special Holster, 172 

National Guard, role, mob control, 

Natural weapons, 15 
Nauseating gas, 329 

As pressure point, 66 

As vulnerable spot, 8 

Blow to the, 9, 24, 26 
Newspapers (magazines) as protec- 
tive shield, 257 




As vulnerable spot, 10 

Blow to base ol. 2S 

Blow to bridge of. 27 

Grasping 11. 13 
Nostril hold, as a release, 56 


Objectives, Communist tactics. 371. 

Object lesson training course, 177, 

Observation, of the enemy. 296 
Onenslve ground flghtlng, 47 
Outside choke, 35 
Own weapon, using. 121 

Parachute Hares. 350 
Parry Knife defense. 88-92 
Pat search for weapons, 226 
Penetrating power of sldearms, 263, 


As compared with revolver, 147 

Gripping the. 106-115 

In a raid, 259 

Securing, from opponent. 201-206 
Pointing body, pistol, 118 
Police shield. 269 
Police training, problems, 274 
Police training, with hand gun, 101 
Position, changing, pistol, 116, 117 
Positions, revolver shooting, 106 

Handling and controlling a, 221- 

Holding at gun point, -222 
Rules for handling a, 222 

Professional unit, riot control, 389 

Projectiles, gas. 343 

Prone shooting, pistol, 138, 142 

Pulling ear, 11 

Pushing counter, 45, 46 

Quick draw: 
Executing the, 166 
Holsters in, 167 
Training In, 174 

Using clam shell holster in, 169- 

Tactics of an external attack, 255 
Techniques of, 248-272 
The actual raid, 250 
Training for, 244, 272 
Raise pistol position, 110 
Beading, references, on the hand 

gun, 177 
Ready position (pistol, revolver), 

Rear disarming: 
Hand gun, 204 
Shoulder weapon, 209 


Straight choke, 39 
Rest, pistol shooting from, 137-144 
Restraint holds, 58 

As compared with pistol, 147 
Combat llghtvirclghts, 149 
Gripping the. 106-115, 128 


Effectiveness of, 262 
In a raid, 262 

Riot control, 367 
Batons, 401, 402, 416 
Command position, 403 
Communlcaitlons, 413 
Electric riot stick, 416 
Fire department role. 405 
First aid provisions, 403, 407 
Flares, 414 

Formations, rules, 394 
Gas, smoke, 391, 392, 394, 396, 399- 

401, 406-408. 413 
Grenades, 405 
Helicopters, 405 
Identification spray, 416 
Lights, 415 

Measures against snipers, 412 
Mines, booby traps, etc., 413-415 
Organization, principles of, 392 
Photographs, 410 
Professional unit, 389. 393. 394 
Rear attack and escape routes, 406 
Reserve force. 403 
Riot sticks, 303, 401, 402. 416 
Vehicles. 413 

Room combat: 

Entering a room, 266 

Principles of, 265-268 

Tactics of, 265, 266 

Typical example of, 267 
Roper Pistol Stock, 130 
Ruger revolver, 167 
Rushing attack, 50 

Rabbit punch, 24 


Approach, in a, 252 

Barrows brothers raid, 244-246 

Briefing the raiding party, 250 

Command and personnel of a, 246 

Estimating the situation, 247 

Maintaining control, 251 

Means of control, 252 

Members of the party, 249 

Party surrounding the area, 251 

Planning the, 246 

Police weapons, in a, 259 

Surprise raid tactics. 25.1 

Safety, habit of, 125 
Safety speed holster, 169 

Sawed-off shotgun: 

In a raid, 259 

Range and effectiveness of, 260 
Screening smoke, 331 

Search for weapons: 
Column search, 228 
Frisking, 226 
Pat search, 226 

When carrying a shoulder weapon, 



When more than one prisoner, 227 
Securing prisoners, by other means 

than handcuffs, 239-243 
Sentry, killing an enemy, 79, 80 


Blow to the, with baton, 301 

Kick to the, 19 
Shoe laces. In lieu of handcuffs, 239 
Short hair come-along, 66 
Shot, developing the all-around 

combat, 100 
Shotguns, 259, 260 
Shoulder throw, 31 

Shoulder weapon: 
Combat firing with, 179 
Search while carrying a, 228 
Shoving weapon at target, 109 
Sldearms, penetrating power ol. 264 

Silhouette firing: 

Advanced training In, 133 

Common errors In, 133 

Shot dispersion in, 134. 135 
Sitting position, pistol, 139 
Sitting neck break, 41 

Targets for, 278 

Training In, 131 

Training suggestions In 136 
Slasli attack, 73 
Sling, position of, 187. 188 
Smith & Wesson Jlrearms, 149. 150, 

157, 159-162, 166, 171 
Snap shooting, shoulder weapons, 

Solar plexus, blow to the, with ba- 
ton, 301 


Defense, knife attack, 86 

Strangle, 277 
Stomach, as vulnerable spot, 9 
Strangulations, 34-40, 321, 322 
Striking attack, 49 

Su bmachlnegun : 

Capabilities of a, 261 

In a raid, 261 

Position of, 182, 183 
Swivel type handcuffs, 224 

Tall bone blow, 26 

Taking over a shoulder weapon, 214- 

Tape, In lieu of handcuffs, 242 

Target ranges: 
Constructing, 279 
Results of training on, 279 
With bullet proof alleys, 274 
With dirt bank, 275 

Targets : 
Bobbing, 2B7-28B 
Communist mob violence, 375 
Silhouette, 278 

Target shooting: 

Aimed shot shooting. 101 

Contrasted with combat firing, 
Tear gas, 324-329 
Teeth, as weapons, 29 

As vulnerable spot, 10, 20 

Blow to, with baton, 300 


As vulnerable spot, 7 

Blow to the, 47 
Throws, 29-34 

Bones, as vulnerable spot, 19 

Kick, 16 
Toledo combat course, 277 
Training aids, pistol, 127 
Training methods: 

Hand gun, 123 

Shoulder weapons. 185 
Training techniques, 273 
Trigger —taction demonstration, 198- 

Trousers, In restraining prisoner. 224 
Two-handed grip, pistol, 137, 145 
Two or more opponents: 

Combat with, 58 

SearchlJig for weapons. 227 
Types of attack, with knife, 67. 72- 

Unarmed combat: 
Defensive. 49 
History of, 1-5 
Offensive, 6-48 

Unskilled attack, 73 


Wall search, of prisoner, 223 
Walls, shooting through, 268 
Wax bullets, 141 
Weapon concealed, disarming when. 

Weapon-tn-pocket attack, disarming 

in a, 217 
Weapons, deadly, 226. 227 
Windpipe blow 9 

Block, with baton. 302 

Blow to, unarmed, 27 

Blow to, with baton, 302 

Come-along, 59-Sl 

Grip, breaking a, 54, 55 

Pinioning with baton thong, 302 

Release, 54 

Throw, 42 
Wrist position, pistol, ill, 113, 120 

T!rU.S. GOVERNMEIST PRINTING OFnCE: 1998 ■436-77S/80597